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  1. Mumm R, Hageman JA, Calingacion MN, de Vos RCH, Jonker HH, Erban A, et al.
    Metabolomics, 2016;12:38.
    PMID: 26848289 DOI: 10.1007/s11306-015-0925-1
    The quality of rice in terms not only of its nutritional value but also in terms of its aroma and flavour is becoming increasingly important in modern rice breeding where global targets are focused on both yield stability and grain quality. In the present paper we have exploited advanced, multi-platform metabolomics approaches to determine the biochemical differences in 31 rice varieties from a diverse range of genetic backgrounds and origin. All were grown under the specific local conditions for which they have been bred and all aspects of varietal identification and sample purity have been guaranteed by local experts from each country. Metabolomics analyses using 6 platforms have revealed the extent of biochemical differences (and similarities) between the chosen rice genotypes. Comparison of fragrant rice varieties showed a difference in the metabolic profiles of jasmine and basmati varieties. However with no consistent separation of the germplasm class. Storage of grains had a significant effect on the metabolome of both basmati and jasmine rice varieties but changes were different for the two rice types. This shows how metabolic changes may help prove a causal relationship with developing good quality in basmati rice or incurring quality loss in jasmine rice in aged grains. Such metabolomics approaches are leading to hypotheses on the potential links between grain quality attributes, biochemical composition and genotype in the context of breeding for improvement. With this knowledge we shall establish a stronger, evidence-based foundation upon which to build targeted strategies to support breeders in their quest for improved rice varieties.
  2. Wali S, Gupta R, Yu JJ, Mfuh A, Gao X, Guentzel MN, et al.
    Metabolomics, 2016 Apr;12(4).
    PMID: 27642272
    INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Host transcriptomic- or proteomic profiling studies have identified key molecules involved in establishment of Ct infection or the generation of anti Ct-immunity. However, the contribution of the host metabolome is not known.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of host metabolites in genital Ct infection.

    METHODS: We used high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and mapped lipid profiles in genital swabs obtained from female guinea pigs at days 3, 9, 15, 30 and 65 post Ct serovar D intravaginal infection.

    RESULTS: Across all time points assessed, 13 distinct lipid species including choline, ethanolamine and glycerol were detected. Amongst these metabolites, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the predominant phospholipid detected from animals actively shedding bacteria i.e., at 3, 9, and 15 days post infection. However, at days 30 and 65 when the animals had cleared the infection, PC was observed to be decreased compared to previous time points. Mass spectrometry analyses of PC produced in guinea pigs (in vivo) and 104C1 guinea pig cell line (in vitro) revealed distinct PC species following Ct D infection. Amongst these, PC 16:0/18:1 was significantly upregulated following Ct D infection (p < 0.05, >twofold change) in vivo and in vitro infection models investigated in this report. Exogenous addition of PC 16:0/18:1 resulted in significant increase in Ct D in Hela 229 cells.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a role for host metabolite, PC 16:0/18:1 in regulating genital Ct infection in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Afzan A, Kasim N, Ismail NH, Azmi N, Ali AM, Mat N, et al.
    Metabolomics, 2019 Mar 04;15(3):35.
    PMID: 30830457 DOI: 10.1007/s11306-019-1489-2
    BACKGROUND: Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) is a plant used in Malaysia for various diseases including as a supplement in diabetes management. Morphology distinction of the 7 main varieties (var. angustifolia, var. bilobata, var. deltoidea, var. intermedia, var. kunstleri, var. motleyana and var. trengganuensis) is challenging due to the extreme leaf heterophylly and unclear varietal boundaries, making it difficult for quality control of F. deltoidea products.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the phytochemical composition of 7 varieties growing in different conditions at various geographical locations. We also aimed to establish the quality control markers for the authentication of these varieties.

    METHODS: We applied untargeted UHPLC-TOFMS metabolomics to discriminate 100 leaf samples of F. deltoidea collected from 6 locations in Malaysia. A genetic analysis on 21 leaf samples was also performed to validate the chemotaxonomy differentiation.

    RESULTS: The PCA and HCA analysis revealed the existence of 3 chemotypes based on the differentiation in the flavonoid content. The PLS-DA analysis identified 15 glycosylated flavone markers together with 1 furanocoumarin. These markers were always consistent for the respective varieties, regardless of the geographical locations and growing conditions. The chemotaxonomy differentiation was in agreement with the DNA sequencing. In particular, var. bilobata accession which showed divergent morphology was also differentiated by the chemical fingerprints and genotype.

    CONCLUSION: Chemotype differentiation based on the flavonoid fingerprints along with the proposed markers provide a powerful identification tool to complement morphology and genetic analyses for the quality control of raw materials and products from F. deltoidea.

  4. Hussain RMF, Kim HK, Khurshid M, Akhtar MT, Linthorst HJM
    Metabolomics, 2018 01 31;14(3):25.
    PMID: 30830336 DOI: 10.1007/s11306-018-1317-0
    INTRODUCTION: WRKY proteins belong to a plant-specific class of transcription factors. Seventy-four WKRY genes have been identified in Arabidopsis and many WRKY proteins are known to be involved in responses to stress, especially to biotic stress. They may act either as transcriptional activators or as repressors of genes that play roles in the stress response. A number of studies have proposed the connection of Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors in induced pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, although no direct evidence has been presented for specific WRKY-PR promoter interactions.

    OBJECTIVE: We previously identified AtWRKY50 as a transcriptional activator of SAR gene PR1. Although PR1 accumulates to high levels in plants after attack by pathogens, its function is still elusive. Here we investigated the effects of overexpression of several WRKY proteins, including AtWRKY50, on the metabolome of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    METHODS: The influence of overexpression of WRKY proteins on the metabolites of Arabidopsis was investigated by using an NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach. The 1H NMR data was analysed using the multivariate data analysis methods, such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least square-discriminant analysis.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the metabolome of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtWRKY50 was different from wild type Arabidopsis and transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing other WRKY genes. Amongst other metabolites, sinapic acid and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose especially appeared to be the most prominent discriminating metabolites, accumulating to levels 2 to 3 times higher in the AtWRKY50 overexpressor lines.

    CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a possible involvement of AtWRKY50 in secondary metabolite production in Arabidopsis, in particular of hydroxycinnamates such as sinapic acid and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose.

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