METHODS: RCTs comparing the early complication rates following LVSG and LRYGB between 2000 and 2015 were selected from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database. The outcome variables analyzed included 30-day mortality, major and minor complications and interventions required for their management, length of hospital stay, readmission rates, operating time, and conversions from laparoscopic to open procedures.
RESULTS: Six RCTs involving a total of 695 patients (LVSG n = 347, LRYGB n = 348) reported on early major complications. A statistically significant reduction in relative odds of early major complications favoring the LVSG procedure was noted (p = 0.05). Five RCTs representing 633 patients (LVSG n = 317, LRYGB n = 316) reported early minor complications. A non-statically significant reduction in relative odds of 29 % favoring the LVSG procedure was observed for early minor complications (p = 0.4). However, other outcomes directly related to complications which included reoperation rates, readmission rate, and 30-day mortality rate showed comparable effect size for both surgical procedures.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis and systematic review of RCTs suggests that fewer early major and minor complications are associated with LVSG compared with LRYGB procedure. However, this does not translate into higher readmission rate, reoperation rate, or 30-day mortality for either procedure.
METHODS: Non-diabetic patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single academic center (1997-2013) and had a postoperative glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dl, or positive glucose tolerance test were identified and studied.
RESULTS: Out of 2263 non-diabetic patients at the time of bariatric surgery, 11 patients had new-onset diabetes in the median follow-up time of 9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 4-12). Bariatric procedures performed were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 7), adjustable gastric banding (n = 3), and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). The median interval between surgery and diagnosis of diabetes was 6 years (IQR, 2-9). At the last follow-up, the median HbA1c and FBG values were 6.3% (IQR, 6.1-6.5) and 95 mg/dl (IQR, 85-122), respectively. Possible etiologic factors leading to diabetes were weight regain to baseline (n = 6, 55%), steroid-induced after renal transplantation (n = 1), pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatitis (n = 1), and unknown (n = 3).
CONCLUSION: De novo diabetes after bariatric surgery is rare with an incidence of 0.4% based on our cohort. Weight regain was common (> 50%) in patients who developed new-onset diabetes suggesting recurrent severe obesity as a potential etiologic factor. All patients had good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7%) in the long-term postoperative follow-up.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals undergoing primary sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) from February 2008 to December 2015 were included. Impaired mobility (WC) was defined as using a wheelchair or motorized scooter for at least part of a typical day. The WC group was propensity score matched to ambulatory patients (1:5 ratio). Comparisons were made for 30-day morbidity and mortality and 1-year improvement in weight-related comorbidities.
RESULTS: There were 93 patients in the WC group matched to 465 ambulatory controls. The median operative time (180 vs 159 min, p = 0.003) and postoperative length of stay (4 vs 3 days, p ≤ 0.001) was higher in the WC group. There were no differences in readmission or all-cause morbidity within 30 days. The median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) at 1 year was similar (WC group, 65% available, 53% EWL vs AMB group, 73% available, 54% EWL); however, patients with impaired mobility were less likely to experience improvement in diabetes (76 vs 90%, p = 0.046), hypertension (63 vs 82%, p
METHODS: A retrospective review of CAT patients undergoing bariatric surgery at an academic center from 2008 to 2015 was studied.
RESULTS: A total of 153 patients on CAT underwent surgery [Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 79), sleeve gastrectomy (n = 63), and adjustable gastric banding (n = 11)] during the study period: 85 patients (55%) were females; median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR] 49-64), and median BMI was 49 kg/m2 (IQR 43-56). The most common indications for CAT were venous thromboembolism (n = 87) and atrial fibrillation (n = 83). Median duration of procedure and estimated intraoperative blood loss was 150 min (IQR 118-177) and 50 ml (IQR 25-75), respectively. Thirty-day postoperative complications were reported in 33 patients (21.6%) including postoperative bleeding (n = 19), anastomotic leak (n = 3), and pulmonary embolism (n = 1). Nineteen patients (12%) with early postoperative bleeding were further categorized to intra-abdominal (n = 10), intraluminal (n = 6), and at the port site or abdominal wall (n = 3). All-cause readmissions within 30 days of surgery occurred in 19 patients (12%). There was no 30-day mortality.
CONCLUSION: In our experience, patients who require chronic anticoagulation medication are higher than average risk for postoperative complications and all-cause readmission rates. Careful surgical technique and close attention to postoperative anticoagulation protocols are essential to decrease perioperative risk in this high-risk cohort.
METHODS: Patients aged 75 years and older who underwent bariatric procedures in two academic centers between 2006 and 2015 were studied.
RESULTS: A total of 19 patients aged 75 years and above were identified. Eleven (58%) were male, the median age was 76 years old (range 75-81), and the median preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 41.4 kg/m2 (range 35.8-57.5). All of the bariatric procedures were primary procedures and performed laparoscopically: sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (n = 11, 58%), adjustable gastric band (AGB) (n = 4, 21%), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 2, 11%), banded gastric plication (n = 1, 5%), and gastric plication (n = 1, 5%). The median operative time was 120 min (range 75-240), and the median length of stay was 2 days (range 1-7). Three patients (16%) developed postoperative atrial fibrillation which completely resolved at discharge. At 1 year, the median percentage of total weight loss (%TWL) was 18.4% (range 7.4-22.0). The 1-year %TWL varied among the bariatric procedures performed: SG (21%), RYGB (22%), AGB (7%), and gastric plication (8%). There were no 30-day readmissions, reoperations, or mortalities.
CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that bariatric surgery in selected patients aged 75 years and older would be safe and effective despite being higher risk. Age alone should not be the limiting factor for selecting patients for bariatric surgery.
METHODS: Patient undergoing bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015 who developed AKI within 60 days after surgery were studied. Patients on dialysis before surgery were excluded.
RESULTS: Out of 4722 patients, 42 patients (0.9%) developed early postoperative AKI after bariatric surgery of whom five had chronic kidney disease (CKD) preoperatively including CKD stage 3 (n = 2), stage 4 (n = 2), and stage 5 (n = 1). Etiologies of AKI included prerenal in 37 and renal in 5 patients. Nine patients (21%) underwent hemodialysis in early postoperative period for AKI. The median duration of follow-up was 28 months (interquartile range, 4-59). Of the 40 patients eligible for follow-up, 36 patients (90%) returned to their baseline renal function. However, four patients (10%) had worsening of renal function at follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of early postoperative AKI after bariatric surgery is about 1%. The most common causes of AKI after bariatric surgery are dehydration and infectious complications. In our series, 10% of patients who developed AKI in early postoperative period had worsening of renal function in long-term follow-up. In the absence of severe sepsis and severe underlying kidney dysfunction (CKD stages 4 and 5), full recovery is expected after postoperative AKI.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: RCTs comparing postoperative comorbid disease resolution such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, joint and musculoskeletal conditions, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and menstrual irregularities following LVSG and LRYGB were included for analysis. The studies were selected from PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database and reported on at least one comorbidity resolution or improvement. The present work was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The Jadad method for assessment of methodological quality was applied to the included studies.
RESULTS: Six RCTs performed between 2005 and 2015 involving a total of 695 patients (LVSG n = 347, LRYGB n = 348) reported on the resolution or improvement of comorbid disease following LVSG and LRYGB procedures. Both bariatric procedures provide effective and almost comparable results in improving or resolving these comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review of RCTs suggests that both LVSG and LRYGB are effective in resolving or improving preoperative nondiabetic comorbid diseases in obese patients. While results are not conclusive at this time, LRYGB may provide superior results compared to LVSG in mediating the remission and/or improvement in some conditions such as dyslipidemia and arthritis.
METHODS: A questionnaire including data of 2016 and 2017 and consisting of eight general questions was prepared and sent to representatives in 18 Asia-Pacific countries by e-mail before the congress. After the congress, the data were analyzed and summarized.
RESULTS: Seventeen of 18 countries responded to the survey. The frequency of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) in the 4 Gulf countries was > 30%, much higher than that in the other countries. In total, 1640 surgeons and 869 institutions were engaging in bariatric/metabolic surgery. In many East and Southeast Asian countries, the indication for bariatric surgery was BMI ≥ 35 or ≥ 37, whereas in many Gulf countries and Australia, it was BMI ≥ 40 or ≥ 35 with obesity-related disease. Ten of the 17 countries (58.8%) but only one of the 5 Southeast Asian countries (20.0%) had public health insurance coverage for bariatric surgery. In 2017, 95,125 patients underwent bariatric/metabolic surgery, with sleeve gastrectomy accounting for 68.0%, bypass surgery for 19.5%, and others for 12.5%. Current problems included public insurance coverage, training system, national registry, and lack of awareness and comprehension.
CONCLUSION: This summary showed that bariatric/metabolic surgery is rapidly developing along with various problems in Asia-Pacific countries.
METHODS: Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied.
RESULTS: In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time.
CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on post-bariatric surgery patients who underwent laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of chronic abdominal pain at a single academic center. Only patients with both negative preoperative CT scan and upper endoscopy were included.
RESULTS: Total of 35 post-bariatric surgery patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Twenty out of 35 patients (57%) had positive findings on diagnostic laparoscopy including presence of adhesions (n = 12), chronic cholecystitis (n = 4), mesenteric defect (n = 2), internal hernia (n = 1), and necrotic omentum (n = 1). Two patients developed post-operative complications including a pelvic abscess and an abdominal wall abscess. Overall, 15 patients (43%) had symptomatic improvement after laparoscopy; 14 of these patients had positive laparoscopic findings requiring intervention (70% of the patients with positive laparoscopy). Conversely, 20 (57%) patients required long-term medical treatment for management of chronic abdominal pain.
CONCLUSION: Diagnostic laparoscopy, which is a safe procedure, can detect pathological findings in more than half of post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain of unknown etiology. About 40% of patients who undergo diagnostic laparoscopy and 70% of patients with positive findings on laparoscopy experience significant symptom improvement. Patients should be informed that diagnostic laparoscopy is associated with no symptom improvement in about half of cases.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of women undergoing bariatric surgery, between May 2017 and April 2018. FSD was diagnosed using the Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) questionnaire. Patients filled up the questionnaire before and 6 months after surgery. Association between BMI reduction and FSFI score improvement was measured using Fisher's exact test. Outcomes between types of surgery (sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass) was compared.
RESULTS: Fifty-two women completed the study. The mean age was 38.77 ± 6.7. There were 44 (84.6%) Malay patients, 7 (13.5%) Indian patients, and 1 (1.9%) Chinese patient. There was a significant reduction in mean BMI, 39.89 ± 6.9 pre-surgery to 30.32 ± 5.4 post-surgery (p value
METHODS: A 37-item questionnaire-based survey was conducted to capture the perioperative practices of the global community of bariatric surgeons. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
RESULTS: Response of 863 bariatric surgeons from 67 countries with a cumulative experience of 520,230 SGs were recorded. A total of 689 (80%) and 764 (89%) surgeons listed 13 absolute and relative contraindications, respectively. 65% (n = 559) surgeons perform routine preoperative endoscopy and 97% (n = 835) routinely use intraoperative orogastric tube for sizing the resection. A wide variation is observed in the diameter of the tube used. 73% (n = 627) surgeons start dividing the stomach at a distance of 3-5 cm from the pylorus, and 54% (n = 467) routinely use staple line reinforcement. Majority (65%, n = 565) of surgeons perform routine intraoperative leak test at the end of the procedure, while 25% (n = 218) surgeons perform a routine contrast study in the early postoperative period. Lifelong multivitamin/mineral, iron, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin B12 supplementation is advocated by 66%, 29%, 40%, 38% and 44% surgeons, respectively.
CONCLUSION: There is a considerable variation in the perioperative practices concerning SG. Data can help in identifying areas for future consensus building and more focussed studies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective database review was conducted of patients undergoing primary laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between 2009 and 2013 in 14 centres from Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Switzerland, and the USA. All patients with available follow-up data at 12 months and 36 months post-surgery were included in this study. Outcome measures used were percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) and percentage total weight loss (%TWL). Differences in outcomes between ethnicities were analysed after adjusting for age, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI), and presence of diabetes.
RESULTS: The study population (n = 2150) consisted of 1122 Chinese, 187 Malays, 309 Indians, 67 Japanese, 259 Koreans, and 206 Caucasians. 67.1% were female and 32.9% were male. Mean age was 37.1 ± 11.2 years. Mean pre-operative BMI was 40.7 ± 8.1 kg/m2. With the Caucasian population as reference, Japanese had the best %TWL (3.90, 95% CI 1.16-6.63, p
METHODS: All the patients with end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and implanted LVAD who underwent LSG from2013 to January 2017 were studied.
RESULTS: Seven patients with end stage heart failure (ESHF) and implanted LVAD were included. The median age and median preoperative BMI were 39 years (range: 26-62) and 43.6 kg/m2 (range 36.7-56.7), respectively. The median interval between LVAD implantation and LSG was 38 months (range 15-48). The median length of hospital stay was 9 days (rang: 6-23) out of which 4 patients had planned postoperative ICU admission. Thirty-day complications were noted in 5 patients (3 major and 2 minor) without any perioperative mortality. The median duration of follow-up was 24 months (range 2-30). At the last available follow-up, the median BMI, %EWL, and %TWL were 37 kg/m2, 47%, and 16%, respectively. The median LVEF before LSG and at the last follow-up point (before heart transplant) was 19% (range 15-20) and 22% (range, 16-35), respectively. In addition, the median NYHA class improved from 3 to 2 after LSG. Three patients underwent successful heart transplantations.
CONCLUSION: Patients with morbid obesity, ESHF, and implanted LVAD constitute a high-risk cohort. Our results with 7 patients and result from other studies (19 patients) suggested that bariatric surgery may be a reasonable option for LVAD patients with severe obesity. Bariatric surgery appears to provide significant weight loss in these patients and may improve candidacy for heart transplantation.
METHOD: All cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery, from 2007 to 2017, were retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included; eight (62%) were female. The median age was 54 years (interquartile range, IQR 49-60) and median BMI was 48 kg/m2 (IQR 43-55). Portal hypertension was diagnosed based on endoscopy (n = 5), imaging studies (n = 3), intraoperative increased collateral circulation (n = 2), and endoscopy and imaging studies (n = 3). The bariatric procedures included sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10, 77%) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 3, 23%). The median length of hospital stay was 3 days (IQR 2-4). Three 30-day complications occurred including wound infection (n = 1), intra-abdominal hematoma (n = 1), and subcutaneous hematoma (n = 1). No intraoperative or 30-day mortalities. There were 11 patients (85%) at 1-year follow-up and 9 patients (69%) at 2-year follow-up. At 2 years, the median percentage of excess weight loss (EWL) and total weight loss (TWL) were 49 and 25%, respectively. There was significant improvement in diabetes (100%), dyslipidemia (100%), and hypertension (50%) at 2 years after surgery.
CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery in selected cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension is relatively safe and effective.