The essential oils from the leaves, pseudostems, rhizomes and fruits of Alpinia rafflesiana were isolated by hydrodistillation. The oils were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The most abundant components in the leaf oil were trans-caryophyllene (32.61%), caryophyllene oxide (8.67%), (2E,6Z)-farnesol (4.91%) and alpha-terpineol (4.25%), while 1,8-cineole (32.25%), myrcene (13.63%), alpha-terpineol (9.90%) and trans-caryophyllene (9.80%) were the main constituents in the pseudostem oil. The rhizome constituted of tetracosane (42.61%), tau-cadinol (7.46%), alpha-terpineol (6.71%) were the major components, whereas tetracosane (13.39%), (2E,6E)-farnesol (7.31%), alpha-terpineol (8.51%) and caryophyllene oxide (8.05%) were the main components in the fruit oil. Antimicrobial assay revealed that all the essential oils showed moderate to weak inhibition against the tested microorganisms. The leaf oil was the most active and inhibited both S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 7.81 microg/mL and 15.6 microg/mL, respectively.
The stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae) yielded 6-methoxy-7-methyl-8-hydroxydibenz[b,f]oxepin, alpha-amyrin acetate, beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside, 4-(2'-Hydroxyphenethyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylphenol, menisdaurin and sequoyitol. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and comparisons with the literature data. For the antimicrobial assay Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains were tested, while the tyrosinase inhibition assay utilized L-DOPA as a substrate for the tyrosinase enzyme. 6-Methoxy-7-methyl-8-hydroxydibenz[b,f]oxepin, a-amyrin acetate, beta-sitosterol 3-O-D-xylopyranoside, menisdaurin and sequoyitol showed weak to moderate activities with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values in the range of 112.5-900 microg/mL against all bacterial strains, while the MIC values for the fungal strains were in the range of 28.1-450 microg/mL. In the tyrosinase inhibition assay, a-amyrin acetate was found to be moderately active against tyrosinase with an inhibition of 62% at 0.1 mg/mL. This activity was lower than that of the positive control, kojic acid (85%).
The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components.
From the extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a diterpene glycoside was isolated which was identified as 13-[(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1). The complete 1H and 13C NMR assignment of 1 is reported for the first time, from extensive NMR (1H and 13C, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectral data. Also, we report the sensory evaluation of 1 against sucrose for the sweetness property of this molecule.
This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from Piper officinarum C. DC. GC and GC/MS analysis of the leaf and stem oils showed forty one components, representing 85.6% and 93.0% of the oil, respectively. The most abundant components in the leaf oil were beta-caryophyllene (11.2%), alpha-pinene (9.3%), sabinene (7.6%), beta-selinene (5.3%) and limonene (4.6%), while beta-caryophyllene (10.9%), alpha-phellandrene (9.3%), linalool (6.9%), limonene (6.7%) and alpha-pinene (5.0%) were the main components of the stem oil. The antioxidant activities were determined by using complementary tests: namely beta-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic assays. The stems oil showed weak activity (IC50 = 777.4 microg/mL) in the DPPH system, but showed moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system (88.9 +/- 0.35%) compared with BHT (95.5 +/- 0.30%). Both oils showed weak activity against P. aeruginosa and E. coli with M IC values of 250 microg/mL.
Five flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-(6:7,3':4')-di(2,2-dimethylpyrano)flavone 1, carpachromene 2, cycloartocarpesin 3, norartocarpetin 4 and 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 5, along with three triterpenes, friedelin 6, lupeol 7 and 13-sitosterol 8 were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Artocarpus fulvicortex F.M. Jarrett. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison of these with those reported in the literature.
In the present study phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Horsfieldia superba led to the isolation of twenty compounds (1-20), of which three (1-3) were new. However, compounds 2 and 3 were previously reported as synthetic alpha,beta-lactones. The compounds were characterized as (-)-3,4',7-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavan (1), (-)-5,6-dihydro-6-undecyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2), and (-)-5,6-dihydro-6-tridecyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3). Seventeen other known compounds were also isolated and identified as (-)-viridiflorol (4), hexacosanoic acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6), methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (methylorsellinate) (7), methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoate (8), (-)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavan (9), (-)-4',7-dihydroxyflavan (10), (-)-4',7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavan (11), (+)-3,4',7-trihydroxyflavan (12), (-)-catechin (13), (-)-epicatechin (14), (-)-7-hydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan (15), 2',3,4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone (16), 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (17), (+)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (18), hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) (19) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (20). The structures of the compounds were fully characterized by various physical methods (melting point, optical rotation), spectral (UV, IR, ID and 2D NMR) and mass spectrometric techniques. In vitro assay of compounds 2 and 3 demonstrated moderate cytotoxic activities against human prostate (PC-3), colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells, while the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of H. superba were found to exhibit moderate AChE inhibitory activity (IC50 72 and 60 microg/mL).
The chemical compositions of the essential oil of the rhizome, leaf and stem of Hornstedtia leonurus Retz., collected from Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia,are reported for the first time. The essential oils were extracted using hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventeen (96.4%), thirteen (89.2%) and nine components (98.8%) were successfully identified from the rhizome, stem and leaf oils, respectively. Phenylpropanoids were found to be the major fraction, with methyleugenol being the most abundant compound in all oils with percentage compositions of 76.4% (rhizome), 80.3% (stem) and 74.5% (leaf).
The antibacterial efficiency of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. was investigated against pathogenic bacteria responsible for common infections of skin, and urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The extract demonstrated antibacterial activities against all the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. The results obtained suggested that at higher concentrations the extract would eradicate the growth of bacterial cells. The bacterial cells, after exposure to the extract, showed complete alteration in their morphology, followed by collapse of the cells beyond repair. The study revealed that the methanolic extract of P. niruri may be an effective antibacterial agent to treat bacterial infections since the extract exhibited significant antimicrobial potency, comparable with that of the standard antibiotic chloramphenicol.
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), belonging to a class of triterpenes, is a conjugate of two molecules, namely glucuronic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. It is naturally extracted from the roots of licorice plants. With its more common uses in the confectionery and cosmetics industry, GA extends its applications as a herbal medicine for a wide range of ailments. At low appropriate doses, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antimicrobial and anti-viral properties have been reported by researchers worldwide. This review summarizes the effects of GA on metabolic syndrome, tumorigenesis, microbes and viruses, oxidative stress, and inflammation, as well as the reported side effects of the drug.
In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is mediated by a geraniin containing extract. Furthermore, our data leads us to conclude that geraniin could be used as a potential pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic topical agent.
A Bomean red algal population of Laurencia similis Nam et Saito was analyzed for its secondary metabolite composition. Seven compounds were identified: ent-1(10)-aristolen-9beta-ol (1), (+)-aristolone (2), axinysone B (3), 9-aristolen-1alpha-ol (4), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromoindole (5), 1-methyl-2,3,5,6-tetrabromoindole (6), and 1-methyl-2,3,5-tribromoindole (7). Compound 1 was identified as a new optical isomer of 1(10)-aristolen-9beta-ol. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 exhibited good antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant clinical bacteria and cytotoxic effects against selected cancer cell lines.
Two new phloroglucinol derivatives, identified as anthuminoate (1) and anthuminone (2), were isolated from the ichthyotoxic ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. In addition, bioassay-guided fractionation followed by dereplication of the photocytotoxic fraction of this plant part has resulted in the identification of five known pheophorbides as the bioactive constituents. The compounds were identified as pheophorbide-a, methyl pheophorbide-a, methyl hydroxypheophorbide-a, pheophorbide-b and hydroxypheophorbide-b. Inhibition of cell viability shown by the compounds ranged from 83.3 to 86.1% at a test concentration of 5 microg/mL. This shows that Syzygium polyanthum leaves are a potential new source in the studies of photocytotoxicity for photodynamic therapy.
Patchouli essential oil can be obtained from fresh, dried and fermented plant material. It is a highly valuable product in the fragrance industry and its quality changes depending upon raw material age and oil storage. In this work, patchouli essential oils derived from different treatments have been subjected to GC-FID quantitative analysis using an internal standard (ISTD) method with response factors (RF). Samples were obtained from i) fresh plants; ii) hydrodistillation of one year mature and fermented plants; iii) hydrodistillation of one year mature plants; iv) commercial products from Indonesia and Malaysia. Linear Retention Indices (LRI) for both polar and non-polar GC-MS analyses were also measured as a tool for qualitative analysis towards a homologous series of C7-C30 n-alkanes. The results obtained confirmed that, in all samples, patchouli alcohol was the main volatile constituent, with higher amount in lab-scale produced oils, compared with commercial samples. Other major compounds, in lab oils and commercial samples respectively, were: delta-guaiene, alpha-guaiene, pogostol, seychellene and alpha-patchoulene. Another 36 compounds were also found.
A crude methanol extract of Goniothalamus andersonii J. Sinclair strongly inhibited elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) radicles. We conducted bioassay-guided purification of G. andersonii bark extract and obtained goniothalamin as the major bioactive compound. Its EC50 values against elongation of lettuce radicles and hypocotyls were 50 and 125 micromol L(-1), respectively. Among the six species tested, timothy was the most sensitive to goniothalamin. Quantification of this compound in other Goniothalamus species suggested that the plant inhibitory activity of this genus is explainable by goniothalamin, with G. calcareus as an exception.
Two new naphthoquinones designated as 3alpha-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yI)-9alpha-methoxy-2,3,3alpha,9alpha-tetra-hydronaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (callicarpa-quinone A, 1) and 5-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (callicarpaquinone B, 2) were isolated from the chloroform fraction of Callicarpa maingayi. Three other known compounds, identified as avicequinone-C (3), wodeshiol (4) and paulownin (5), were reported for the first time from this species. The structure elucidation of compounds was established by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses as well as EIMS, UV and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer MCF-7cells. Compound 2 exhibited strong cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 1.9 +/- 0.2 microM, while 1 showed moderate activity with an IC50 value of 25.0 +/- 4.3 microM.
The composition of the essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng, cultivated at six locations in Peninsula Malaysia and Borneo are presented. The oils were obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); 61 compounds were identified, of which eleven were present in all the specimens analyzed. The two major volatile metabolites were identified as beta-caryophyllene (16.6-26.6%) and alpha-humulene (15.2-26.7%) along with nine minor compounds identified as beta-elemene (0.3-1.3%), aromadendrene (0.5-1.5%), beta-selinene (3.8-6.5%), spathulenol (0.6-2.7%), caryophyllene oxide (0.7-3.6%), viridiflorol (1.5-5.5%), 2-naphthalenemethanol (0.7-4.8%), trivertal (0.1-1.0%) and juniper camphor (2.6-8.3%). The results suggest that beta-caryophyllene and alpha-humulene could be used as chemotaxonomical markers for Malaysian M. koenigii, hence these specimens could be of the same stock and different from the ones in India, Thailand and China.
Phytochemical studies of the leaves and rhizomes of Paraboea pa niculata (Gesneriaceae) are reported for the first time. Three phenylethanoid glycosides were isolated and characterized as 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl-(3"-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, calceoralarioside E, and acteoside. These isolates exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against the K-562 cell line with a 50% of cell killing rate of 40.18 microM, 27.05 microM, and 27.24 microM, respectively. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, their IC50 values were determined as 75.89 microM, 25.00 microM, and 26.04 microM, respectively.
Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the rhizomes of Etlingera pyramidosphaera (K. Schum.) R. M. Sm, E. megalocheilos (Griff.) A.D. Poulsen, comb. nov., E. coccinea (Blume) S. Sakai & Nagam, E. elatior (Jack) R. M. Sm, and E. brevilabrum (Valeton) R. M. Sm were analyzed by GCMS. The highest oil yield was obtained from E. pyramidosphaera (0.45%), followed by E. elatior (0.38%), E. coccinea (0.30%), E. brevilabrum (0.28%) and E. megalocheilos (0.25%). The major constituents of the essential oils were oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, oxygenated diterpenes and diterpenes. The essential oils from E. pyramidosphaera and E. brevilabrum exhibited the best cytotoxicity against MCF 7 (LC50: 7.5 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1)) and HL 60 (LC50: 5.0 mg mL(-1)), respectively. Strong inhibition was also observed for the essential oils of E. coccinea and E. megalocheilos against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 8.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1), and 5.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1)) and Streptococcus pyrogenes (MIC: 6.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1) and 8.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1)).