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  1. Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Trakht I, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP, Maestroni GJ
    Neuroimmunomodulation, 2008;15(2):93-101.
    PMID: 18679047 DOI: 10.1159/000148191
    Melatonin is not only synthesized by the pineal gland but also in many other organs and tissues of the body, particularly by lymphoid organs such as the bone marrow, thymus and lymphocytes. Melatonin participates in various functions of the body, among which its immunomodulatory role has assumed considerable significance in recent years. Melatonin has been shown to be involved in the regulation of both cellular and humoral immunity. Melatonin not only stimulates the production of natural killer cells, monocytes and leukocytes, but also alters the balance of T helper (Th)-1 and Th-2 cells mainly towards Th-1 responses and increases the production of relevant cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-gamma. The regulatory function of melatonin on immune mechanisms is seasonally dependent. This fact may in part account for the cyclic pattern of symptom expression shown by certain infectious diseases, which become more pronounced at particular times of the year. Moreover, melatonin-induced seasonal changes in immune function have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder and rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical significance of the seasonally changing immunomodulatory role of melatonin is discussed in this review.
  2. Gao M, Qu K, Zhang W, Wang X
    Neuroimmunomodulation, 2021;28(2):90-98.
    PMID: 33774633 DOI: 10.1159/000513297
    INTRODUCTION: Pediatric patients with epilepsy are prone to cognitive impairments during growth and long-term use of most antiepileptic drugs (AED). The affected children do not respond to conventional AED and may require novel drugs to manage the disease. Valproic acid, a first-line drug to treat epilepsy, is associated with serious side effects, which precludes its wider use. Thus, in the present study, we intended to develop novel substituted pyrazoles.

    METHODS: The molecules were tested for anticonvulsive activity in Swiss albino mice via maximal electroshock seizure and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole assays. The most potent molecule among the class was further assayed for its effect on behavioral and CNS depressant activity. The effect of the most potent compounds was also analyzed on various indices of oxidative stress and inflammation in mice.

    RESULTS: The designed compounds showed significant anticonvulsive activity in mice revealing 7h as the most potent anticonvulsive agent. The most potent anticonvulsant molecule 7h further showed no behavioral alteration and considerable CNS depressant activity. It also reduces the level of oxidative stress and inflammation in the mice.

    CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated utility of pyrazole derivatives as anticonvulsants against epilepsy.

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