METHODS: Twenty-four male, 8-week old Sprague Dawley rats with an initial weight of 160 to 200 g were randomised into three groups (n = 6 for each group): groups A (standard rat chow), B (high-fat, high-sucrose diet), and C (high-fat, high-sucrose diet + 100 mg/kg/d of glycyrrhizic acid via oral administration). The rats were treated accordingly for 4 wk. Glycaemic parameters, lipid profile, stress hormones, and adiponectin levels were measured after the treatment. Relative gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, lipoprotein lipase as well as gluconeogenic enzymatic activities in different tissues were also determined.
RESULTS: Consumption of high-fat, high-sucrose diet triggered hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, which were effectively attenuated by supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid supplementation also effectively reduced circulating adrenaline, alleviated gluconeogenic enzymes overactivity, and promoted the upregulation of lipoprotein lipase expression in the cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscles. A high calorie diet also triggered hypoadiponectinaemia and suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, which did not improve with glycyrrhizic acid treatment.
CONCLUSION: Supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid could alleviate high calorie diet-induced glucose and lipid metabolic dysregulations by reducing circulatory stress hormones, normalizing gluconeogenic enzyme activities, and elevating muscular lipid uptake. The beneficial effects of these bioactivities outweighed the adverse effects caused by diet-induced repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, resulting in the maintenance of lipid and glucose homeostasis.
METHODS: Noni leaves (three doses) and black tea water extracts were fed to ovariectomized rats for 4 mo, and their effects (analyzed via mechanical measurements, micro-computed tomography scan, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction mRNA) were compared with Remifemin (a commercial phytoestrogen product from black cohosh).
RESULTS: The water extracts (dose-dependently for noni leaves) increased bone regeneration biomarker (runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein 2, osteoprotegerin, estrogen receptor 1 [ESR1], collagen type I alpha 1A) expressions and reduced the inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor [NF]-κB, and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand) mRNA expressions/levels in the rats. The extracts also improved bone physical and mechanical properties. The extracts demonstrated bone regeneration through improving bone size and structure, bone mechanical properties (strength and flexibility), and bone mineralization and density.
CONCLUSIONS: The catechin-rich extract favored bone regeneration and suppressed bone resorption. The mechanisms involved enhancing osteoblast generation and survival, inhibiting osteoclast growth and activities, suppressing inflammation, improving bone collagen synthesis and upregulating ESR1 expression to augment phytoestrogenic effects. Estrogen deficiency bone loss and all extracts studied (best effect from Morinda leaf at 300 mg/kg body weight) mitigated the loss, indicating benefits for the aged and menopausal women.
METHODS: A systematic review and Delphi consensus panel (consisting of eight8 international pediatric allergists and gastroenterologists) was conducted to evaluate evidence supporting growth, tolerability, and effectiveness of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants.
RESULTS: None of the studies reviewed identified potential harm of pHF use compared with CMP in non-exclusively breastfed infants. There was an expert consensus that pHF use is likely as safe as intact CMP formula, given studies suggesting these have comparable nutritional parameters. No high-quality studies were identified evaluating the use of pHF to prevent allergic disease in non-exclusively breastfed infants who are not at risk for allergic disease (e.g., lacking a parental history of allergy). Limited data suggest that pHF use in non-exclusively breastfed infants may be associated with improved gastric emptying, decreased colic incidence, and other common functional gastrointestinal symptoms compared with CMP. However, because the data are of insufficient quality, the findings from these studies have to be taken with caution. No studies were identified that directly compared the different types of pHF, but there was an expert consensus that growth, allergenicity, tolerability, effectiveness, and clinical role among such pHF products may differ.
CONCLUSIONS: Limited data exist evaluating routine use of pHFs in non-exclusively breastfed infants, with no contraindications identified in the systematic review. An expert consensus considers pHFs for which data were available to be as safe as CMP formula as growth is normal. The preventive effect on allergy of pHF in infants who are not at risk for allergic disease has been poorly studied. Cost of pHF versus starter formula with intact protein differs from country to country. However, further studies in larger populations are needed to clinically confirm the benefits of routine use of pHF in non-exclusively breastfed infants. These studies should also address potential consumer preference bias.
METHOD: The meta-analysis included all studies that examined the effect of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements on one or more renal function parameters and had a control group. We searched July 1967 through to March 2016 MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases.
RESULTS: Of 437 studies, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. GFR levels tended to be reduced; whereas creatinine levels increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group, both in a non-significant manner. The pooled effect on BUN demonstrated a significant decline compared with the placebo group (MD, -1.72 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.93 to -0.51; P = 0.005). Urea significantly decreased after intervention (-0.46 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.32; P <0.0001). The UA levels significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (12.28 µmol/L; 95% CI, 0.85-23.71; P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant increase in UA and a decrease in urea and BUN. The use of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements among those with compromised renal function or those at risk for renal failure should be limited until large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials prove the safety and efficacy of these supplements in improving renal function.
METHODS: Reasons for EN FI identified from extensive literature review were prospectively collected in adult mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Results were reported by descriptive statistics. Baseline and nutritional characteristics between patients who died and those alive at day 60 were compared.
RESULTS: A total of 148 patients receiving ≥1 day of EN for the full 12-day observational period were included in the analysis. About 332 episodes of EN FI were recorded and contributed to 12.8% (4190 hours) of the total 1367 evaluable nutrition days. For each patient, FI occurred for a median of 3 days and the total duration of FI for the entire ICU stay was 24.5 hours. Median energy and protein deficits per patient due to FI for the entire ICU stay were -1780.23 kcal and -100.58 g, respectively. Duration of FI, days with FI, and the amount of energy and protein deficits due to FI were not different between patients who had died and those who were still alive at day 60 (all P > 0.05). About 72% of the total duration of EN FI was due to procedural-related and potentially avoidable causes (primarily human factors), while only about 20% was due to feeding intolerances.
CONCLUSIONS: EN FI occurred primarily due to human factors, which may be minimized by adherence to an evidence-based feeding protocol as determined by a nutrition support team.
METHODS: Item selection for the FFQ was based on explained variation and contribution to intake of energy and 24 nutrients. For validation, the FFQ was completed by 135 participants (25-70 y of age) of the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study. Per person, on average 2.8 (range 1-5) telephone-based 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs), two 24-h urinary samples, and one blood sample were available. Validity of 54 nutrients and 22 food groups was assessed by ranking agreement, correlation coefficients, attenuation factors, and ultimately deattenuated correlation coefficients (validity coefficients).
RESULTS: Median correlation coefficients for energy and macronutrients, micronutrients, and food groups were 0.45, 0.36, and 0.38, respectively. Median deattenuated correlation coefficients were 0.53 for energy and macronutrients, 0.45 for micronutrients, and 0.64 for food groups, being >0.50 for 18 of 22 macronutrients, 16 of 30 micronutrients and >0.50 for 17 of 22 food groups. The FFQ underestimated protein and potassium intake compared with 24-h urinary nitrogen and potassium excretion by -18% and -2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 and 0.55 for (fatty) fish intake and plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and from 0.26 to 0.42 between fruit and vegetable intake and plasma carotenoids.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the validity of the 253-item Maastricht FFQ was satisfactory. The comprehensiveness of this FFQ make it well suited for use in The Maastricht Study and similar populations.
METHODS: Using 3 d of dietary records, FA intakes of 333 recruited patients were calculated using a food database built from laboratory analyses of commonly consumed Malaysian foods. Plasma triacylglycerol (TG) and erythrocyte FAs were determined by gas chromatography.
RESULTS: High dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) consumption trends were observed. Patients on HD also reported low dietary ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumptions and low levels of TG and erythrocyte FAs. TG and dietary FAs were significantly associated respective to total PUFA, total ω-6 PUFA, 18:2 ω-6, total ω-3 PUFA, 18:3 ω-3, 22:6 ω-3, and trans 18:2 isomers (P < 0.05). Contrarily, only dietary total ω-3 PUFA and 22:6 ω-3 were significantly associated with erythrocyte FAs (P < 0.01). The highest tertile of fish and shellfish consumption reflected a significantly higher proportion of TG 22:6 ω-3. Dietary SFAs were directly associated with TG and erythrocyte MUFA, whereas dietary PUFAs were not.
CONCLUSION: TG and erythrocyte FAs serve as biomarkers of dietary PUFA intake in patients on HD. Elevation of circulating MUFA may be attributed to inadequate intake of PUFAs.