Introduction : Human displacement during disaster would cause women and their dependent children to be particularly vulnerable. Yet, women failed to make their voices heard. Thus their needs, priorities and perceptions would not be identified which in turn could hinder an effective emergency response and a full recovery process.
Objective : This paper provides a general overview of problems and issues experienced by women and their dependent children during the Johore flood disaster. With this information, relevant agencies shall focus, among other considerations, on the special needs of women and children in planning and carrying out emergency responses in the future.
Methodology : This paper was written based on data and information obtained from the Johore Flood Disaster Report and observations made by the health teams on the flood victims throughout the flood period.
Findings and Discussions : Pregnant mothers with 36 weeks of gestation or more were evacuated from their homes to the health centres or hospitals when the Johore flood disaster struck. Regular maternal and child health (MCH) services were conducted at the flood relief centres. Despite the efforts by health care providers, we observed women facing some unique issues and problems. These include: 1) Effects of loss of security and protection; 2) Disruption of social relations and privacy; 3) Inadequate supply of basic items and; and 4) Economic disruption. Recommendations for future relief work are: i) Predisaster planning for emergency response must engage and involve women representatives. Women must also be recruited as emergency and relief workers; ii) Assessment of predetermined capacity of identified relief centres with gender consideration for evacuees must be done; iii) All relief centres shall have physical partition between families. Breast feeding room with access to clean water should also be provided; iv) Gender, cultural and religious sensitivity with regards to social protection and relations shall be observed at all times; v) Women should engage and be made occupied with suitable activities to encourage healthy social interaction thus avoiding feelings of boredom and helplessness; vi) Basic personal items for women and adolescent girls, such as sanitary towel and undergarments, and places to wash and hang them in privacy must be provided; vii) Elderly women may have to temporarily stay at unaffected relatives’ or old folk homes throughout the disaster period, and; viii) No smoking policy shall be enforced at all times in flood relief centres.
Conclusion : Women and their dependent children have been recognised as one of the vulnerable groups during disasters. Thus, women shall be empowered as partners in formulating any emergency response plan so that together they would be able to complement all disaster mitigation, relief and recovery efforts in amore effective manner.
The state of Johore suffered a massive flood disaster from 19th December 2006 to 1st January and from 12th January to 19th February 2007. The possible upsurge of dengue was of foremost concern and led to efforts in increasing control activities. Anyone with history of high fever with at least two symptoms of severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscles and joint paint, rashes and petechiae were notified as dengue. Active and passive case finding was initiated at all 371 evacuation centres as well through health facilities and hospitals through an active surveillance system. Presumptive larval survey was also carried together with control activities by 46 health teams. Data were collected using the format ‘Aktiviti harian kawalan denggi di kawasan pos banjir- Lampiran E‘ and ‘Laporan aktiviti harian kawalan denggi di pusat pemindahan banjir – Lampiran D2’. Dengue serology and blood film for malaria was sent for as well as vector species identification. A total of 594 dengue cases were reported for the period of 19th December 2006 till 19th February 2007, which was an increase in comparison to the 5-year median but less than that reported in year 2006. However only 14 (2.3%) cases were from flood affected areas. During the flood phase, a total of 5,929 inspections were carried out at the evacuation centres with Aedes Index (AI) of 1.86%, while the post flood period showed a lower index. However Breteau Index (BI) and Container Index (CI) were higher. Preventive fogging were carried out at the evacuation centres using adulticides, thermal fogging was carried out at 21,959 premises (40.04% of inspected premises) and 350.6 L adulticides (malathion, fenitrothion and permethrin) were used. Dengue was expected to increase during flood as a result of increase Aedes potential breeding sites. However with intensive and integrated control activities, Johore was able to minimize the impact of flood for vector-borne diseases as seen from the low cases reported in flood related areas. A special guidelines for surveillance and control was developed during this flood as a reference for future occurrences.
Past major flooding events for the state of Johore, Malaysia were recorded in 1926, 1967, 1968 and 1971. However, major meteorological phenomena that hit Johore on the 19th December 2006 (first wave) and the 12th January 2007 (second wave) were claimed to be the worst flood disaster in Johore in a 100 years. All eight districts were affected displacing 157,018 and 155,368 population during the first and the second wave event respectively. The Johore Health Department deployed substantial number of medical and health personnel to deal with the Johore flood crisis. Flood-related data were collected on daily basis between 19th December 2006 and 19th February 2007 using spreadsheet format from Flood Operational Rooms located at respective District Health Offices. Among flood victims 34,530 were found to have non-communicable diseases and 19,670 with communicable diseases. No major food- and water-borne disease outbreaks, such as cholera and typhoid, were reported in Johore. High success of public health measures was depending on the workforce of medical and health personnel on the ground. On the other hand, voluntary services offered by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), private sector and other volunteers should be well coordinated without compromising regulatory and ethical requirements. Crisis guidelines and plan of actions shall be updated so that they would be more relevant to the crises encountered on the ground.
The state of Johore, Malaysia had been hit by the worst flood in the Malaysian modern history on the 19th December 2006 (first wave) and the 12th January 2007 (second wave) affecting all the eight districts. A total number of 157,018 and 155,368 Johore population had been displaced by the first and the second wave event respectively. The Johore State Health Department activated the Flood Action Plan which include mobilising medical teams to conduct daily clinical examinations on the flood victims and health teams to inspect flood relief centres, food premises and homes at flood-hit areas with regard to prevent and control communicable diseases. The spreadsheet format was used to collect data on diseases, injury and death throughout the Johore flood disaster period starting from the 19th December 2006 until 19th February 2007. Analyses showed that 19,670 flood victims (36.3%) had communicable diseases and 34,530 (67.0%) had non-communicable diseases. As for the communicable diseases and symptoms/syndromes related to communicable disease, 41.3% were acute respiratory infections (ARI) followed by 25.9% skin infections, 19.1% fever, 10.1% acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and 3.0% acute conjunctivitis. Other infectious diseases include 61 notifiable diseases (46 food poisoning, 14 dengue fever and one tuberculosis), 20 leptospirosis (with two deaths), 20 chicken pox and two melioidosis cases. The Batu Pahat district had the highest incidence for the majority of the communicable diseases because of the prolonged flooding period. No cholera, typhoid, malaria, measles or hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) cases were detected among the Johore flood victims. Trends of disease incidence follow the number of evacuees placed in the relief centres corresponding to respective wave. A total of 507 flood victims had physical injuries related to flood mostly due to fall onto wet floor at the relief centres. Fifteen deaths due to drowning were mainly caused by accidental fall into the flood water. The incidence of communicable diseases encountered had been appropriately anticipated and managed attributed to enhanced public health control programmes augmented by syndromic and laboratory surveillance on potentialy fatal infectious diseases. Equal emphasis should be given to the surveillance and control of chronic diseases.
Background : The management of chronic disease during flood seems to be one of the main challenges to the health care service. Chronic disease becomes worst during flood. Poor condition at the relief centres, loss of assets, fear, and lack of functional health facilities contribute to the morbidity and mortality during and after flood. Poor chronic disease management, especially on severe and uncontrolled hypertension, may threaten lives of victims during flood. In addition, comprehensive treatment cannot be delivered due to destroyed infrastructure, shortage of doctors on duty and delay in getting drug supply. Therefore, all aspects of chronic disease management shall be reviewed and included in the disaster preparedness in order to control and prevent acute incidence and complications of the chronic diseases. Previous Action Plan did not address this issue effectively which had caused many patients not getting their treatment adequately. The aim of this writing is to share experiences in managing chronic disease patients particularly hypertensive patients.
Methodology : A retrospective study based on data collection by health personnel while conducting health screening, clinical examination and giving treatment to flood victims at the relief centres. Hypertensive patients were identified when the victims came for treatment and while the medical team conducting medical rounds. New hypertensive cases as well as uncontrolled cases with no complication were treated and monitored at the relief centres.
Result : It was found that 34,530 cases of non communicable disease (11.1% of the total number of the flood victims) including hypertension and diabetes mellitus were reported in Johor. Kota Tinggi reported a total number of 5,317 cases of chronic disease. There was no data collection on specific chronic diseases collected at the state level during the floods thus the findings representing Kota Tinggi cases only. In retrospective search of 150 flood victims with hypertension in Kota Tinggi, only 95 cases had complete data. Among them 71.6% (68 cases) were hypertensive cases already on treatment and 28.4% (27 cases) were new cases. Also it has been found that 67.4% (64 cases) were uncontrolled hypertension and 32.6% (31 cases) were controlled hypertension. Four cases had been found diagnosed as uncontrolled hypertension with complications and have been referred to hospital.
Conclusion : Comprehensive health strategy for flood victims shall not be focused only on saving lives and giving emergency treatment to patients but also to update and strengthen an overall chronic disease management. Many factors contributed to increase in blood pressure during flooding. Good hypertensive treatment at the relief centres is needed to minimise morbidity and mortality. Information on care and treatment received by flood victims having chronic disease is vital in assessing their health needs during disaster and in formulating disaster preparedness in the future.
Introduction : Major flooding that occurred in Segamat District at the end of 2006 and early 2007 was a natural disaster that has left impact on physical and mental well-being of the victims. The aim of this study is to see the impact of the major flooding to the mental health of the health staff in Segamat District.
Methodology : Cross sectional study was conducted among Segamat health staffs who were involved in the major floods. Structured questionnaire was used to assess the mental health status of the victims. Result : There were 119 health staffs from the district health office, Hospital Segamat, dental clinic and Community Nursing School were interviewed in this study. A total of 6.7% respondents claimed to have stress related symptoms with women were more effected than men. Nurses and married respondents were found to be more stressful in this study.
Conclusion : Based on findings, therefore, top management has to pay more attention to the welfare of the health staff, directly or indirectly, in particular on the psychological aspect. By giving emphasis on continuous in-service training and counseling as well as other relevant support, stress-related symptoms could be minimized which in turn lead to higher individual productivity.
Floods are natural disasters that occur without much warning. Natural disasters can result in negative impact due to highly stressful event. Floods can cause mental and emotional disorders to the victims and could also induce stress and trauma either in the short or long terms. This research was carried out to recognize the psychological sequelae of floods and how to overcome them. This study describes the cross sectional descriptive pattern of flood victims in Johor. The DASS Test Questionnaire which is a measurement tool endorsed by the Family Development Institute, Ministry of Health Malaysia was used. We carried out the research in 3 districts of Johor which were the worst hit areas by the flood disaster. Twenty-three percent of the participants were males while 77% were females. The DASS Test Questionnaire showed that 13% were mildly depressed, 7% moderately depressed and 3% were severely depressed. It also revealed that 22% were mildly anxious, 19% moderately anxious, 5% severely anxious and 4% had very severe anxiety. On the stress scores, 15% suffered mild stress, 11% were moderately stressed while 2% were severely stressed. A committee to conduct the motivation programme for the state of Johor was formed by Jabatan Kesihatan Negeri Johor with the cooperation of the PROKEM committee from Hospital Permai, Johor Bahru. This committee headed by the Deputy Director of Health (Medical Division) attempted to overcome the psychological sequelae suffered by flood victims. The activities conducted by the PROKEM staff and staff from the Ministry of Health were monitored by the committee based at Hospital Permai, Johor Bahru. The Bilik Gerakan was in operation for 24 hours a day with meetings conducted every morning and evening to brief and debrief members of staff who were going to carry out the motivation programme. Feedback was also obtained from staff on their return from the various relief centres.
Introduction : Mersing, a district in north-east Johore was also affected by the recent worst flood in 100 years that striked Johore. Orang Asli settlements were among the worst affected by the flood in Mersing due to their location along the river. For Kg. Peta, not only flooded, the communications as well as the access roads were also tarnished. This settlement situated very deep interior about 100 km from Mersing town and next to Endau- Rompin National Park. Besides the distance, the geography and the communication issues make the flood operation even more difficult. Even then, the welfare of this minority group was never been neglected. Our Medical and Health Teams made a move in but unfortunately were also been trapped in between the flood waves.
Methodology : It was a qualitative finding. The data for this report were collected from various means. Some data were collected through informal interview among the staffs that being trapped, head villager and the dwellers, local head departments of government and non-government organizations. Others were from the relevant photographs, formal flood returns as well as through the observation.
Finding : The existence of very good involvement, cooperation and coordination from various agencies was the main factor that ensures all the villagers of Kg. Peta received our services despite of many difficulties or challenges. During this disaster, no outbreak of infectious disease or death from the settlement was reported. The welfare and the needs of all who affected and those involved in the flood operation were taken care off. Therefore, we believed that without good support and cooperation from others, we will not be able to deliver our services and their welfare especially when health was concerned will be deprived. The objectives of this write up were to share our experience in managing flood in very remote area and to show the importance of good integration between agencies in disaster management.
Background: Nowadays, most medical laboratories in Malaysia practice occupational safety and health based on standard operating procedure and sometimes ad-hoc characteristic limited to only internal use. The level of compliance of the national occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS) guidelines among medical laboratories in Malaysia is still largely unexplored.
Methods: This study was carried out on 34 medical laboratories consisting of 17 public medical laboratories and 17 private medical laboratories in Klang Valley using self-administered questionnaire based on guideline of OSHMS6. This study covered 112 medical laboratories units including pathology chemistry (18), microbiology (20), virology (7), histopathology (16), cytopathology (17), hematology (19) and 15 multi discipline medical laboratories.
Results: This study showed the level of compliance to the national OSHMS guideline among medical laboratories who are MS ISO 15189:2004 accredited & have a higher scores (p
Background: Somalia is a country that still practices Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Female genital mutilation (FGM) constitutes all procedures, which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or any other nontherapeutic reasons.
Methodology: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among males and females above 18 years of age attending the Out Patient Clinic and Mother & Child Clinic of Elder District, Rural Hospital Galgadud Region, Somalia in June 2006 using a structured questionnaire to access the respondents’ knowledge, attitude and practice.
Results: Four hundred respondents were interviewed and male respondents were noted to be more knowledgeable than their female counterparts (p 0.004) and so does respondents with formal education (p <0.001) and had occupation (p <0.001). Majority of the female respondents (97.1%) favors the practices of FGM and reasons such as to protect virginity (p <0.001), increase marital opportunity (p <0.001) and religious recommendations (p <0.001) were noted to be the important
factors in the continuation of FGM. All of the female respondents have had some form of FGM, giving the prevalence rate of 100% with 64.1% underwent the procedure at between the age of 5-10 years old and the commonest form of FGM were infibulations. Mother (69.4%) was the important decision maker for these women.
Conclusion: Aggressive education programme should be introduced targeting the women in this community. They should be well informed on the complication of FGM and its health effects. Providing clinics will help to alleviate some of the complications related to FGM. Law on protecting women from these practices should be introduced and enforced.
Key Words: female genital mutilation, knowledge, attitude, practice
Study site: Clinic of Elder District, Rural Hospital Galgadud Region, Somalia
Background and Objective : Johor was affected by the worst flood in 100 years in December 2006 and again in January 2007. The concern that improper sanitary facilities and contaminated water supply at relief centres would result in contaminated food made monitoring of food hygiene vital. The objective of this paper is to describe food hygiene surveillance activities carried out in flood relief centres and flood affected areas and the challenges faced in carrying out these activities.
Methodology : The food hygiene surveillance activities were carried out by the Assistant Environmental Health Officers (AEHO) in the districts. Among the surveillance activities carried out are inspection of food preparation areas in relief centres, inspection of food premises in flood affected areas and food sampling. Premise inspections were carried out using a specific inspection format. Food samples taken were sent to Public Health Laboratory, Johor Bahru for microbiological analysis. Anti typhoid vaccination for food handlers were also carried out. Apart from that, observations made by the health teams were alsotaken into account.
Results : A total of 3,159 food preparation areas in relief centres were inspected. During the same period, a total of 2,317 food premises in flood affected areas were inspected as soon these premises started operating after the floods. Inspections showed that 69 food preparation areas in relief centres and 181 food premises in flood affected areas had unsatisfactory hygiene. A total of 1,566 holding samples were taken and 425 samples were sent to the laboratory for analysis. Forty-six of the samples analysed were found to be positive for pathogenic bacteria such as e. coli, staphylococcus aureus and salmonella.
Conclusion : The health personnel from the Johor Health Department in various districts carried out an excellent job in ensuring food safety during the floods. There were no outbreaks of food poisoning. However analysis of food samples taken during the floods did show the presence of pathogenic organisms but probably their numbers were not high enough to cause any food poisoning. The promotion and enforcement of food hygiene requirements should be carried out continuously to ensure that every individual understands the need for hygiene and food safety during disaster situation such as flood.
Introduction : Flood disaster in Johor started at the end of 2006 until the early year of 2007 causing the distruction of property and human life and it was the worse flood disaster in the history of Malaysia. The Muar and Kluang Health Office had been taken all the measures in the District Plan of Action for flood disaster in the early phase of the flood. Management of the Health and Medical team was one of the measures taken for the deployment of staff systematically and optimumly use of man power during a disaster.
Metodology : The objective for this article is to share the experience regarding human resource management during flood disaster. Data collected base on flood activities rosters used by health staff during morning briefing, analysis of record and daily flood report, interviewing the staff and flood victim involved regarding the experience and challengers they face and lastly by observing the services given to flood victim during the disasters.
Finding : There were 41 Medical and Health Team formed and responsible at 108 flood relived centre homing 26,824 flood victims in Muar District while in Kluang, 21 Medical and health Team were providing services in 60 flood relieve centre with 36,126 flood victims. All of the activities conducted by the Medical and Health team were coordinated by the district flood operation centre. District of Muar had been receiving 16 additional staff from other state while 34 additional staff had been providing services in Kluang. Challengers that had been identified include shortage of human resource compared to the increasing need and task during the flood disaster, shortage of personal protective equipments, frequent changers and inconsistency in the format use during flood reporting and lack of psychosocial support and motivation among the staff involved in the flood disaster operation.
Conclusion : Partnership among other department are very importance and the collaboration between them were very good.
Objective :This study was performed to determine changes in diet and lifestyle among breast cancer survivors in Malaysia.
Methods :This was a qualitative study done on fifteen survivors (8 Malays and 7 non-Malays) obtained from the Oncology and Surgery Department, National University of Malaysia Hospital. The study was conducted using a semi-structured interview format. The data obtained were sorted into various categories via content analysis.
Results :Majority of breast cancer survivors increased their fruit and vegetable intake following diagnosis. Some non-Malays changed to vegetarian whereas all the Malays remained on the same dietary pattern. As far as exercise was concerned, all Malays did not exercise before diagnosis, but did so after diagnosis, whereas most of non- Malays did not exercise either before or after diagnosis.
Conclusion : Some changes were noticed in dietary and lifestyle behaviors after diagnosis among some survivors. The differences were due to their different cultural and religious backgrounds.
Background: The occupationally acquired accident and injuries in Malaysian medical laboratories are still largely unexplored prior to this survey. Some of these questions are attempted in this survey and act as source of reference for the number and accident injuries in medical laboratories in the area of Klang Valley and also in Malaysia.
Methods : This survey was carried out based on recordable cases throughout the calendar year of 2001 to 2005 from 3 main medical laboratories of Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) and Pusat Perubatan Universiti Malaya (PPUM).
Results : The average annual incident rate for this three medical laboratories is 2.05/100 full time equivalent (FTE) employees. The annual incident rate in individual medical laboratory is 2.04/100 FTE (HKL), 2.07/100 FTE (HUKM) and 2.04/100 FTE (PPUM) employees, respectively. The most common injury that is 25.3% of the total cases reported was due to cuts by sharp objects and the second most common injury was exposure to biohazard and chemical substances which constitutes 19.9% of the total cases. . Needle prick injury (16.8%), fire (8.4%), fall/slip (6.3%) and gases leak and locked in cold room were reported as one case each.
Conclusion : The average incident rate from this study is remarkably similar compared with the incident injury rate reported by BLS (2006) which is 2.1/100 FTE in the average size of medical laboratory and diagnostic. Besides this incident rate of injury and illness as a comparison, it also can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the safety performance among medical laboratories in Malaysia.
Background : Safe potable water is critical during and post flood. In the pre-flood period, Johore has an excellent, systematic and comprehensive water supply system. More than 98.6% of Johore population received treated water supply from the water treatment plants.
Methodology : Data collection was performed by conducting additional water sampling at routine sampling stations as well as the flood relief centres, water tankers (lorries) and static water tanks. Water treatment plant outlet and water tanker inlet shall have a minimum level of 2.0 mg/l of residual chlorine so that reticulation, water tanker outlets and static water tanks would have at least 0.5 mg/l as a measure to prevent the incidence of water borne diseases. Sampling was done everyday to monitor water quality at the flood relief centres as well as flood-hit areas. Inspections and surveillance on sanitation were also conducted on latrines, solid waste disposal systems and on the surrounding environment.
Results : A total of 6,283 water samples had been collected during and post flood. Violations on E. coli, turbidity and residual chlorine were 0.8%, 0.6% and 4.0% respectively with the Kluang district recorded the highest percentages for all the three parameters. A number of 621 wells had been inspected with 378 of them (60.9%) had been chlorinated. In order to ensure environmental cleanliness, 26,815 houses in 708 villages had been visited. Out of them, 2,011 houses (7.5%) were not satisfactory. Sanitation inspections found that 1,778 latrines, 2,719 domestic water sewerage systems and 2,955 solid waste disposal systems were under substandard conditions thus remedial actions had been taken immediately.
Conclusion : Although the flood disaster was massive with prolonged flooding period, however, an overall quality status on treated water supply was satisfactory whilst sanitary hygiene was under control. Hence, the incidence of communicable disease especially water borne diseases would not progress into serious outbreak, in fact, neither cholera nor typhoid was reported during the Johore flood disaster.
Infrastructure damage due to land slide, fallen bridge and broken and submerged roads become the main constraint in providing good medical services to the flood victims and isolated places in the remote area. The health care provider has to face a huge challenge at delivering the medical services to the flood victims in Kluang district especially to the remote and isolated areas. This gives us a meaningful and valuable experience in managing such problem. From the true experience of the medical and health team and also the flood victims, few problems and major issues were detected. Other than the environmental factor, human error is another major area of concern of which the failure to interact with the District Flood Operation Centre leading to miscommunication resulting in delay of management of the patient. In smaller proportion, poor inter-agency collaboration and lacking of good equipment was also noted to be affecting the health care services. The issues raised here will hopefully be making better in managing disaster in the future.
Flooding is the most frequent of all natural disasters. A flood is any water flow that exceeds the capacity of the drainage system and usually subsides in relatively shorter period. However, the flood that hit Batu Pahat District were different from other districts. Batu Pahat flooding extended for 48 days from the first wave until it subsided fully. It gives positive and negative effects not only to the victims but also to the health care workers (HCWs) while executing their duties during and post flood. This write up aims to share HCW’s experience and voices from those who were involved in the flood disaster. Methods used are brainstorming sessions, discussion, observation and interview. From this study, 10 main themes were highlighted. This flood disaster has given the HCWs to prepare mentally, physically and increase knowledge and skills to face any disaster in the future.
Introduction : Stillbirth is one of the important adverse pregnancy outcomes that has been used as a health indicator for the measurement of the health status of a country especially for its obstetric care management. However, the aetiology of the occurrence of the stillbirth was commonly difficult to identify because of limitations in the classification system.
Methods : A review of existing, available information published up to January 2007 on stillbirths in Malaysia was used to obtain the basic background on the determinant factors of stillbirths. Results : Malaysia, which is a fast developing country, reported a stillbirth rate in the range of 4 to 5 per 1000 births. Almost 30- 40% were recorded as normally formed macerated stillbirths. This was based on a rapid reporting system of perinatal deaths using the modified version of the Wigglesworth’s pathophysiology classification. Those of extreme maternal age (less than 19 years and more than 35 years), those reside in rural areas, of the ‘Bumiputera’ and Indian ethnic groups were at higher risk of stillbirth. On detailed analysis it was seen that the risks of having a normally formed macerated stillbirth increased among those who had a preterm delivery and hypertension. Stillbirth rates were also higher in those with shorter gestational age and in those with parity between 2 and 5. No other factors related to stillbirth were found in this review.
Conclusion : This is a review based on existing published data which has a lot of limitation when it comes to analysing other important factors that might be related with the risk of the stillbirth. However, extreme maternal age and mothers from rural areas are the two factors that were persistently found in almost all literature. When these factors are combined with signs of pre term delivery, they indicate that close monitoring needs to be done.
Introduction: To determine association between occupational stress and personality characteristics among nurses at Maternal and Child Health Clinic in the state of Malacca, emphasizing on type of personality and personal perception of stress.
Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 152 nurses of Maternal and Child Health Clinics in Malacca using self administered questionnaires and selected via multistage sampling.
Results : This study showed that a total of 28.3% of the nurses were found to be stressed. Almost half (41.2%) of those who perceived that they were stressed were likely to be really stressed (p = 0.004). Therefore those who perceived themselves to be stressed should be referred for stress evaluation and further management if necessary. However selfperception of stress cannot be used as a screening tool for stress due to its lack of sensitivity (56.8%) and poor Positive Predictive Value (41.2%). Majority of the nurses were of Guardians Personality Type (98%) and 72.4% of them had extrovert trait. However there were no significant associations between stress with personality type or characteristic, most probably due to the preponderance of one personality type or characteristic. Other studied variables such as socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, religion, marital status, educational level, body mass index, type of work place, position, duration of service and poverty level) and social factors (placement, chronic medical illness, chronic care taker, smoking status and alcohol drinker) were suggestive of an association between them and stress but were not statistically significant.
Conclusion : There is no association between occupational stress and personal characteristics among nurses in Malacca.
Introduction : Economic evaluations can provide “value-for money” information to those making decisions about the allocation of limited health care resources. In particular, economic evaluations can be used to identify interventions that are worth providing and those that are not. Furthermore, evaluations can be used with other approaches to help set priorities, such as program-budgeting marginal-analysis.
Methodology : Compile and systematically describe from the publications, articles and reports on economic evaluation in healthcare decision making.
Result : A high quality economic evaluation should provide decision makers with information that is useful, relevant, and timely. In addition, evaluations should be based on rigorous analytical methods, be balanced and impartial (credible), and be transparent and accessible to the reader. There are many situations where economic evaluations can assist decision makers: decisions by various levels of government or administrative bodies (e.g., regional health authorities, hospitals, drug plans) to fund a program, service or technology, pricing decisions by government regulators and technology manufacturers, clinical practice guidelines, priorities for research funding by governments and researchbased firms, post-marketing surveillance and updates of economic information based on the use of the technology in the “real world” (which can then be used to inform one of the other types of decisions).
Conclusion: This requires that decision makers take a broad view of the impact of a technology, and decision that are more explicit and transparent. The ultimate test of an evaluation is whether it leads to better decision in the presence of uncertainty, and results in the more efficient and effective use of resources.