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  1. Chu AH, Koh D, Moy FM, Müller-Riemenschneider F
    Occup Med (Lond), 2014 Jun;64(4):235-45.
    PMID: 24850815 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqu045
    Mental health is an important issue in the working population. Interventions to improve mental health have included physical activity.
  2. Ganasegeran K, Perianayagam W, Nagaraj P, Al-Dubai SA
    Occup Med (Lond), 2014 Jul;64(5):372-5.
    PMID: 24727561 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqu039
    Low back pain (LBP) is the most costly ailment in the work force. Risky work behaviour and psychological stress are established risk factors.
  3. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Darus A, Koh D
    Occup Med (Lond), 2012 Apr;62(3):174-81.
    PMID: 22362839 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqs005
    Job stressors may reduce the likelihood of quitting smoking.
  4. Maizura H, Retneswari M, Moe H, Hoe VC, Bulgiba A
    Occup Med (Lond), 2010 May;60(3):219-24.
    PMID: 20308258 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqq001
    Information on job strain exposure among Malaysian workers in multinational companies is limited.
  5. Choi BC
    Occup Med (Lond), 2005 Oct;55(7):515-22.
    PMID: 16174662
    An international comparison study of women's occupational health issues was carried out in 2000 for the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore. The study was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency's Southeast Asia Gender Equity Program.
  6. Ho SF, Sam CT, Embi GB
    Occup Med (Lond), 1998 Sep;48(6):369-73.
    PMID: 10024732
    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with their hands compared with 9.2% of the Chinese. Workers who ate with bare hands at least once a week had higher blood lead levels after adjusting for lead-in-air levels (mean blood lead was 30.2 and 26.4 mcg/100 ml respectively). The study indicated that the higher blood lead levels observed in the Malay workers might have been due to their higher exposure and eating with bare hands.
  7. Munisamy M, Krishnan K, Selvaratnam G, Panza A, Pongpanich S, Jimba M
    Occup Med (Lond), 2017 Feb 15.
    PMID: 28204665 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqx015
  8. Ishak AS, Haque MS, Sadhra SS
    Occup Med (Lond), 2019 Apr 13;69(2):99-105.
    PMID: 30295884 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqy129
    BACKGROUND: Needlestick injury (NSI) is a significant occupational health issue among healthcare workers (HCWs).

    AIMS: To determine the national self-reported incidence and risk factors for NSI among Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) HCWs.

    METHODS: Using data from the MOH national sharps injury surveillance programme, information on reported NSIs over a 1-year period (2016) for different HCW subgroups were extracted and analysed.

    RESULTS: A total of 1234 NSI cases were reported in 2016, giving an overall incidence of 6 injuries per 1000 HCWs. Medical doctors recorded the highest incidence (21.1 per 1000 HCWs) followed by dental staff (7.5), pharmacy staff (4.2), nurses (3.7), medical assistants (3.4) and allied and auxiliary staff (1.0). Doctors had significantly increased risk of NSI compared with allied and auxiliary staff (relative risk [RR] = 20.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.5-27.5), medical assistants (RR = 6.1, 95% CI 4.5-8.2), nurses (RR = 5.7, 95% CI 5.0-6.6), pharmacy staff (RR = 5.0, 95% CI 3.7-6.6) and dental staff (RR = 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.5). Significant differences were found in age and sharps- handling experience between occupational subgroups (P < 0.001 for both variables). Male employees had higher risk than females (RR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.50), with a significant difference seen in their sharps-handling experience (P < 0.01). Important risk factors included unsafe practices such as recapping of needles and their improper disposal.

    CONCLUSIONS: The national incidence of NSI amongst Malaysian HCWs was lower compared with other countries, but unsafe practices remain an important concern. There is a need to formulate, implement and monitor safe and consistent practices for the different healthcare professionals.

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