Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi.
Three new and one previously described species of Physalacria (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales) are reported from China. Specimens of two additional species described from Malaysia and North America were studied for comparison. Placements of these species were corroborated based on morphological observations and molecular evidence from partial sequences of the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and the 28S D1-D3 region, and genes for translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1α) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). These new species of Physalacria distributed in subtropical China were found on rotten wood of broadleaf trees or bamboo and possess stipitate-capitate basidiomata with four-spored basidia, clamp connections and smooth, inamyloid basidiospores. To facilitate studies of the genus in Asia, a key is provided for all Physalacria species reported from this region.
The genus Lentinus (Polyporaceae, Basidiomycota) is widely documented from tropical and temperate forests and is taxonomically controversial. Here we studied the relationships between Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (i.e. sections Lentinus, Tigrini, Dicholamellatae, Rigidi, Lentodiellum and Pleuroti and polypores that share similar morphological characters). We generated sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and partial 28S regions of nuc rDNA and genes encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), focusing on Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler and the Neofavolus group, combined these data with sequences from GenBank (including RPB2 gene sequences) and performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. We also evaluated the transition in hymenophore morphology between Lentinus, Neofavolus and related polypores with ancestral state reconstruction. Single-gene phylogenies and phylogenies combining ITS and 28S with RPB1 and RPB2 genes all support existence of a Lentinus/Polyporellus clade and a separate Neofavolus clade. Polyporellus (represented by P. arcularius, P. ciliatus, P. brumalis) forms a clade with species representing Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (1983), excluding L. suavissimus. Lentinus tigrinus appears as the sister group of Polyporellus in the four-gene phylogeny, but this placement was weakly supported. All three multigene analyses and the single-gene analysis using ITS strongly supported Polyporus tricholoma as the sister group of the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade; only the 28S rRNA phylogeny failed to support this placement. Under parsimony the ancestral hymenophoral configuration for the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade is estimated to be circular pores, with independent transitions to angular pores and lamellae. The ancestral state for the Neofavolus clade is estimated to be angular pores, with a single transition to lamellae in L. suavissimus. We propose that Lentinus suavissimus (section Pleuroti) should be reclassified as Neofavolus suavissimus comb. nov.
Mycena illuminans Henn. is described and re-evaluated based on recently collected material from peninsular Malaysia, providing comprehensive descriptions, illustrations and photographs. In addition to morphological data, axenic monokaryon and dikaryon cultures were established to provide data on culture morphology and the mating system of the species. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear large subunit (LSU) gene also are presented, confirming that M. illuminans is not a synonym of Mycena chlorophos.
Psidium guajava wilt is known from South Africa, Malaysia and Taiwan. The fungus causing this disease, Myxosporium psidii, forms dry chains of conidia on surfaces of pseudoparenchymatous sporodochia, which develop in blisters on bark. Similar sporodochia are characteristic of Nalanthamala madreeya, the type species of Nalanthamala. Nalanthamala, therefore, is the appropriate anamorph genus for Myxosporium psidii, while Myxosporium is a nomen nudum (based on M. croceum). For M. psidii the combination Nalanthamala psidii is proposed. Nalanthamala psidii, the palm pathogen Gliocladium (Penicillium) vermoesenii, another undescribed anamorphic species from palm, two species of Rubrinectria and the persimmon pathogen Acremonium diospyri are monophyletic and belong to the Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) based on partial nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) analyses. Rubrinectria, therefore, is the teleomorph of Nalanthamala, in which the anamorphs are classified as N. vermoesenii, N. diospyri or Nalanthamala sp. Nalanthamala squamicola, the only other Nalanthamala species, has affinities with the Bionectriaceae and is excluded from this group. Rubrinectria/Nalanthamala species form dimorphic conidiophores and conidia in culture. Fusiform, cylindrical, or allantoid conidia arise in colorless liquid heads on acremonium-like conidiophores; ovoidal conidia with somewhat truncated ends arise in long, persistent, dry chains on penicillate conidiophores. No penicillate but irregularly branched conidiophores were observed in N. diospyri. Conidia of N. psidii that are held in chains are shorter than those of N. madreeya, of which no living material is available. Nalanthamala psidii and N. diospyri are pathogenic specifically to their hosts. They form pale yellow to pale orange or brownish orange colonies, respectively, and more or less white conidial masses. Most strains of Rubrinectria sp., Nalanthamala sp. and N. vermoesenii originate from palm hosts, form mostly greenish or olive-brown colonies and white-to-salmon conidial masses. They form a monophyletic clade to which Nalanthamala psidii and N. diospyri are related based on analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions and 5.8S rDNA (ITS rDNA), LSU rDNA, and partial beta-tubulin gene. Few polymorphic sites in the ITS rDNA and beta-tubulin gene indicate that Nalanthamala psidii comprises two lineages, one of which has been detected only in South Africa.
Four new species of Stigmatomyces (Ascomycetes, Laboulbeniales, Stigmatomycetinae) parasitic on flies (Diptera) are described. These are S. benjaminii, parasitic on Spilochroa polita (Trixoscelididae) from Mexico, S. munarii, parasitic on Trixoscelis namibensis (Trixoscelididae) from Namibia, S. neurochaetae parasitic on Neurochaeta parviceps (Neurochaetidae) from Malaysia, and S. zaleae, parasitic on Zalea spp. (Tethinidae) from Australia. Both Trixoscelididae and Neurochaetidae are new host families for Laboulbeniales.
Armillaria root rot is a serious disease, chiefly of woody plants, caused by many species of Armillaria that occur in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Very little is known about Armillaria in South America and Southeast Asia, although Armillaria root rot is well known in these areas. In this study, we consider previously unidentified isolates collected from trees with symptoms of Armillaria root rot in Chile, Indonesia and Malaysia. In addition, isolates from basidiocarps resembling A. novae-zelandiae and A. limonea, originating from Chile and Argentina, respectively, were included in this study because their true identity has been uncertain. All isolates in this study were compared, based on their similarity in ITS sequences with previously sequenced Armillaria species, and their phylogenetic relationship with species from the Southern Hemisphere was considered. ITS sequence data for Armillaria also were compared with those available at GenBank. Parsimony and distance analyses were conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the unknown isolates and the species that showed high ITS sequence similarity. In addition, IGS-1 sequence data were obtained for some of the species to validate the trees obtained from the ITS data set. Results of this study showed that the ITS sequences of the isolates obtained from basidiocarps resembling A. novae-zelandiae are most similar to those for this species. ITS sequences for isolates from Indonesia and Malaysia had the highest similarity to A. novae-zelandiae but were phylogenetically separated from this species. Isolates from Chile, for which basidiocarps were not found, were similar in their ITS and IGS-1 sequences to the isolate from Argentina that resembled A. limonea. These isolates, however, had the highest ITS and IGS-1 sequence similarity to authentic isolates of A. luteobubalina and were phylogenetically more closely related to this species than to A. limonea.
A gasteroid bolete collected recently in Sarawak on the island of Borneo is described as the new species Spongiforma squarepantsii. A comprehensive description, illustrations, phylogenetic placement and a comparison with a closely allied species are provided.
Setosphaeria rostrata, a common plant pathogen causing leaf spot disease, affects a wide range of plant species, mainly grasses. Fungi were isolated from brown spots on rice leaves throughout Peninsular Malaysia, and 45 isolates were identified as Setosphaeria rostrata The isolates were then characterized using morphological and molecular approaches. The mating type was determined using PCR amplification of the mating type alleles, and isolates of opposite mating types were crossed to examine sexual reproduction. Based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (ITS) and beta-tubulin (BT2) sequences, two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum likelihood method; S. rostrata was clustered in one well-supported clade. Pathogenicity tests showed that S. rostrata isolates are pathogenic, suggesting that it is the cause of the symptoms. Mating-type analyses indicated that three isolates carried the MAT1-1 allele, and the other 42 isolates carried MAT1-2 After isolates with opposite mating types were crossed on Sach's medium and incubated for 3 wk, six crosses produced pseudothecia that contained eight mature ascospores, and 12 other crosses produced numerous pseudothecia with no ascospores. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. rostrata isolated from leaf spots on rice.
Some Amanita specimens collected from Malaysia are critically investigated by morphological examination and molecular analysis of two gene fragments, the nuc rDNA partial 28S (28S) gene and the internal transcriber spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) regions. Six phylogenetic species of Amanita section Caesareae are recognized among the studied collections. One of them is described as new, A. malayensis. Four of the phylogenetic species correspond with existing morphology-based taxa: A. aporema, A. javanica, A. princeps, and A. similis. The remaining species is not described because of the paucity of material. Detailed descriptions and the distribution of these southeastern Asian species are provided, along with a key to the species of section Caesareae from Malaysia.
Three new species and one new variety of bioluminescent Mycena collected from Peninsular Malaysia are described herein. All new species belong to Mycena sect. Calodontes in what is known as the Mycena pura complex. Comprehensive descriptions, photographs, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, including the 5.8S rRNA) were used to infer relationships within sect. Calodontes. Axenic cultures were obtained to provide data on culture morphology. This is the first published photographic documentation of bioluminescent basidiomes of members of Mycena sect. Calodontes. Also, this addition brings the total known bioluminescent fungi to 77 species.
Seven species of Mycena are reported as luminescent, representing specimens collected in Belize, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Japan (Bonin Islands), Malaysia (Borneo) and Puerto Rico. Four of them represent new species (Mycena luxaeterna, M. luxarboricola, M. luxperpetua, M. silvaelucens) and three represent new reports of luminescence in previously described species (M. aff. abieticola, M. aspratilis, M. margarita). Mycena subepipterygia is synonymized with M. margarita, and M. chlorinosma is proposed as a possible synonym. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. A redescription of M. chlorophos, based on analyses of type specimens and recently collected topotypical material, is provided. The addition of these seven new or newly reported luminescent species of Mycena brings the total to 71 known bioluminescent species of fungi.
Hydnangium echinulatum, described originally from a single specimen collected in Malaysia, has been recollected, and based on morphological and molecular characters is recognized as representing a new gasteroid genus of boletes with affinities to the Boletineae, herein named Durianella. Diagnostic features include an epigeous, ovoid, pyramidal-warted, durian fruit-like basidiome with gelatinized glebal locules and a columella that turns indigo blue upon exposure, and subglobose basidiospores with long, curved, thin-walled and collapsible spines. A redescription, phylogenetic analysis and comparison with allied taxa are presented.
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi infect the cuticle of fruit, including apple fruit, and produce pigmented colonies. A new member of this fungal complex in the genus Peltaster is described on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence. The SBFS complex is a diverse group of ectophytic fungi that reside primarily within the order Capnodiales. Sooty blotch and flyspeck isolates from apple orchards in the central United States were subjected to parsimony and Bayesian analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuc rDNA, the partial translation elongation factor 1-α gene, and the partial mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis delineated a new species, Peltaster gemmifer, from P. cerophilus and P. fructicola. Peltaster gemmifer conidiophores bear primary conidia that produce secondary conidia either through budding or through microcyclic conidiation; these were not seen in cultures of P. cerophilus and P. fructicola. On cellulose membrane that was placed on water agar amended with apple juice, P. gemmifer produced brown to black pycnothyria in a superficial brownish mycelial mat, similar to the colonies produced on apple fruit. Findings from the present study add to the >80 named and putative SBFS species so far described worldwide.