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  1. Yap NJ, Koehler AV, Ebner J, Tan TK, Lim YA, Gasser RB
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2016 Feb;30(1):39-43.
    PMID: 26775614 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2016.01.002
    Despite the importance of the cattle industry in Malaysia, there are very few studies of the diversity and public health significance of bovine cryptosporidiosis in this country. In the present study, we used a PCR-based approach to detect and genetically characterize Cryptosporidium DNA in faecal samples from a cohort of 215 asymptomatic cattle (of different ages) from six farms from five states of Peninsular Malaysia. Cattle on four of the six farms were test-positive for Cryptosporidium, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium ryanae were detected in two (0.9%) and five (2.3%) samples tested; this low prevalence likely relates to the age of the cattle tested, as most (73%) of the samples tested originated from cattle that were ≥2 years of age. Future studies should investigate the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and weaned calves in rural communities of Malaysia.
  2. Lim YA, Mahdy MA, Tan TK, Goh XT, Jex AR, Nolan MJ, et al.
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2013 Feb;27(1):28-31.
    PMID: 22971518 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2012.08.006
    In the present study, 310 faecal samples from goats from eight different farms in Malaysia were tested for the presence of Giardia using a PCR-coupled approach. The nested PCR for SSU amplified products of the expected size (∼200 bp) from 21 of 310 (6.8%) samples. Sixteen of these 21 products could be sequenced successfully and represented six distinct sequence types. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU sequence data using Bayesian Inference (BI) identified Giardia assemblages A, B and E. The identification of the 'zoonotic' assemblages A and B suggests that Giardia-infected goats represent a possible reservoir for human giardiasis in Malaysia.
  3. Li MW, Lin RQ, Chen HH, Sani RA, Song HQ, Zhu XQ
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2007 Oct-Dec;21(5-6):349-54.
    PMID: 17532185
    Based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxocara malaysiensis and Toxascaris leonina, specific forward primers were designed in the ITS-1 or ITS-2 for each of the four ascaridoid species of dogs and cats. These primers were used individually together with a conserved primer in the large subunit of rDNA to amplify partial ITS-1 and/or ITS-2 of rDNA from 107 DNA samples from ascaridoids from dogs and cats in China, Australia, Malaysia, England and the Netherlands. This approach allowed their specific identification, with no amplicons being amplified from heterogeneous DNA samples, and sequencing confirmed the identity of the sequences amplified. The minimum amounts of DNA detectable using the PCR assays were 0.13-0.54ng. These PCR assays should provide useful tools for the diagnosis and molecular epidemiological investigations of toxocariasis in humans and animals.
  4. Nurul Najian AB, Foo PC, Ismail N, Kim-Fatt L, Yean CY
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2019 04;44:63-68.
    PMID: 30876924 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2019.03.001
    This study highlighted the performance of the developed integrated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with a colorimetric DNA-based magnetogenosensor. The biosensor operates through a DNA hybridization system in which a specific designed probe captures the target LAMP amplicons. We demonstrated the magnetogenosensor assay by detecting pathogenic Leptospira, which causes leptospirosis. The color change of the assay from brown to blue indicated a positive result, whereas a negative result was indicated by the assay maintaining its brown color. The DNA biosensor was able to detect DNA at a concentration as low as 200 fg/μl, which is equivalent to 80 genomes/reaction. The specificity of the biosensor assay was 100% when it was evaluated with 172 bacterial strains. An integrated LAMP and probe-specific magnetogenosensor was successfully developed, promising simple and rapid visual detection in clinical diagnostics and service as a point-of-care device.
  5. Mohd Ali MR, Mohd Safee AW, Ismail NH, Abu Sapian R, Mat Hussin H, Ismail N, et al.
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2018 04;38:1-6.
    PMID: 29524642 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcp.2018.03.001
    BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of leptospirosis is important for ensuring better clinical management and achieving better outcomes. Currently, serological assays suffer from inconsistent performance and are less useful for early diagnosis of leptospirosis. As an alternative, qPCR is more sensitive, specific and able to detect the presence of leptospiral DNA during the acute phase of the infection. Meanwhile, most molecular assays do not detect the non-pathogenic group of Leptospira, even though these groups may also infect humans, although less frequently and less severely.

    METHODS: A set of primers and probe targeting rrs genes of 22 Leptospira spp. were designed and evaluated on 31 Leptospira isolates, 41 other organisms and 65 clinical samples from suspected patients.

    RESULTS: The developed assay was able to detect as low as 20 fg Leptospira DNA per reaction (equivalent to approximately 4 copies) and showed high specificity against the tested leptospiral strains. No cross amplification was observed with the other organisms. During the evaluation of the confirmed clinical specimens, the developed assay was able to correctly identify all positive samples (n = 10/10). One amplification was observed in a negative sample (n = 1/55). The sequencing of the PCR product of the discordant sample revealed that the sequences were similar to those of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri.

    CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the developed Taqman qPCR assay is sensitive, specific and has potential to be applied in a larger subsequent study.

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