Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 87 in total

  1. Ahmed MA, Fong MY, Lau YL, Yusof R
    Malar. J., 2016;15(1):241.
    PMID: 27118390 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1294-6
    The zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has become an emerging threat to South East Asian countries particular in Malaysia. A recent study from Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) discovered two distinct normocyte binding protein xa (Pknbpxa) types of P. knowlesi. In the present study, the Pknbpxa of clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) were investigated for the presence of Pknbpxa types and natural selection force acting on the gene.
  2. Callaghan PS, Siriwardana A, Hassett MR, Roepe PD
    Malar. J., 2016;15(1):186.
    PMID: 27036417 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1238-1
    Recent work has perfected yeast-based methods for measuring drug transport by the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT).
  3. Bamaga OA, Mahdy MA, Lim YA
    Malar. J., 2015;14:516.
    PMID: 26693691 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-1035-2
    Malaria in Yemen is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 25% of the population is at high risk. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used as monotherapy against P. falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine resistance led to the shift in anti-malarial treatment policy in Yemen to artemisinin-based combination therapy, that is artesunate (AS) plus SP as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria and artemether-lumefantrine as second-line treatment. This study aimed to screen mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes associated with SP resistance among P. falciparum population in Hadhramout governorate, Yemen.
  4. Sastu UR, Abdullah NR, Norahmad NA, Saat MN, Muniandy PK, Jelip J, et al.
    Malar. J., 2016;15:63.
    PMID: 26850038 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1109-9
    Malaria cases persist in some remote areas in Sabah and Sarawak despite the ongoing and largely successful malaria control programme conducted by the Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Ministry Of Health, Malaysia. Point mutations in the genes that encode the two enzymes involved in the folate biosynthesis pathway, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) enzymes confer resistance to pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine respectively, in both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The aim of the current study was to determine the mutation on both pvdhfr at codon 13, 33, 57, 58, 61, 117, and 173 and pvdhps genes at codon 383 and 553, which are potentially associated with resistance to pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine in P. vivax samples in Sabah.
  5. Akter R, Vythilingam I, Khaw LT, Qvist R, Lim YA, Sitam FT, et al.
    Malar. J., 2015 Oct 05;14:386.
    PMID: 26437652 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0856-3
    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a vector-borne parasitic disease which is prevalent in many developing countries. Recently, it has been found that Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite can be life-threatening to humans. Long-tailed macaques, which are widely distributed in Malaysia, are the natural hosts for simian malaria, including P. knowlesi. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of simian malaria parasites in long-tailed macaques in the district of Hulu Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 70 blood samples were collected from Macaca fascicularis dwelling in the forest of Hulu Selangor by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. DNA was extracted using PureLink™ Genomic DNA Kits. Conventional and nested PCR were used to detect the genus and species of Plasmodium parasites respectively. In addition, phylogenetic analysis was carried out to confirm the species of Plasmodium parasites.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five (50 %) of the 70 samples were positive for Plasmodium using genus-specific primers. These positive samples were then subjected to nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA genes to detect all five simian malaria parasites: namely, P. knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium fieldi, and Plasmodium coatneyi. All five species of simian malaria parasites were detected. Of these, P. inui was the predominant (65.7 %), followed by P. knowlesi (60 %), P. cynomolgi (51.4 %) P. coatneyi (45.7 %) and P. fieldi (2.9 %). A total of nine macaques had mono-infection with P. knowlesi (four), P. cynomolgi (two), P. coatneyi (two) and P. fieldi (one). Eleven of the macaques had dual infections while 12 had triple infections. Three macaques were infected with four species of Plasmodium. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the five species of Plasmodium parasites.

    CONCLUSION: This study has provided evidence to elucidate the presence of transmission of malaria parasites among the local macaques in Hulu Selangor. Since malaria is a zoonosis, it is important to determine the new control strategies for the control of malaria.

  6. Liew JW, Mahmud R, Tan LH, Lau YL
    Malar. J., 2016;15:8.
    PMID: 26738724 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-1070-z
    Plasmodium ovale is rare and not exactly known to be autochthonous in Malaysia. There are two distinct forms of the parasite, namely P. ovale curtisi (classic form) and P. ovale wallikeri (variant form). Here, the first sequence confirmed case of an imported P. ovale wallikeri infection in Malaysia is presented. Microscopy found Plasmodium parasites with morphology similar to P. ovale or Plasmodium vivax in the blood films. Further confirmation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small-subunit rRNA gene of the parasite was unsuccessful. Genus-specific PCR was then performed and the product was sequenced and analysed. Sequence analyses confirmed the aetiological agent as P. ovale wallikeri. New species-specific primers (rOVA1v and rOVA2v) were employed and P. ovale wallikeri was finally confirmed. The findings highlight the need to look out for imported malaria infections in Malaysia and the importance of a constantly updated and validated diagnostic technique.
  7. Alareqi LM, Mahdy MA, Lau YL, Fong MY, Abdul-Ghani R, Ali AA, et al.
    Malar. J., 2016 Jan 28;15:49.
    PMID: 26821911 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1103-2
    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method.
  8. Naing C, Whittaker MA, Mak JW, Aung K
    Malar. J., 2015;14:392.
    PMID: 26445424 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-0919-5
    This study aimed to synthesize the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of a single dose artemisinin-naphthoquine (ASNQ) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic countries.
  9. Smith Gueye C, Newby G, Gosling RD, Whittaker MA, Chandramohan D, Slutsker L, et al.
    Malar. J., 2016;15:2.
    PMID: 26727923 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-015-1054-z
    There has been progress towards malaria elimination in the last decade. In response, WHO launched the Global Technical Strategy (GTS), in which vector surveillance and control play important roles. Country experiences in the Eliminating Malaria Case Study Series were reviewed to identify success factors on the road to elimination using a cross-case study analytic approach.
  10. Rawa MS, Fong MY, Lau YL
    Malar. J., 2016;15:62.
    PMID: 26847346 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1127-7
    The Plasmodium rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) plays a role in the formation of the parasitophorous vacuole following the parasite's invasion of red blood cells. Although there is some evidence that the protein is recognized by the host's immune system, study of Plasmodium falciparum RAP-1 (PfRAP-1) suggests that it is not under immune pressure. A previous study on five old (1953-1962) P. knowlesi strains suggested that RAP-1 has limited genetic polymorphism and might be under negative selection. In the present study, 30 recent P. knowlesi isolates were studied to obtain a better insight into the polymorphism and natural selection of PkRAP-1.
  11. Lee WC, Chin PW, Lau YL, Chin LC, Fong MY, Yap CJ, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:88.
    PMID: 23496970 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-88
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a potentially life-threatening zoonotic malaria parasite due to its relatively short erythrocytic cycle. Microscopic identification of P. knowlesi is difficult, with "compacted parasite cytoplasm" being one of the important identifying keys. This report is about a case of hyperparasitaemic human P. knowlesi infection (27% parasitaemia) with atypical amoeboid morphology. A peninsular Malaysian was admitted to the hospital with malaria. He suffered anaemia and acute kidney function impairment. Microscopic examination, assisted by nested PCR and sequencing confirmed as P. knowlesi infection. With anti-malarial treatment and several medical interventions, patient survived and recovered. One-month medical follow-up was performed after recovery and no recrudescence was noted. This case report highlights the extreme hyperparasitaemic setting, the atypical morphology of P. knowlesi in the patient's erythrocytes, as well as the medical interventions involved in this successfully treated case.
  12. Barber BE, William T, Grigg MJ, Yeo TW, Anstey NM
    Malar. J., 2013;12:8.
    PMID: 23294844 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-8
    In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs.
  13. Barber BE, William T, Dhararaj P, Anderios F, Grigg MJ, Yeo TW, et al.
    Malar. J., 2012;11:401.
    PMID: 23216947 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-401
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo, with a particularly high incidence in Kudat, Sabah. Little is known however about the epidemiology in this substantially deforested region.
  14. Palaeya V, Lau YL, Mahmud R, Chen Y, Fong MY
    Malar. J., 2013;12:182.
    PMID: 23734702 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-182
    Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth species identified to cause malaria in humans and is often misdiagnosed as Plasmodium malariae due to morphological similarities. The development of an inexpensive, serological detection method utilizing antibodies specific to P. knowlesi would be a valuable tool for diagnosis. However, the identification of specific antigens for these parasites remains a major challenge for generating such assays. In this study, surface protein containing an altered thrombospondin repeat domain (SPATR) was selected as a potentially specific antigen from P. knowlesi. Its multistage expression by sporozoites, asexual erythrocytic forms and gametocytes, along with its possible role in liver cell invasion, suggests that SPATR could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis of P. knowlesi.
  15. Abdullah NR, Norahmad NA, Jelip J, Sulaiman LH, Mohd Sidek H, Ismail Z, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:198.
    PMID: 23758930 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-198
    Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been in use for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia since the 1970s and is still widely employed in spite of widespread clinical resistance. Resistance to SP is known to be mediated by mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of pfdhfr and pfdhps gene polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kalabakan, Sabah, in northern Borneo.
  16. Tanizaki R, Ujiie M, Kato Y, Iwagami M, Hashimoto A, Kutsuna S, et al.
    Malar. J., 2013;12:128.
    PMID: 23587117 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-128
    This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the primer of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, he was finally diagnosed with P. knowlesi mono-infection by DNA sequencing. He was treated with mefloquine, and recovered without any complications. DNA sequencing of the PCR products is indispensable to confirm P. knowlesi infection, however there is limited access to DNA sequencing procedures in endemic areas. The extent of P. knowlesi transmission in Asia has not been clearly defined. There is limited availability of diagnostic tests and routine surveillance system for reporting an accurate diagnosis in the Asian endemic regions. Thus, reporting accurately diagnosed cases of P. knowlesi infection in travellers would be important for assessing the true nature of this emerging human infection.
  17. Atroosh WM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, Surin J
    Malar. J., 2012;11:251.
    PMID: 22853645 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-251
    Malaria is still a public health problem in Malaysia with chloroquine (CQ) being the first-line drug in the treatment policy of uncomplicated malaria. There is a scarcity in information about the magnitude of Plasmodium falciparum CQ resistance. This study aims to investigate the presence of single point mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) at codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371 and in P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) at codons 86 and 1246, as molecular markers of CQ resistance.
  18. Parker D, Lerdprom R, Srisatjarak W, Yan G, Sattabongkot J, Wood J, et al.
    Malar. J., 2012 Aug 21;11:290.
    PMID: 22908880 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-290
    BACKGROUND: Drug and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has existed in Thailand for several decades. Furthermore, Thailand serves as a sentinel for drug-resistant malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region. However, the drug resistance situation is highly dynamic, changing quickly over time. Here parasite in vitro drug sensitivity is reported for artemisinin derivatives, mefloquine, chloroquine and quinine, across Thailand.

    METHODS: Blood was drawn from patients infected with P. falciparum in seven sentinel provinces along Thai international borders with Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, and Malaysia. In vitro parasite sensitivity was tested using the World Health Organization's microtest (mark III) (between 1994 and 2002) and the histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in 2010). Following World Health Organization protocol, at least 30 isolates were collected for each province and year represented in this study. Where possible, t-tests were used to test for significant differences.

    RESULTS: There appears to be little variation across study sites with regard to parasite sensitivity to chloroquine. Quinine resistance appears to have been rising prior to 1997, but has subsequently decreased. Mefloquine sensitivity appears high across the provinces, especially along the north-western border with Myanmar and the eastern border with Cambodia. Finally, the data suggest that parasite sensitivity to artemisinin and its derivatives is significantly higher in provinces along the north-western border with Myanmar.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parasite sensitivity to anti-malarials in Thailand is highly variable over time and largely mirrors official drug use policy. The findings with regard to reduced sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives are supported by recent reports of reduced parasite clearance associated with artemisinin. This trend is alarming since artemisinin is considered the last defence against malaria. Continued surveillance in Thailand, along with increased collaboration and surveillance across the entire Greater Mekong sub-region, is clearly warranted.

  19. Rajahram GS, Barber BE, William T, Menon J, Anstey NM, Yeo TW
    Malar. J., 2012;11:284.
    PMID: 22905799 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-284
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as a common cause of severe and fatal human malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, but is morphologically indistinguishable from and still commonly reported as Plasmodium malariae, despite the paucity of this species in Sabah. Since December 2008 Sabah Department of Health has recommended intravenous artesunate and referral to a general hospital for all severe malaria cases of any species. This paper reviews all malaria deaths in Sabah subsequent to the introduction of these measures. Reporting of malaria deaths in Malaysia is mandatory.
  20. Jiram AI, Vythilingam I, NoorAzian YM, Yusof YM, Azahari AH, Fong MY
    Malar. J., 2012;11:213.
    PMID: 22727041
    The first natural infection of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans was recorded in 1965 in peninsular Malaysia. Extensive research was then conducted and it was postulated that it was a rare incident and that simian malaria will not be easily transmitted to humans. However, at the turn of the 21st century, knowlesi malaria was prevalent throughout Southeast Asia and is life threatening. Thus, a longitudinal study was initiated to determine the vectors, their seasonal variation and preference to humans and macaques.
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