CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 41-year-old man with previous bilateral pheochromocytoma presented with chest pain. He was suffering from cardiac failure and persistent hypotension requiring an inotrope. Cardiac markers, an electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram confirmed acute myocardial infarct with poor ejection fraction and global hypokinesia. An (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scan showed progressive left suprarenal and organ of Zuckerkandl pheochromocytomas. Blood pressure stabilisation proved challenging but was achieved by titrating an incremental dose of α-blocker against a tapering inotropic dose.
CONCLUSION: This case showed the efficacy of an α-blocker despite persistent hypotension in a patient with pheochromocytoma-induced cardiomyopathy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tincture of the roots was concentrated to dryness by evaporating the ethanol in vacuo. This ethanolic extract was partitioned into 5 fractions sequentially with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The corpus cavernosum relaxant activity of each fraction was investigated. The DCM fraction which showed the highest potency in relaxing phenylephrine-precontracted corpora cavernosa was purified by column chromatography. The effects of the most potent DCM subfraction in relaxing phenylephrine-precontracted corpora cavernosa, DCM-I, on angiotensin I- or angiotensin II-induced contractions in corpora cavernosa were investigated. The effects of DCM-I pretreatment on the responses of phenylephrine-precontracted corpora cavernosa to angiotensin II or bradykinin were also studied. An in vitro assay was conducted to evaluate the effect of DCM-I on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity.
RESULTS: Fraction DCM-I decreased the maximal contractions (100%) evoked by angiotensin I and angiotensin II to 30 ± 14% and 26 ± 16% (p < 0.001), respectively. In phenylephrine-precontracted corpora cavernosa, DCM-I pretreatment caused angiotensin II to induce 82 ± 27% relaxation of maximal contraction (p < 0.01) and enhanced (p < 0.001) bradykinin-induced relaxations from 47 ± 8% to 100 ± 5%. In vitro, DCM-I was able to reduce (p < 0.001) the maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme activity to 78 ± 0.24%.
CONCLUSION: Fraction DCM-I was able to antagonize angiotensin II-induced contraction to cause corpus cavernosum relaxation via inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and enhance bradykinin-induced relaxation through inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Clinical outcomes were assessed in 47 patients with 88 LD crowns using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) evaluation criteria and survival rates. The questionnaire for predictors included 3 aspects: (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) oral health habits (tooth brushing frequency, flossing frequency, and dental visits), and (c) satisfaction of the restorations (aesthetics, function, fit, cleansability, and chewing ability of the crowns, and overall satisfaction). Frequency distributions were computed using univariate and multivariate analysis. The Student t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare means across variables. Correlation analysis was done to assess the association between continuous variables.
RESULTS: The age of crowns was 34.7 ± 9.7 months. The survival rate was 96.6% at 35.9 ± 9.2 months. There was a significant association between successful crown function and oral hygiene measures: tooth brushing (p˂ 0.001), dental visits (p = 0.006), and flossing (p = 0.009). A strong negative correlation was observed between aesthetic satisfaction (r = -0.717, p˂ 0.001) and chewing ability (r = -0.639, p˂ 0.001) with crown age. The linear regression model was significant for all predictors (p < 0.05) except overall satisfaction (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The LD crowns had long survival rates of 96.6% up to 35.9 ± 9.2 months and provided satisfactory clinical performance (low risk of failure). Oral hygiene habits such as brushing, flossing, and regular dental visits influenced patient satisfaction with LD crowns.