This study investigated the association between self-efficacy and self-care behavior to determine the degree of self-efficacy and to examine differences in self-efficacy according to patient variables, including state of health, of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes. The sample comprised 388 patients (respondents). We collected the data from December 2010 to February 2011. We found a significant positive relationship between self-efficacy and self-care behavior (r(s) = 0.481, P < 0.001). The degree of self-efficacy was moderately high (mean = 7.570). We found significant differences between self-efficacy and education level (Wilk's Lambda = 0.918, F[12, 1008] = 2.779, P < 0.05), duration of diabetes (Wilk's Lambda = 0.954, F[8, 736] = 2.264, P < 0.05), other chronic conditions (Wilk's Lambda = 0.967, F[4, 383] = 3.304, P < 0.05) and diabetic complications (Wilk's Lambda = 0.963, F[4, 383] = 3.653, P < 0.05). Self-efficacy can be used as a model to understand self-care behavior. Individualized nursing interventions based on self-efficacy theory should be utilized in high risk diabetic patients so as to assist and improve self-care behavior.
The fatigue that is observed in patients who are undergoing dialysis is usually associated with an impaired quality of life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009 in three hemodialysis units in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Depression Anxiety and Stress Score 21 were used to determine the level of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress of patients who were undergoing dialysis. The data were obtained from a calculated sample of 116 and a total of 103 respondents participated in the study. A total of 56 (54.4%) and 47 (45.6%) respondents experienced a high level and a low level of fatigue, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the duration of treatment and the level of fatigue. The respondents who had been receiving treatment for > 2 years experienced more fatigue, compared to the respondents who had been undergoing hemodialysis for > 2 years. There was a significant difference in relation to the age of the participants regarding the level of fatigue. No significant relationship between the sex of the participants, anemia, depression, anxiety, stress, and the level of fatigue was observed. Special attention needs to be paid to both the younger and older adults who are receiving treatment. In addition, proper planning is needed for the patients regarding their daily activities in order to reduce fatigue. Nurses who work in hemodialysis units are recommended to provide exercise classes or group therapy in order to boost the energy levels among patients who are undergoing dialysis. Health professionals should provide appropriate treatment for patients who are experiencing fatigue in order to prevent any other complications that could arise.
Non-specific low back pain (NS-LBP) is known to cause respiratory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated alterations in breathing, respiratory strength and endurance, core stability, diaphragm mobility, and chest expansion among patients with NS-LBP and healthy individuals. The specific aim of the study was to correlate between respiratory function and other variables among NS-LBP patients. Thirty four patients with NS-LBP were matched with 34 healthy participants before undergoing total faulty breathing scale, spirometer, respiratory pressure meter, chest expansion, ultrasound, and pressure biofeedback measurements. There were signs of faulty breathing in the NS-LBP patients when compared to the healthy participants. Diaphragmatic mobility and respiratory muscle endurance were lower in the NS-LBP group. Chest expansion exhibited a significant decrease at the level of the fourth intercostal space in the NS-LBP group, but respiratory muscle strength and core stability were not significant between the two groups. Positive correlations were found to be fairly significant regarding respiratory muscle strength. The findings of this study indicated altered respiratory characteristics in the NS-LBP patients, and suggested that they would improve through respiratory exercises.