Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Ali PS, John J, Selvaraj M, Kek TL, Salleh MZ
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2015 May;59(5):299-304.
    PMID: 25753649 DOI: 10.1111/1348-0421.12253
    Nodamura virus (NoV) B2, a suppressor of RNA interference, binds double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) corresponding to Dicer substrates and products. Here, we report that the amino terminal domain of NoV B2 (NoV B2 79) specifically binds siRNAs but not dsRNAs. NoV B2 79 oligomerizes on binding to 27 nucleotide siRNA. Mutation of the residues phenylalanine49 and alanine60 to cysteine and methionine, respectively enhances the RNA binding affinity of NoV B2 79. Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that the wild type and mutant NoV B2 79 have similar secondary structure conformations.
  2. Ong EB, Ignatius J, Anthony AA, Aziah I, Ismail A, Lim TS
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2015 Jan;59(1):43-7.
    PMID: 25399538 DOI: 10.1111/1348-0421.12211
    The detection and measurement of different antibody isotypes in the serum provide valuable indicators of the different stages of typhoid infection. Here, the ability of S. Typhi recombinant hemolysin E (HlyE) to detect multi-isotype antibody responses in sera of patients with typhoid and paratyphoid A was investigated using an indirect antibody immunoassay. Nanogram amounts of HlyE were found to be sufficient for detection of IgG and IgA isotypes and, in a study of individuals' sera (n = 100), the immunoassay was able to distinguish between typhoid and non-typhoid sera. The overall sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of the ELISA were 70% (39/56), 100% (44/44) and 83% respectively.
  3. Shankar EM, Velu V, Vignesh R, Vijayaraghavalu S, Rukumani DV, Sabet NS
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2012 Aug;56(8):497-505.
    PMID: 22900503 DOI: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2012.00485.x
    Early defence mechanisms of innate immunity respond rapidly to infection against HIV-1 in the genital mucosa. Additionally, innate immunity optimises effective adaptive immune responses against persistent HIV infection. Recent research has highlighted the intrinsic roles of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G, tripartite motif-containing protein 5, tetherin, sterile α-motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 in restricting HIV-1 replication. Likewise, certain endogenously secreted antimicrobial peptides, namely α/β/θ-defensins, lactoferrins, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, trappin-2/elafin and macrophage inflammatory protein-3α are reportedly protective. Whilst certain factors directly inhibit HIV, others can be permissive. Interferon-λ3 exerts an anti-HIV function by activating Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription-mediated innate responses. Morphine has been found to impair intracellular innate immunity, contributing to HIV establishment in macrophages. Interestingly, protegrin-1 could be used therapeutically to inhibit early HIV-1 establishment. Moreover, chloroquine inhibits plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation and improves effective T-cell responses. This minireview summarizes the recently identified targets for innate immunity-mediated therapies and outlines the challenges that lie ahead in improving treatment of HIV infection.
  4. Thong KL, Tang SS, Tan WS, Devi S
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2007;51(11):1045-52.
    PMID: 18037781
    Polyclonal sera from typhoid patients and a monoclonal antibody, mAb ATVi, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen (ViCPS), were used to select for peptides that mimic the ViCPS by using a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library. Two major common mimotopes selected from the library carried the amino acid sequences TSHHDSHGLHRV and ENHSPVNIAHKL. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that these peptides carry mimotopes to ViCPS. Phage clones that contained the 12-mer peptides were also tested against pooled/individual typhoid patients' sera and found to have 3 to 5 times higher binding compared to normal sera. By using Phage-ELISA assays, the derived synthetic peptides, TSHHDSHGLHRV and ENHSPVNIAHKL, were tested against a monoclonal antibody mAb ATVi and over 2-fold difference in binding was found between these peptides and a control unrelated peptide, CTLTTKLYC. Inhibition of the mAb's binding to ViCPS indicated that the synthetic peptides successfully competed with the capsular polysaccharide for antibody binding.
  5. Yamagata J, Ahmed K, Khawplod P, Mannen K, Xuyen DK, Loi HH, et al.
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2007;51(9):833-40.
    PMID: 17895600
    The present study was done to determine the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus (RV) in Vietnam. The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes of RVs were amplified from the brains of ten rabid dogs of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The nucleotide sequences of these genes were compared with those of other Asian strains to find the possible relationship among them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Asian N gene segregated into three main branches, namely South-East Asia 1 (SEA 1), South-East Asia 2 (SEA 2) and Indian subcontinent (ISC) genotypes. The SEA 1 genotype comprised RVs from Malaysia, Vietnam and Thailand. The SEA 2 genotype contained strains from the Philippines, and the ISC genotype comprised strains from Sri Lanka and India. Phylogenetically G genes of RVs from Vietnam and Thailand were clustered together. Our study suggests that Vietnamese and Thai RVs are closely related and might have originated from a common ancestor.
  6. Tay ST, Rohani YM, Ho TM, Shamala D
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2005;49(1):67-71.
    PMID: 15665455
    The DNA sequences encompassing two hypervariable regions, VD II and III of the 56 kDa immunodominant protein gene of 21 Malaysian strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi were determined. Two strains demonstrated a 100% DNA homology with the Gilliam prototype strain, and one with TH1817 strain and TA678 strain respectively. High percentages of DNA similarity (95-99%) were observed with Karp (4 strains), Gilliam (2 strains), TH1817 (4 strains), TC586 (3 strains) and TA763 (1 strain). The remaining strains demonstrated the highest DNA similarity with TA763 (1 strain, 89%), TA678 (1 strain, 86%) and TA686 (1 strain, 87%). Our study provides additional evidence on the existence and the genetic heterogeneity of TA strains of the Southeast Asia and their closely related strains in Malaysia.
  7. Singh S, Poh CL, Chow VT
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2002;46(11):801-8.
    PMID: 12516778
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major aetiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, several outbreaks in East Asia were associated with neurological complications and numerous deaths. An outbreak in Singapore in October 2000 afflicted thousands of children, resulting in four fatal cases from three of whom EV71 was isolated. The genomes of two representative EV71 strains isolated from a fatal case and a surviving patient were completely sequenced, and their nucleotide and amino acid sequences compared with known EV71 strains. The two outbreak strains were classified under genogroup B, together with those previously isolated in Singapore, Malaysia and Japan. Comparative sequence analysis of the two Singapore strains revealed 99% nucleotide similarity, while their deduced amino acid sequences were almost identical except for residue 1506 in the 3A non-structural region. Given that the outbreak involved closely related genetic variants of EV71, the broad spectrum of disease severity may be attributed to critical factors such as varying viral inoculation doses or differing host immune responses following infection, but is less likely to be due to the emergence of EV71 strains with heightened virulence.
  8. Kurazono H, Yamasaki S, Ratchtrachenchai O, Nair GB, Takeda Y
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1996;40(4):303-5.
    PMID: 8709866
    Vibrio cholerae O139 isolated from different countries, as well as from different locations within a country, were examined using macrorestriction DNA analysis to determine the clonality of the O139 strains. NotI digests of genomic DNA of representative strains from Nepal, India, Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Malaysia revealed very similar but not identical patterns. Examinations of the banding patterns generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of strains isolated within countries revealed complete homogeneity. These results further reiterate the spread of an identical clone of V. cholerae O139 although it appears that genetic polymorphism among the O139 strains is becoming apparent.
  9. Pang T, Altwegg M, Martinetti G, Koh CL, Puthucheary S
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1992;36(5):539-43.
    PMID: 1513268
    Genetic variation among Malaysian isolates of Salmonella typhi was determined by analysis of ribosomal RNA gene restriction patterns. Of the 20 isolates analyzed, eight different pattern combinations were detected. The amount of variation observed was also dependent upon the restriction endonuclease used; PstI produced more different patterns than did SmaI. The results suggested that disease activity was due to a number of different clones circulating simultaneously rather than a single strain. Further implications of the data are discussed.
  10. Palillo ES, Salleh MA
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1992;36(11):1195-200.
    PMID: 1491621
    Four hundred and ninety-eight predominantly pyocin-type 10 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analyzed for resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, amikacin and netilmicin. Based on NCCLS-recommended MIC breakpoints, 245 strains were found to be resistant, of which 41.6% were resistant to carbenicillin, 38% to gentamicin, 37.8% to netilmicin, 26.3% to cefoperazone, 17.9% to cefotaxime, 0.6% to amikacin and none to ceftazidime. Quadruple resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, gentamicin and netilmicin was the most frequent pattern observed. Resistance to older antibiotics (kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline) and to mercuric chloride were also common. Conjugation experiments suggested that self-transmissible and non-transmissible plasmids occurred in at least 66 strains.
  11. Embi N, Suhaimi A, Mohamed R, Ismail G
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1992;36(8):899-904.
    PMID: 1474938
    Sera from 420 military personnel serving in Sabah and Sarawk, Malaysia, were tested for antibodies to Pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin and whole cell antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure (ELISA). Data showed that 54.4% of serum samples were positive for antibodies to P. pseudomallei exotoxin and 65.7% were positive for antibodies to the whole cell antigens. Samples gave much lower titers for anti-exotoxin antibodies compared to titers against crude whole cell antigens. The incidence of antibody to exotoxin was highest in the age groups ranging from 26 to 32 years, where the positive rates were higher than 40% and 30% for military personnel serving in Sarawak and Sabah, respectively.
  12. Yamashita T, Sakae K, Kobayashi S, Ishihara Y, Miyake T, Mubina A, et al.
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1995;39(6):433-5.
    PMID: 8551977
    Aichi virus was isolated in Vero cells from 5 (2.3%) of 222 Pakistani children with gastroenteritis but none was found in 91 healthy children. Aichi virus was also isolated from 5 (0.7%) of 722 Japanese travelers returned from tours to Southeast Asian countries and complained of gastrointestinal symptoms at the quarantine station of Nagoya International Airport in Japan. Of 5 Japanese travelers, 3 were returning from Indonesia, and 2 from Thailand or Malaysia. These results indicate that Aichi virus or a similar agent is endemic in Southeast Asian countries and is a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children in these areas or in Japanese travelers who visit there.
  13. Yoshida T, Kondo N, Hanifah YA, Hiramatsu K
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1997;41(9):687-95.
    PMID: 9343819
    We have previously reported the phenotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical strains isolated in Malaya University Hospital in the period 1987 to 1989 using antibiogram, coagulase typing, plasmid profiles, and phage typing. Here, we report the analysis of the same strains with three genotyping methods; ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and IS431 typing (a restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism analysis using an IS431 probe). Ribotyping could discriminate 46 clinical MRSA strains into 5 ribotypes, PFGE typing into 22 types, and IS431 typing into 15 types. Since the differences of the three genotyping patterns from strain to strain were quite independent from one another, the combined use of the three genotyping methods could discriminate 46 strains into 39 genotypes. Thus, the powerful discriminatory ability of the combination was demonstrated.
  14. Yusof WN, Nagaratnam M, Koh CL, Puthucheary S, Pang T
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1993;37(8):667-70.
    PMID: 8246829
    Human mononuclear cells pre-labeled with [3H]arachidonic acid were shown to release metabolites following in vitro addition of heat-killed Salmonella typhi (HKST). The amount of label released was significantly higher than that seen with live S. typhi (LST). Addition of increasing amounts of HKST resulted in an increased release of metabolites. Enzyme immunoassay of the culture supernatants revealed that the bulk of the metabolite released was prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) were not detectable in the culture supernatants. The significance and implications of these results are discussed.
  15. Zin K, Morita K, Igarashi A
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1995;39(8):581-90.
    PMID: 7494497
    We determined the 240-nucleotide sequences of the E/NS1 gene junction of four dengue-2 viruses by the primer extension dideoxy chain termination method. These viruses were isolated from dengue patients with different clinical severities in Nakhon Phanom, Northeastern Thailand in 1993. The results were compared with the 52 published dengue-2 sequences of the same gene region. Sequence divergence of four new isolates varied from 4.17% to 5.42% compared with dengue-2 prototype New Guinea C strain whereas it varied from 5.42% to 6.67% and from 6.67% to 7.09% when compared with Jamaica 1409 strain and PR159/S1 strain, respectively. All nucleotide substitutions were found at the 3rd position of the codons which were silent mutations. All 56 isolates studied were classified into five genotypic groups by constructing the dendrogram. The results indicated that four new isolates from Northeastern Thailand belong to genotype II of dengue virus serotype 2, and were most closely related to prototype New Guinea C strain. We also observed the variation in nucleotide and amino acid sequences among clusters of isolates (Thailand-1980, Malaysia-1989 and Thailand-1993) which were obtained from the dengue patients with different clinical severities. The significance of these genetic differences have been discussed in terms of the possible correlation between genetic variability and virulence.
  16. Ismail G, Razak N, Mohamed R, Embi N, Omar O
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1988;32(7):645-52.
    PMID: 3193910
    The effect of human normal serum (HNS) on Pseudomonas pseudomallei was determined. It is apparent from our data that the organism is resistant to the normal serum bactericidal mechanism. Ancillary experiments to confirm this serum-resistant property of P. pseudomallei were done by examining the effects of growth phase conditions of the bacteria (i.e., logarithmic and stationary phases) and different buffered systems used as diluent in our bactericidal assay. Results obtained showed similar degree of resistance to serum bactericidal killing by 5 strains of the organisms tested. The possible survival advantage of serum-resistance property to P. pseudomallei as bacterial pathogens known to invade the blood stream is discussed.
  17. Pang T, Devi S, Puthucheary S, Pawlowski N
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1991;35(3):267-71.
    PMID: 1870442
    Mouse macrophages pre-labeled with [3H]arachidonic acid (20:4) were shown to release metabolites generated by the lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase pathways following in vitro addition of heat-killed Salmonella typhi. These metabolites were maximally released after 60-90 min of incubation and consisted of prostaglandins (85%), leukotriene C (6%), di-HETEs, leukotrienes D and E (4%), mono-HETEs (2%) and other metabolites (3%). Of the metabolites generated by the cyclo-oxygenase pathway (prostaglandins), 6-keto PGF1 alpha and PGE2 were generated at a ratio of 1.2 to 1. The significance and importance of these results are discussed.
  18. Phipps M, Pang T, Koh CL, Puthucheary S
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1991;35(2):157-61.
    PMID: 1886492
    Seven (6.1%) of 115 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from Malaysian patients harbored a single large plasmid of 71 to 166 mD. Two of the seven plasmid-bearing strains were resistant to chloramphenicol (Cm) and tetracycline (Tc) and they transferred Cm and Tc resistance traits to Escherichia coli K12 at frequencies from 1.6 x 10(-7) to 1.9 x 10(-6). Agarose gel electrophoresis provided evidence that the resistance traits were cotransferred on a conjugative plasmid. The significance and importance of these results are discussed.
  19. Mohamed R, Nathan S, Embi N, Razak N, Ismail G
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1989;33(10):811-20.
    PMID: 2615673
    Pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin was found to be a potent inhibitor of protein and DNA synthesis in cultured macrophages. Inhibition of DNA synthesis occurred at toxin concentrations as low as 1-2 micrograms/ml and inhibition of 3H-thymidine uptake was almost complete at concentrations of 8 micrograms/ml or more. A close correlation between cell damage and inhibition by DNA synthesis was observed. For protein synthesis, inhibition was obtained at much lower doses (0.06-2.0 micrograms/ml) of the toxin. At similar toxin concentrations, DNA synthesis was marginally affected. Further, it was shown that protein synthesis inhibition occurred almost immediately after incubation, reaching its maximal inhibitory effect of 70% after 6 hr. DNA synthesis, however, was minimally affected by a similar toxin concentration even after 10 hr of incubation. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis in macrophages by P. pseudomallei exotoxin may be relevant to its modulatory effect on the host defense mechanism.
  20. Pang T, Devi S, Blanden RV, Lam SK
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1988;32(5):511-8.
    PMID: 3262810 DOI: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.1988.tb01411.x
    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to dengue virus-infected target cells is described. Effector cells were generated in an in vitro secondary culture and appeared to be T cells possessing both the Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 2.1 surface antigens. A stronger CTL response was noted with the H-2k haplotype compared to H-2d, and H-2 compatibility was required between CTL and target cells. CTL generated showed some cross-reactivity with target cells infected with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), another flavivirus, but not with target cells infected with an alphavirus, Sindbis. The significance and importance of these findings are discussed.
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