An ecologic study on Paragonimus in Malaysia was attempted from May to September 1967. Seven streams located in various directions and distances from Kuala Lumpur were surveyed for the study of intermediate hosts, snail and crab. One Malayan village and one aborigine village where infected crabs were found, and two tuberculosis hospitals in K.L. were surveyed for the study of human population. Intradermal tests along with sputum or stool examination to detect human infection by Paragonimus were employed. Wild animals, only a few, were shot in the vicinity of the aborigine village and several domestic cats from the Malayan village were bought. These animals were autopsied and examined for adult Paragonimus. Among five species of crab collected from the study areas, only two species, Potamon jahorenes and Parathelphusa maculata were found to be infected with Paragonimus. P. maculata seemed to be better crab host for the Paragonimus because this species had higher infection rate and metacercarial density than the other in the very same area. Three out of seven streams had infected crabs and the infection rate as well as the infection intensity varied from one stream to another. Only avilable snail in the streams was identified as Brotia costula. The infection rate of the snail was very low, six snails out of 11,898, which is about the same rate reported from other countries. Infected snail, however, had thousands of rediae uncountable containing about twelve microcercocercariae in each redia, sufficient enough to maintain the life cycle of the parasite even with only a few infected snail, the amplifier. This is the first confirmed report on the snail host of Paragonimus from Malaysia where the existence of Paragonimus had been reported in 1923. The first trial to study human population by means of intradermal test, sputum and/or stool examinations in Malaysia showed no evidence of human infection of Paragonimus. The number of animals, wild and domestic, examined for natural infection was too small to draw any statement. These examined animals were all negative for adult Paragonimus. Even though more extensive studies on wild animals and human population may be necessary for the definite conclusion, the facts that infected crabs from jungle stream where human contacts are extreamely rare, and also highly infected crabs from the area where none of humans or domestic animals were infected, strongly suggest the life cycle of Paragonimus in this area may be maintained by wild animal hosts rather than by human host. The morphology of all stages of the parasite, the pattern of penetrating glands, flame cells and excretroy bladder of cercaria, lancet shaped single cuticular spines and 6 branched ovary of adult worm obtained from experimentally infected cat, and the shape of egg including all measurements agree well with the characteristics of Paragonimus westermani.
The periodicity of the microfilariae of Brugia malayi was studied in 9 human carriers from Shin-san Ri, Seong-san Myon, Cheju Island. The periodicity pattern was markedly nocturnal and the peaks were observed between 21:30 p.m. and 5:30 a.m. The average peak count was 1:30 a.m. and the percentage of peak count at this time was 95.3. The ratio of minimum of the average peak count percentage to the maximum was 8.3. The periodicity pattern of B.malayi in Cheju Island was compared with that in Inland and no differences were found between two forms. From the above observations, it was concluded that the periodicity of B. malayi in Korea is markedly nocturnal and closely resembles that in the strain of Penang, Malaya.