Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 91 in total

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  1. Lau TY, Sylvi M, William T
    Malar. J., 2013;12:445.
    PMID: 24321120 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-445
    The sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) combination had been chosen to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia for more than 30 years. Non-silent mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are responsible for the resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively. This study reports the mutational analysis of pfdhfr and pfdhps in single Plasmodium falciparum infection isolates from the interior division of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo.
  2. Cheong FW, Fong MY, Lau YL, Mahmud R
    Malar. J., 2013;12:454.
    PMID: 24354660 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-454
    Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth Plasmodium species that can infect humans. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein-1(42) (MSP-1(42)) is a potential candidate for malaria vaccine. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-1(42).
  3. Fatih FA, Staines HM, Siner A, Ahmed MA, Woon LC, Pasini EM, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:425.
    PMID: 24245918 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-425
    Evidence suggests that Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo remains zoonotic, meaning anti-malarial drug resistance is unlikely to have developed in the absence of drug selection pressure. Therefore, adequate response to available anti-malarial treatments is assumed.
  4. Lau YL, Lee WC, Tan LH, Kamarulzaman A, Syed Omar SF, Fong MY, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:389.
    PMID: 24180319 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-389
    Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research.
  5. Sanders KC, Rundi C, Jelip J, Rashman Y, Smith Gueye C, Gosling RD
    Malar. J., 2014;13:24.
    PMID: 24443824 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-24
    Countries in the Asia Pacific region have made great progress in the fight against malaria; several are rapidly approaching elimination. However, malaria control programmes operating in elimination settings face substantial challenges, particularly around mobile migrant populations, access to remote areas and the diversity of vectors with varying biting and breeding behaviours. These challenges can be addressed through subnational collaborations with commercial partners, such as mining or plantation companies, that can conduct or support malaria control activities to cover employees. Such partnerships can be a useful tool for accessing high-risk populations and supporting malaria elimination goals.
  6. Mungthin M, Intanakom S, Suwandittakul N, Suida P, Amsakul S, Sitthichot N, et al.
    Malar. J., 2014;13:117.
    PMID: 24670242 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-117
    Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is a major problem in malaria control especially along the Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodia borders. To date, a few molecular markers have been identified for anti-malarial resistance in P. falciparum, including the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and the P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1). However no information is available regarding the distribution pattern of these gene polymorphisms in the parasites from the Thai-Malaysia border. This study was conducted to compare the distribution pattern of the pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in the parasites from the lower southern provinces, Thai-Malaysia border and the upper southern provinces, Thai-Myanmar border. In addition, in vitro sensitivities of anti-malarial drugs including chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, and artesunate were determined.
  7. Foster D, Cox-Singh J, Mohamad DS, Krishna S, Chin PP, Singh B
    Malar. J., 2014;13:60.
    PMID: 24548805 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-60
    Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite of Southeast Asian macaques, infects humans and can cause fatal malaria. It is difficult to diagnose by microscopy because of morphological similarity to Plasmodium malariae. Nested PCR assay is the most accurate method to distinguish P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium species but is not cost effective in resource-poor settings. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are recommended for settings where malaria is prevalent. In this study, the effectiveness of three RDTs in detecting P. knowlesi from fresh and frozen patient blood samples was evaluated.
  8. Yusof R, Lau YL, Mahmud R, Fong MY, Jelip J, Ngian HU, et al.
    Malar. J., 2014;13:168.
    PMID: 24886266 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-168
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian parasite that has been recognized as the fifth species causing human malaria. Naturally-acquired P. knowlesi infection is widespread among human populations in Southeast Asia. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the incidence and distribution of malaria parasites, with a particular focus on human P. knowlesi infection in Malaysia.
  9. Ta TH, Hisam S, Lanza M, Jiram AI, Ismail N, Rubio JM
    Malar. J., 2014;13:68.
    PMID: 24564912 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-68
    Since 1960, a total of seven species of monkey malaria have been reported as transmissible to man by mosquito bite: Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium brasilianum, Plasmodium eylesi, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium schwetzi and Plasmodium simium. With the exception of P. knowlesi, none of the other species has been found to infect humans in nature. In this report, it is described the first known case of a naturally acquired P. cynomolgi malaria in humans.The patient was a 39-year-old woman from a malaria-free area with no previous history of malaria or travel to endemic areas. Initially, malaria was diagnosed and identified as Plasmodium malariae/P. knowlesi by microscopy in the Terengganu State Health Department. Thick and thin blood films stained with 10% Giemsa were performed for microscopy examination. Molecular species identification was performed at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR, Malaysia) and in the Malaria & Emerging Parasitic Diseases Laboratory (MAPELAB, Spain) using different nested PCR methods.Microscopic re-examination in the IMR showed characteristics of Plasmodium vivax and was confirmed by a nested PCR assay developed by Snounou et al. Instead, a different PCR assay plus sequencing performed at the MAPELAB confirmed that the patient was infected with P. cynomolgi and not with P. vivax.This is the first report of human P. cynomolgi infection acquired in a natural way, but there might be more undiagnosed or misdiagnosed cases, since P. cynomolgi is morphologically indistinguishable from P. vivax, and one of the most used PCR methods for malaria infection detection may identify a P. cynomolgi infection as P. vivax.Simian Plasmodium species may routinely infect humans in Southeast Asia. New diagnostic methods are necessary to distinguish between the human and monkey malaria species. Further epidemiological studies, incriminating also the mosquito vector(s), must be performed to know the relevance of cynomolgi malaria and its implication on human public health and in the control of human malaria.The zoonotic malaria cannot be ignored in view of increasing interactions between man and wild animals in the process of urbanization.
  10. Abdullah NR, Norahmad NA, Jelip J, Sulaiman LH, Mohd Sidek H, Ismail Z, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:198.
    PMID: 23758930 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-198
    Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been in use for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia since the 1970s and is still widely employed in spite of widespread clinical resistance. Resistance to SP is known to be mediated by mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of pfdhfr and pfdhps gene polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kalabakan, Sabah, in northern Borneo.
  11. Anthony CN, Lau YL, Sum JS, Fong MY, Ariffin H, Zaw WL, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:308.
    PMID: 24007496 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-308
    Malaria may be a serious complication of blood transfusion due to the asymptomatic persistence of parasites in some donors. This case report highlights the transfusion-transmitted malaria of Plasmodium vivax in a child diagnosed with germ cell tumour. This child had received blood transfusion from three donors and a week later started developing malaria like symptoms. Nested PCR and sequencing confirmed that one of the three donors was infected with P. vivax and this was transmitted to the 12-year-old child. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported transfusion-transmitted malaria case in Malaysia.
  12. Palaeya V, Lau YL, Mahmud R, Chen Y, Fong MY
    Malar. J., 2013;12:182.
    PMID: 23734702 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-182
    Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth species identified to cause malaria in humans and is often misdiagnosed as Plasmodium malariae due to morphological similarities. The development of an inexpensive, serological detection method utilizing antibodies specific to P. knowlesi would be a valuable tool for diagnosis. However, the identification of specific antigens for these parasites remains a major challenge for generating such assays. In this study, surface protein containing an altered thrombospondin repeat domain (SPATR) was selected as a potentially specific antigen from P. knowlesi. Its multistage expression by sporozoites, asexual erythrocytic forms and gametocytes, along with its possible role in liver cell invasion, suggests that SPATR could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis of P. knowlesi.
  13. Goh XT, Lim YA, Vythilingam I, Chew CH, Lee PC, Ngui R, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:264.
    PMID: 23902626 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-264
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, the aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate the incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi as well as other Plasmodium species in this division based on a most recent developed hexaplex PCR system (PlasmoNex™).
  14. Tanizaki R, Ujiie M, Kato Y, Iwagami M, Hashimoto A, Kutsuna S, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:128.
    PMID: 23587117 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-128
    This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the primer of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, he was finally diagnosed with P. knowlesi mono-infection by DNA sequencing. He was treated with mefloquine, and recovered without any complications. DNA sequencing of the PCR products is indispensable to confirm P. knowlesi infection, however there is limited access to DNA sequencing procedures in endemic areas. The extent of P. knowlesi transmission in Asia has not been clearly defined. There is limited availability of diagnostic tests and routine surveillance system for reporting an accurate diagnosis in the Asian endemic regions. Thus, reporting accurately diagnosed cases of P. knowlesi infection in travellers would be important for assessing the true nature of this emerging human infection.
  15. Barber BE, William T, Grigg MJ, Yeo TW, Anstey NM
    Malar. J., 2013;12:8.
    PMID: 23294844 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-8
    In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs.
  16. Lee WC, Chin PW, Lau YL, Chin LC, Fong MY, Yap CJ, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:88.
    PMID: 23496970 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-88
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a potentially life-threatening zoonotic malaria parasite due to its relatively short erythrocytic cycle. Microscopic identification of P. knowlesi is difficult, with "compacted parasite cytoplasm" being one of the important identifying keys. This report is about a case of hyperparasitaemic human P. knowlesi infection (27% parasitaemia) with atypical amoeboid morphology. A peninsular Malaysian was admitted to the hospital with malaria. He suffered anaemia and acute kidney function impairment. Microscopic examination, assisted by nested PCR and sequencing confirmed as P. knowlesi infection. With anti-malarial treatment and several medical interventions, patient survived and recovered. One-month medical follow-up was performed after recovery and no recrudescence was noted. This case report highlights the extreme hyperparasitaemic setting, the atypical morphology of P. knowlesi in the patient's erythrocytes, as well as the medical interventions involved in this successfully treated case.
  17. Barber BE, William T, Dhararaj P, Anderios F, Grigg MJ, Yeo TW, et al.
    Malar. J., 2012;11:401.
    PMID: 23216947 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-401
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo, with a particularly high incidence in Kudat, Sabah. Little is known however about the epidemiology in this substantially deforested region.
  18. Parker D, Lerdprom R, Srisatjarak W, Yan G, Sattabongkot J, Wood J, et al.
    Malar. J., 2012 Aug 21;11:290.
    PMID: 22908880 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-290
    BACKGROUND: Drug and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has existed in Thailand for several decades. Furthermore, Thailand serves as a sentinel for drug-resistant malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region. However, the drug resistance situation is highly dynamic, changing quickly over time. Here parasite in vitro drug sensitivity is reported for artemisinin derivatives, mefloquine, chloroquine and quinine, across Thailand.

    METHODS: Blood was drawn from patients infected with P. falciparum in seven sentinel provinces along Thai international borders with Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, and Malaysia. In vitro parasite sensitivity was tested using the World Health Organization's microtest (mark III) (between 1994 and 2002) and the histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in 2010). Following World Health Organization protocol, at least 30 isolates were collected for each province and year represented in this study. Where possible, t-tests were used to test for significant differences.

    RESULTS: There appears to be little variation across study sites with regard to parasite sensitivity to chloroquine. Quinine resistance appears to have been rising prior to 1997, but has subsequently decreased. Mefloquine sensitivity appears high across the provinces, especially along the north-western border with Myanmar and the eastern border with Cambodia. Finally, the data suggest that parasite sensitivity to artemisinin and its derivatives is significantly higher in provinces along the north-western border with Myanmar.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parasite sensitivity to anti-malarials in Thailand is highly variable over time and largely mirrors official drug use policy. The findings with regard to reduced sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives are supported by recent reports of reduced parasite clearance associated with artemisinin. This trend is alarming since artemisinin is considered the last defence against malaria. Continued surveillance in Thailand, along with increased collaboration and surveillance across the entire Greater Mekong sub-region, is clearly warranted.

  19. Rajahram GS, Barber BE, William T, Menon J, Anstey NM, Yeo TW
    Malar. J., 2012;11:284.
    PMID: 22905799 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-284
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as a common cause of severe and fatal human malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, but is morphologically indistinguishable from and still commonly reported as Plasmodium malariae, despite the paucity of this species in Sabah. Since December 2008 Sabah Department of Health has recommended intravenous artesunate and referral to a general hospital for all severe malaria cases of any species. This paper reviews all malaria deaths in Sabah subsequent to the introduction of these measures. Reporting of malaria deaths in Malaysia is mandatory.
  20. Atroosh WM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, Surin J
    Malar. J., 2012;11:251.
    PMID: 22853645 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-251
    Malaria is still a public health problem in Malaysia with chloroquine (CQ) being the first-line drug in the treatment policy of uncomplicated malaria. There is a scarcity in information about the magnitude of Plasmodium falciparum CQ resistance. This study aims to investigate the presence of single point mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) at codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371 and in P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) at codons 86 and 1246, as molecular markers of CQ resistance.
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