The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats.
This experiment aimed to determine microbial spoilage and lipid and protein oxidation during aerobic refrigerated (4°C) storage of rabbit meat. Forty male New Zealand white rabbits were slaughtered according to the Halal slaughter procedure. The hind limbs were used for microbial analysis while the Longissimus lumborum m. was used for determination of lipid and protein oxidation. Bacterial counts generally increased with aging time and the limit for fresh meat (10(8)cfu/g) was reached at d 7 postmortem. Significant differences in malondialdehyde content were observed after 3d of storage. The thiol concentration significantly decreased with increase in aging time. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain and troponin T significantly reduced with increased refrigerated storage while actin remained relatively stable. This study thus proposes protein oxidation as a potential deteriorative change in refrigerated rabbit meat along with microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation.
The beef industry worldwide is showing a trend towards increased cutting pace aimed at higher profits. However, prior research in the duck meat industry suggested that a higher cutting pace reduced quality and yield, leading to losses. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating the effects of varying beef-cutting paces on yield, quality and economy. A field experiment was conducted on six workers cutting beef fillet, sirloin and entrecôte. Three types of paces were sequentially tested: Baseline (i.e., status quo), 'Quantity focus' (i.e., pace required to maximise quantity) and 'Quality focus' (i.e., pace required to minimise errors). The results showed a significant drop in yield, increased rate of quality deficiency and economic losses with the change to 'Quantity focus' (from Baseline and 'Quality focus') for all meat types. Workers supported these results and also added health problems to the list. The results confirmed that an increased cutting pace is unprofitable.
The study assessed the effect of conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia on bleeding efficiency of goats and keeping quality of goat meat. Ten Boer cross bucks were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or minimal anesthesia prior to slaughter (AS). The blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of hemoglobin and myoglobin content in longissimus lumborum muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and lipid oxidation. Blood loss at exsanguination, residual hemoglobin and lipid oxidation were not significantly different (p>0.05) between HS and AS. Lactic acid bacteria was the only microbe that was significantly elevated after 24h of storage at 4°C in the AS group. In conclusion, slaughtering goats under minimal anesthesia or fully conscious did not affect bleeding efficiency and keeping quality of goat meat.
In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.
The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1.
Thirty-two male goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments namely, basal diet 70% concentrate and 30% oil palm fronds (control, CN), CN + 400 mg/kg vitamin E (VE), 0.5% turmeric (TU) or 0.5% Anderographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days of feeding, the goats were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and conditioned for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller (4 °C). The drip loss of the LD muscle increased (P < 0.05) with aging time. Meat tenderness was improved (p < 0.05) at 14 days aging. All antioxidant supplements improved (P < 0.05) colour of the meat. The TBARS value increased (P < 0.05) at 7 days of aging while the fatty acid composition was not affected by the dietary supplements. It is concluded that TU and AP are potential dietary antioxidant supplements, for the purpose of improving the quality of chevon.
Traditional halal slaughter and other forms of religious slaughter are still an issue of debate. Opposing arguments related to pre-slaughter handling, stress and pain associated with restraint, whether the incision is painful or not, and the onset of unconsciousness have been put forward, but no consensus has been achieved. There is a need to strike a balance between halal bleeding in the light of science and animal welfare. There is a paucity of scientific data with respect to animal welfare, particularly the use of restraining devices, animal handling, and efficient halal bleeding. However, this review found that competent handling of animals, proper use of restraining devices, and the efficient bleeding process that follows halal slaughter maintains meat eating quality. In conclusion, halal bleeding, when carried out in accordance with recommended animal welfare procedures, will not only maintain the quality and wholesomeness of meat but could also potentially reduce suffering and pain. Maintained meat quality increases consumer satisfaction and food safety.
This study assessed the effect of gas stunning which has not been conducted until now in comparison with slaughter without stunning on the welfare and meat quality of rabbits. Eighty male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stunning using 61.4% CO2, 20.3% oxygen and 18.3 % nitrogen (GS). Analysis of the sticking blood revealed that both slaughter procedures caused a substantial increase in the levels of catecholamines, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, lactic acidemia and an increase in enzyme activities. The ultimate pH of the Longissimus lumborum muscle did not differ between treatments. GS exhibited higher lightness and cooking loss, and lower glycogen and MFI than HS. This indicates that both GS and HS can be significant stressors although the amount of stress may be below the threshold to negatively affect rabbit meat quality.
The influence of dietary lecithin at doses of 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg fed to finisher gilts for six weeks prior to slaughter on growth performance, carcass quality and pork quality was investigated. M. longissimus lumborum (loin) was removed from 36 pig carcasses at 24h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, collagen content and colour analyses. Dietary lecithin increased dressing percentage (P=0.009). Pork chewiness and collagen content were decreased by dietary lecithin (P<0.05, respectively), suggesting that improved chewiness may be due to decreased collagen content. However, dietary lecithin had no effect on shear force, cohesiveness or hardness (P>0.05, respectively). Dietary lecithin reduced loin muscle L* values and increased a* values (P<0.05, respectively) but no changes on b* values (P=0.56). The data showed that dietary lecithin improved dressing percentage and resulted in less chewy and less pale pork.
The transformation of an animal into pieces fit for human consumption is a very important operation. Rather than argue about halal slaughter without stunning being inhumane or stunning being controversial from the Islamic point of view, we discuss slaughter, stunning and animal welfare considering both Islamic and animal welfare legislation requirements. With the world Muslim population close to two billion, the provision of halal meat for the Muslim community is important both ethically and economically. However, from the animal welfare standard point of view, a number of issues have been raised about halal slaughter without stunning, particularly, about stressful methods of restraint and the latency of the onset of unconsciousness. This paper sets out to, discuss the methods of stunning that are acceptable by Islamic authorities, highlight the requirements for stunning to be acceptable in Islam and suggest practical ways to improve the humanness of slaughter.
The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (p<0.05) lower HAs concentration as compared to those charcoal grilled (A). Both medium and well done cooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B).
A test for assessing pork adulteration in meatballs, using TaqMan probe real-time polymerase chain reaction, was developed. The assay combined porcine-specific primers and TaqMan probe for the detection of a 109 bp fragment of porcine cytochrome b gene. Specificity test with 10 ng DNA of eleven different species yielded a threshold cycle (Ct) of 15.5 ± 0.20 for the pork and negative results for the others. Analysis of beef meatballs with spiked pork showed the assay can determine 100-0.01% contaminated pork with 102% PCR efficiency, high linear regression (r(2) = 0.994) and ≤ 6% relative errors. Residuals analysis revealed a high precision in all determinations. Random analysis of commercial meatballs from pork, beef, chicken, mutton and goat, yielded a Ct between 15.89 ± 0.16 and 16.37 ± 0.22 from pork meatballs and negative results from the others, showing the suitability of the assay to determine pork in commercial meatballs with a high accuracy and precision.
There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review.
The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p<0.05) values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). Furthermore, there were no significant (p>0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference.
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the assessment of dog meat adulteration in meatballs was developed. The assay selectively amplified a 100-bp region of canine mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from pure, raw, processed and mixed backgrounds. The specificity of the assay was tested against 11 animals and 3 plants species, commonly available for meatball formulation. The stability of the assay was proven under extensively autoclaving conditions that breakdown target DNA. A blind test from ready to eat chicken and beef meatballs showed that the assay can repeatedly detect 0.2% canine meat tissues under complex matrices using 0.04 ng of dog DNA extracted from differentially treated meatballs. The simplicity, stability and sensitivity of the assay suggested that it could be used in halal food industry for the authentication of canine derivatives in processed foods.
This study investigated the carcass characteristics, physico-chemical properties, storage stability and cholesterol content of meat from goats fed with different levels of naturally-produced lovastatin used to mitigate enteric methane production. Twenty intact Saanen male goats of 5-6 months old with initial live weight of 25.8 ± 4.0 kg were randomly allotted into four dietary treatments containing 0 (Control), 2 (Low), 4 (Medium) and 6 mg (High) per kg live weight (LW) of naturally-produced lovastatin for 12 consecutive weeks. No differences were found in all the parameters measured except for full LW, hot and cold carcass weight, shear force, color and cholesterol content among the treatment groups. Aging had significant effects on all the parameters measured in this study except a* (redness) of meat. Meat samples in the Medium and High treatments were of higher lightness and yellowness, more tender and lower cholesterol levels. We conclude that, in addition to mitigate enteric methane emissions, dietary supplementation of naturally-produced lovastatin at 4 mg/kg LW could be a feasible feeding strategy to produce tender meat containing lower cholesterol.
This paper describes the influence of different factors on toughness of beef semitendinosus (ST) by means of low temperature-long time cooking with single-stage (60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, and 75 °C for 6 h and 12 h) and two-stage sous-vide procedure (45 + 60 °C, 45 + 65 °C, 45 + 70 °C, and 45 + 75 °C; 49 + 60 °C, 49 + 65 °C, 49 + 70 °C, and 49 + 75 °C for 3 h at the first temperature, and either 3 or 9 h at the second temperature). Reduced toughness of ST beef steak muscle could be attained in 6 h at 60 °C and 45 + 60 °C were due from the minimum shrinkage of sarcomere as well as lower perimysial thickness, cooking loss, and elastic modulus. Collagen solubility showed a positive correlation to the toughness values. The relationship between proteolytic activity and shear force can be seen after 12 h of cooking duration. For the other quality attributes, two stepped cooking temperature-time combination seems to be more effective in preserving the redness values and water content than a single-stage sous-vide method.
A method utilizing PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the mitochondrial genes was developed for beef (Bos taurus), pork (Sus scrofa), buffalo (Bubalus bubali), quail (Coturnix coturnix), chicken (Gallus gallus), goat (Capra hircus), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) species identification and Halal authentication. PCR products of 359-bp were successfully obtained from the cyt b gene of these six meats. AluI, BsaJI, RsaI, MseI, and BstUI enzymes were identified as potential restriction endonucleases to differentiate the meats. The genetic differences within the cyt b gene among the meat were successfully confirmed by PCR-RFLP. A reliable typing scheme of species which revealed the genetic differences among the species was developed.
This study was designed to explore the potential of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (PO) and palm stearin (POs) utilization in chicken frankfurters. A 10 points augmented simplex-centroid design was used to study the effect of chicken fat (CF), PO and POs as well as the interaction of these fats on the emulsion, textural and sensory properties of chicken frankfurters. All frankfurters were formulated to contain approx 25% fat, 52% moisture and 10% protein. No significant difference was found in end chopping temperatures of all meat batters even though the temperature of PO and POs upon incorporation into meat batters was 50°C higher than CF. Strong emulsions were formed as no fluid losses were observed in all the meat batters tested after heating. Texture profiles of the frankfurters containing PO and/or CF were quite similar, but increment of POs raised hardness, chewiness, and shear hardness of the frankfurters. Acceptability of the frankfurters was evaluated using hedonic test. Panelists found no difference in hardness preference between frankfurters made from totally CF and PO, while frankfurters made from POs were rated as hard and brittle. CF was important in determining acceptability of the frankfurters, as reduction of CF in formulation resulted in lower scores in chicken flavor, juiciness, oiliness and overall acceptance of the frankfurters. Frankfurters with sensory acceptability comparable to a commercial one were found to comprise of more than 17% CF, and less than 67% PO and 17% POs of the fat blend.