Greywater is one of the most important alternative sources for irrigation in arid and semi-arid countries. However, the health risk associated with the microbial contents of these waters limits their utilization. Many techniques have been developed and used to generate a high microbiological quality of greywater. The main problem in the treatment of greywater lies in the nature of pathogenic bacteria in terms of their ability to survive during/after the treatment process. The present review focused on the health risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in greywater and the treatment technologies used for the disinfection processes.
The presence of endocrine disruptors in source water is of great concern because of their suspected adverse effects on humans, even when present at very low levels. As the main source of potable water supply, rivers in Malaysia are highly susceptible to contamination by various endocrine disruptors originating from anthropogenic activities. In this study, the contamination levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in rivers of Selangor were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from sites representing source water for 18 drinking water treatment plants in Selangor between July 2008 and July 2009. DDT and its metabolites were detected in only 14% of the 192 samples analysed at levels ranging from 0.6 to 14.6 ng/L. Meanwhile DEHP was detected in 96.8% of the samples at levels ranging from below quantitation level (18 ng/L) to 970 ng/L. The detected levels of DDTs and DEHP were lower than the WHO and Malaysian Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Data obtained from this study should also serve as a reference point for future surveillance on these endocrine disruptors.
Moringa oleifera is an indigenous plant to Malaysia whose seeds are used for water purification. Many studies on Moringa oleifera have shown that it is highly effective as a natural coagulant for turbidity removal. In this study, two different methods for extraction of Moringa's active ingredient were investigated. Results of sodium chloride (NaCl) and distilled water extraction of Moringa oleifera seeds showed that salt solution extraction was more efficient than distilled water in extracting Moringa's active coagulant ingredient. The optimum dosage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds extracted by the NaCl solution was comparable with that of the conventional chemical coagulant alum. Moreover, the turbidity removal efficiency was investigated for shelled Moringa oleifera seeds before drying in the oven under different storage conditions (i.e. open and closed containers at room temperature, 27 °C) and durations (fresh, and storage for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the time the seeds were picked from the trees). Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in coagulation efficiencies and, accordingly, turbidity removals between the examined storage conditions and periods.
In this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella species in water cooling towers located in different parts of Malaysia to obtain information that may inform public health policies for the prevention of legionellosis. A total of 20 water samples were collected from 11 cooling towers located in three different states in east, west and south Malaysia. The samples were concentrated by filtration and treated with an acid buffer before plating on to BCYE agar. Legionella viable counts in these samples ranged from 100 to 2,000 CFU ml(-1); 28 isolates from the 24 samples were examined by latex agglutination as well as 16S rRNA and rpoB PCR-DNA sequencing. These isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (35.7%), L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 (39%), L. pneumophila non-groupable (10.7%), L. busanensis, L. gormanii, L. anisa and L. gresilensis. L. pneumophila was clearly the predominant species at all sampling sites. Repeat sampling from the same cooling tower and testing different colonies from the same water sample showed concurrent colonization by different serogroups and different species of Legionella in some of the cooling towers.
A city consumes a large amount of water. Urban planning and development are becoming more compelling due to the fact of growing competition for water, which has lead to an increasing and conflicting demand. As such, investments in water supply, sanitation and water resources management is a strong potential for a solid return. A pilot project of greywater ecological treatment has been established in Kuching city since 2003. Such a treatment facility opens up an opportunity of wastewater reclamation for reuse as secondary sources of water for non-consumptive purposes. This paper aims to explore the potential of the intended purposes in the newly developed ecological treatment project. By utilizing the Wallingford Software model, InfoWorks WS (Water Supply) is employed to carry out a hydraulic modeling of a hypothetical greywater recycling system as an integrated part of the Kuching urban water supply, where the greywater is treated, recycled and reused in the domestic environment. The modeling efforts have shown water savings of about 40% from the investigated system reinstating that the system presents an alternative water source worth exploring in an urban environment.
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'. Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations, but their impact on disease, morbidity and cost of illness is not known. The commonness of contributions from human (STW effluents, indiscriminate defaecation) and non-human (calving, lambing, muck spreading, slurry spraying, pasturing/grazing of domestic animals, infected wild animals) hosts indicate that many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. To gain insight into the morbidity and mortality caused by human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, they should be included into differential diagnoses, and routine laboratory testing should be performed and (as for many infectious diseases) reported to a centralised public health agency. To understand transmission routes and the significance of environmental contamination better will require further multidisciplinary approaches and shared resources, including raising national perceptions of the parasitological quality of drinking water. Here, the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be an integral part of the water quality requirement. A multidisciplinary approach among public health professionals in the water industry and other relevant health- and environment-associated agencies is also required in order to determine the significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of Malaysian drinking water. Lastly, adoption of validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype of Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in Malaysia will assist in developing effective risk assessment, management and communication models.
Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals.
In view of green developments in water treatment, plant-based flocculants have become the focus due to their safety, degradation and renewable properties. In addition, cost and energy-saving processes are preferable. In this study, malva nut gum (MNG), a new plant-based flocculant, and its composite with Fe in water treatment using single mode mixing are demonstrated. The result presents a simplified extraction of the MNG process. MNG has a high molecular weight of 2.3 × 10⁵ kDa and a high negative charge of -58.7 mV. From the results, it is a strong anionic flocculant. Moreover, it is observed to have a branch-like surface structure. Therefore, it conforms to the surface of particles well and exhibits good performance in water treatment. In water treatment, the Fe-MNG composite treats water at pH 3.01 and requires a low concentration of Fe and MNG of 0.08 and 0.06 mg/L, respectively, when added to the system. It is concluded that for a single-stage flocculation process, physico-chemical properties such as molecular weight, charge of polymer, surface morphology, pH, concentration of cation and concentration of biopolymeric flocculant affect the flocculating performance.
The study probed into reducing faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics, from four types of secondary effluents by bioaugmentation process, which was conducted with Bacillus subtilis strain at 45 °C. As a result, faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria were reduced due to the effect of thermal treatment process (45 °C), while the removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics was performed through the functions of bioaccumulation and biodegradation processes of B. subtilis. Faecal coliform met the guidelines outlined by WHO and US EPA standards after 4 and 16 days, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were reduced to below the detection limits without renewed growth in the final effluents determined by using a culture-based method. Furthermore, 13.5% and 56.1% of cephalexin had been removed, respectively, from secondary effluents containing 1 g of cephalexin L(-1) (secondary effluent 3), as well as 1 g of cephalexin L(-1) and 10 mg of Ni(2+) L(-1) (secondary effluent 4) after 16 days. The treatment process, eventually, successfully removed 96.6% and 66.3% of Ni(2+) ions from the secondary effluents containing 10 mg of Ni(2+) L(-1) (secondary effluent 2) and E4, respectively. The bioaugmentation process improved the quality of secondary effluents.
The menace of cholera epidemic occurrence in Yemen was reported in early 2017. Recent reports revealed that an estimated 500,000 people are infected with cholera whereas 2,000 deaths have been reported in Yemen. Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water and food. Yemen is the least developed country among the Middle East countries in terms of wastewater and solid waste management. The population of Yemen is about 24.5 million and generates about 70-100 million m3 of sewage. An estimated 7% of the population has sewerage systems. It has been revealed that 31.2 million m3 of untreated sewage is used for irrigation purposes especially for vegetables and Khat trees. In addition, more than 70% of the population in Yemen has no potable water. They depend on water wells as a water source which are located close to sewage disposal sites. The present review focuses on the current status of water, wastewater as well as solid waste management in Yemen and their roles in the outbreak of cholera. Future prospects for waste management have been proposed.
This study aimed to identify the Acanthamoeba genotypes and their pathogenic potential in five recreational hot springs in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifty water samples were collected between April and September 2018. Physical parameters of water quality were measured in situ while chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in the laboratory. All samples were filtered through the nitrocellulose membrane and tested for Acanthamoeba using both cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was identified using thermo- and osmotolerance tests. Thirty-eight (76.0%) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba. Water temperature (P = 0.035), chemical oxygen demand (P = 0.026), sulphate (P = 0.002) and Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) were found to be significantly correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 24 samples belonged to genotype T4, nine (T15), two (T3) and one from each genotype T5, T11 and T17. Thermo- and osmotolerance tests showed that 6 (15.79%) of the Acanthamoeba strains were highly pathogenic. The existence of Acanthamoeba in recreational hot springs should be considered as a health threat among the public especially for high-risk people. Periodic surveillance of hot spring waters and posting warning signs by health authorities is recommended to prevent disease related to pathogenic Acanthamoeba.
The Tioman Island of Malaysia experienced acute muscular sarcocystosis outbreaks from 2011 to 2014. So far, a previous study based on the 18S rRNA gene sequencing has reported S. singaporensis, S. nesbitti and Sarcocystis sp. YLL-2013 in water samples acquired from the island, thus confirming the waterborne nature of this emerging parasitic disease. This study aimed to improve the detection methods for Sarcocystis, in order to have a clearer picture of the true diversity of Sarcocystis species in Tioman. A new primer set (28S R7F-28S R8 Deg R) was designed to amplify the 28S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis. Subsequently, Sarcocystidae was detected in 65.6% (21/32) of water samples and 28% (7/25) of soil samples acquired between 2014 and 2015 from Tioman. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on 18 of the positive samples was then performed using amplicons generated from the same primer set. This yielded 53 potentially unique Sarcocystidae sequences (290 bp), of which nine of the most abundant, prevalent and unique sequences were named herein. In contrast, NGS of the 18S rRNA gene V9 hypervariable region of 10 selected samples detected only two Sarcocystis species (160 bp). S. mantioni was the most ubiquitous sequence found in this study.
The current study was conducted to measure the activity concentration of the gross alpha and beta in 87 groundwater samples collected from the productive aquifers that constitute a major source of groundwater to evaluate the annual effective dose and the corresponding health impact on the population and to investigate the quality of groundwater in Jordan. The mean activity concentration of gross alpha and beta in groundwater ranges from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 3.58 ± 0.55 Bq L-1 and from 0.51 ± 0.07 to 3.43 ± 0.46 Bq L-1, respectively. A very strong relationship was found between gross alpha and beta activity concentrations. The annual effective dose for alpha and beta was found in the range of 0.32-2.40 mSv with a mean value of 0.89 mSv, which is nine times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limit and one and half times higher than the national regulation limit. The mean lifetime risk was found to be 45.47 × 10-4 higher than the Jordanian estimated upper-bound lifetime risk of 25 × 10-4. The data obtained in the study would be the baseline for further epidemiological studies on health effects related to the exposure to natural radioactivity in Jordan.
The study was performed to examine the occurrence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including four steroid estrogens, one plasticizer, and three preservatives in the Mahakam River, Indonesia. The physicochemical analysis of river water and sediment quality parameters were determined as well as the concentration of EDCs. The range of values for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, and oil/grease in river water and sediment were higher than recommended limits prescribed by the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (GDWQ). Bisphenol A (BPA) was the most widely found EDC with the highest concentration level at 652 ng/L (mean 134 ng/L) in the river water and ranged from ND (not detected) to 952 ng/L (mean 275 ng/L) in the sediment. Correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between the EDCs' concentrations in water and sediment also revealed a significant correlation (R2 = 0.93) between the EDCs' concentrations. High concentrations of EDCs are found in urban and residential areas because these compounds are commonly found in both human and animal bodies, resulting in the disposal of EDCs into canals and rivers in urban and suburban areas, as well as livestock manure and waste that is generated from intensive livestock farming around the suburban area.
The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in Peninsular Malaysia and to compare different methodologies to detect them from water samples. Water samples were collected from tap water, recreational places, water dispensers, filtered water, etc. and tested for FLA using both cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) via plating assays and centrifugation methods. Amoebae DNA was extracted using Instagene matrix and PCR was performed using genus-specific primers. Of 250 samples, 142 (56.8%) samples were positive for presence of amoebae, while 108 (43.2%) were negative. Recreational water showed higher prevalence of amoebae than tap water. PCR for the plating assays revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba in 91 (64%) samples and Naegleria in 99 (70%) of samples analysed. All samples tested were negative for B. mandrillaris. In contrast, the centrifugation method was less effective in detecting amoebae as only one sample revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba and 52 (29%) samples were positive for Naegleria. PCR assays were specific and sensitive, detecting as few as 10 cells. These findings show the vast distribution and presence of FLA in all 11 states of Peninsular Malaysia. Further studies could determine the possible presence of pathogenic species and strains of free-living amoebae in public water supplies in Malaysia.
The present study identifies the Acanthamoeba genotypes and their pathogenic potential in five marine waters in Malaysia. Fifty water samples were collected between January and May 2019. Physical parameters of water quality were measured in situ, whereas chemical and microbiological analyses were conducted in the laboratory. All samples had undergone filtration using nitrocellulose membrane and were tested for Acanthamoeba using cultivation and polymerase chain reaction by targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was identified using physiological tolerance tests. Thirty-six (72.0%) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba. Total coliforms (p = 0.013) and pH level (p = 0.023) displayed significant correlation with Acanthamoeba presence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 27 samples belonged to genotype T4, four (T11), two (T18) and one from each genotype T5, T15 and T20. Thermo- and osmo-tolerance tests signified that three (8.3%) Acanthamoeba strains displayed highly pathogenic attributes. This study is the first investigation in Malaysia describing Acanthamoeba detection in marine water with molecular techniques and genotyping. The study outcomes revealed that the marine water in Malaysia could be an integral source of Acanthamoeba strains potentially pathogenic in humans. Thus, the potential risk of this water should be monitored routinely in each region.
The present study aims to investigate the influence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in public market wastewater on the removal of nutrients in terms of ammonium (NH4-) and orthophosphate (PO43) using Scenedesmus sp. The removal rates of NH4- and orthophosphate PO43- and batch kinetic coefficient of Scenedesmus sp. were investigated. The phycoremediation process was carried out at ambient temperature for 6 days. The results revealed that the pathogenic bacteria exhibited survival potential in the presence of microalgae but they were reduced by 3-4 log at the end of the treatment process. The specific removal rates of NH4- and PO43- have a strong relationship with initial concentration in the public market wastewater (R2 = 0.86 and 0.80, respectively). The kinetic coefficient of NH4- removal by Scenedesmus sp. was determined as k = 4.28 mg NH4- 1 log10 cell mL-1 d-1 and km = 52.01 mg L-1 (R2 = 0.94) while the coefficient of PO43- removal was noted as k = 1.09 mg NH4- 1 log10 cell mL-1 d-1 and km = 85.56 mg L-1 (R2 = 0.92). It can be concluded that Scenedesmus sp. has high competition from indigenous bacteria in the public market wastewater to remove nutrients, with a higher coefficient of removal of NH4- than PO43.
Discharge of household greywater into water bodies can lead to an increase in contamination levels in terms of the reduction in dissolved oxygen resources and rapid bacterial growth. Therefore, the quality of greywater has to be improved before the disposal process. The present review aimed to present a hybrid treatment system for the greywater generated from households. The hybrid system comprised a primary stage (a natural filtration unit) with a bioreactor system as the secondary treatment combined with microalgae for greywater treatment, as well as the natural flocculation process. The review discussed the efficiency of each stage in the removal of elements and nutrients. The hybrid system reviewed here represented an effective solution for the remediation of household greywater.
The present study aims to identify the Acanthamoeba genotypes and their pathogenic potential in three recreational lakes in Malaysia. Thirty water samples were collected by purposive sampling between June and July 2022. Physical parameters of water quality were measured in situ while chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in the laboratory. The samples were vacuum filtered through nitrate filter, cultured onto non-nutrient agar and observed microscopically for amoebic growth. DNAs from positive samples were extracted and made to react with polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Physiological tolerance tests were performed for all Acanthamoeba-positive samples. The presence of Acanthamoeba was found in 26 of 30 water samples by PCR. The highest rate in lake waters contaminated with amoeba was in Biru Lake (100%), followed by Titiwangsa Lake (80%) and Shah Alam Lake (80%). ORP, water temperature, pH and DO were found to be significantly correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba. The most common genotype was T4. Temperature- and osmo-tolerance tests showed that 8 (30.8%) of the genotypes T4, T9 and T11 were highly pathogenic. The presence of genotype T4 in habitats related to human activities supports the relevance of this amoeba as a potential public health concern.
One of the factors that influence the development of mosquitoes is the water container. This study was performed to determine the relationship between the characteristics of water containers and the preferable conditions for laying eggs by Aedes sp. A single larva method was conducted during March 2019 in 300 houses in two villages (Turikale and Adatongeng) at Maros Regency, Indonesia. In total, 1,269 water containers were considered, and among them buckets were found to be the most common container. Logistic regression analysis showed that the type, container location, and weekly drainage were related to the presence of larvae/pupae in the Maros Regency (p-value < 0.05). Non-water containers, which are kept indoors and are not drained at least once a week, have a greater chance of breeding Aedes sp. More attention is given to non-water containers that are located inside the house. Prevention activities, especially draining water containers properly at least once a week ensures that they do not become breeding sites for Aedes sp. mosquitoes and helps to prevent the transmission of dengue viral fever.