Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships.
Sandflies vary in their distributions and role in pathogen transmission. Attempts to record distributions of sandflies in Thailand have faced difficulties due to their high abundance and diversity. We aim to provide an insight into the diversity of sandflies in Thailand by (i) conducting a literature review, and (ii) DNA barcoding sandflies collected from Wihan Cave where eight morphologically characterized species were recorded. DNA barcodes generated for 193 sandflies fell into 13 distinct species clusters under four genera (Chinius, Idiophlebotomus, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia). Five of these species could be assigned Linnaean species names unambiguously and two others corresponded to characterized morphospecies. Two species represented a complex under the name Sergentomyia barraudi while the remaining four had not been recognized before in any form. The resulting species checklist and DNA barcode library contribute to a growing set of records for sandflies which is useful for monitoring and vector control.
We sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera diaphora (Diptera: Tephtitidae), which is an economically important pest in the southwest area of China, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Malaysia. This mitogenome is 15 890 bp in length with an A + T content of 74.103%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the inferred ancestral insects. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN codon, except cox1 that begins with TCG. Ten PCGs stop with termination codon TAA or TAG, whereas cox1, nad1 and nad5 have single T-- as the incomplete stop codon. All of the transfer RNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure except trnS1 (AGN) with a looping D-arm. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a length of 946 bp, and contains a 20 bp poly-T stretch and 22 bp poly-A stretch. Except the control region, the longest intergenic spacer is located between trnR and trnN that is 94 bp long with an excessive high A + T content (95.74%) and a microsatellite-like region (TA)13.
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Zebra moray, Gymnomuraena zebra (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,576 bp includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Zebra moray is 30.2% for A, 26.8% for C, 17.2% for G, and 25.8% for T and show 80% identities to Kidako moray, Gymnothorax kidako. The complete mitogenome of the Zebra moray provides an essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for moray eel phylogeny.
The complete mitochondrial genomes of two jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) were sequenced. DNA was extracted from tissue samples obtained from shed feathers collected in the field in Sri Lanka and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Personal Sequencer. Jungle crow mitogenomes have a structural organization typical of the genus Corvus and are 16,927 bp and 17,066 bp in length, both comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, and a non-coding control region. In addition, we complement already available house crow (Corvus spelendens) mitogenome resources by sequencing an individual from Singapore. A phylogenetic tree constructed from Corvidae family mitogenome sequences available on GenBank is presented. We confirm the monophyly of the genus Corvus and propose to use complete mitogenome resources for further intra- and interspecies genetic studies.
Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae), which was determined using next-generation sequencing. The mitochondrial genome is 16,344 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. It shows the typical pattern of bovine mitochondrial arrangement. Phylogenetic tree analysis of complete mtDNA sequences showed that Bornean banteng is more closely related to gaur than to other banteng subspecies. Divergence dating indicated that Bornean banteng and gaur diverged from their common ancestor approximately 5.03 million years ago. These results suggest that Bornean banteng might be a distinct species in need of conservation.
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the longfang moray, Enchelynassa canina (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The length of the assembled mitogenome is 16,592 bp, which includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of longfang moray is 28.4% for A, 28.0% for C, 18.4% for G, 25.1% for T, and show 82% identities to Kidako moray, Gymnothorax kidako. The complete mitogenome of the longfang moray provides an essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for moray eel phylogeny.
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of two moray eels of Gymnothorax formosus and Scuticaria tigrina (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome, with the length of 16,558 bp for G. formosus and 16,521 bp for S. tigrina, shows 78% identity to each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. The length of D-loop is 927 bp (G. formosus) and 850 bp (S. tigrina), which is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 45.5% for G. formosus and 47.9% for S. tigrina. Complete mitogenomes of G. formosus and S. tigrina provide essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for moray eel.
The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda.
The mitogenome of Paranephrops planifrons, was obtained by next generation sequencing. This crayfish has a mitochondrial genome of 16,174 base pairs with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and a non-coding AT-rich region of 771 bp. The P. planifrons nucleotide composition is: 33.63% for T, 21.92% for C, 34.46% for A, and 9.98% for G and has a 68.09% AT bias. While the mitogenome gene order for this species is consistent with aspects of the highly distinctive parastacid crayfish mitogenome gene arrangement, it has a novel gene order involving the rearrangements of a protein coding and several tRNA genes.
The mitogenome of an Australian sample of the mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was recovered from partial sequencing using the MiSeq sequencer. This mudskipper has a mitogenome of 16,506 base pairs (55% A + T content) made up of two ribosomal subunit genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 838 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first sequenced mitogenome for the genus Periophthalmus and the fifth for the subfamily Oxudercinae.
The complete mitogenome of the ray Taeniura lymma was recovered from genome skimming using the HiSeq sequencing system. The T. lymma mitogenome has 17,652 base pairs (59.13% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a 1906 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome sequence is the second for a ray from Australian waters, the first for the genus Taeniura and the ninth for the family Dasyatidae.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis, is presented, which is the fourth for genera of the superfamily Atyoidea and the first atyid from the southern hemisphere. The base composition of the P. australiensis, mitogenome is 33.55% for T, 18.24% for C, 35.16% for A, and 13.06% for G, with an AT bias of 71.58%. It has a mitogenome of 15,990 base pairs comprised of 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal subunit and 22 transfer RNAs genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome gene order for the species is typical for atyid shrimps, which conform to the primitive pan crustacean model.
The invasive freshwater crayfish Orconectes limosus mitogenome was recovered by genome skimming. The mitogenome is 16,223 base pairs in length consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The O. limosus mitogenome has an AT bias of 71.37% and base composition of 39.8% for T, 10.3% for C, 31.5% for A, and 18.4% for G. The mitogene order is identical to two other genera of northern hemisphere crayfish that have been sequenced for this organelle.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the commercially and ecologically important and internationally vulnerable giant clam Tridacna squamosa was recovered by genome skimming using the MiSeq platform. The T. squamosa mitogenome has 20,930 base pairs (62.35% A+T content) and is made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 24 transfer RNAs, and a 2594 bp non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome has a relatively large insertion in the atp6 gene. This is the first mitogenome to be sequenced from the genus Tridacna, and the family Tridacnidae and represents a new gene order.
The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus with the exception of the possible loss of the trnI gene.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the hermit crab Clibanarius infraspinatus was recovered by genome skimming using Next-Gen sequencing. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome has 16,504 base pairs (67.94% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a putative 1500 bp non-coding AT-rich region. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome sequence is the first for the family Diogenidae and the second for the superfamily Paguroidea and exhibits a translocation of the ND3 gene not previously reported for the Decapoda.
Next-Gen sequencing was used to recover the complete mitochondrial genome of Cherax tenuimanus. The mitogenome consists of 15,797 base pairs (68.14% A + T content) containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 779 bp non-coding AT-rich region. Mitogenomes have now been recovered for all six species of Cherax native to Western Australia.
The Austropotamobius pallipes complete mitogenome has been recovered using Next-Gen sequencing. Our sample of A. pallipes has a mitogenome of 15,679 base pairs (68.44% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 877 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome sequenced for a crayfish from the family Astacidae and the 4(th) for northern hemisphere genera.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Morton Bay bug, Thenus orientalis, is documented, which makes it the second mitogenome for species of the family Scyllaridae and the ninth for members of the superfamily Palinuroidae. Thenus orientalis has a mitogenome of 16,826 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the T. orientalis mitogenome is 31.31% for T, 23.77% for C, 31.05% for A, and 13.87% for G, with an AT bias of 62.36%. In addition to a duplicated trnS1 and several other tRNA gene rearrangements, the mitogenome gene order has novel protein coding gene order with the nad6 and cob genes translocated as a block to a location downstream of the nad3 gene.