Displaying all 15 publications

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  1. Price H, Allen PM, Radhakrishnan H, Calver R, Rae S, Theagarayan B, et al.
    Optom Vis Sci, 2013 Nov;90(11):1274-83.
    PMID: 24100478 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000067
    To identify variables associated with myopia progression and to identify any interaction between accommodative function, myopia progression, age, and treatment effect in the Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study.
  2. Efron N, Morgan PB, Woods CA, International Contact Lens Prescribing Survey Consortium
    Optom Vis Sci, 2013 Feb;90(2):113-8.
    PMID: 23262991 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31827cd8be
    PURPOSE: To determine the extent of rigid contact lens fitting worldwide and to characterize the associated demographics and fitting patterns.
    METHODS: Survey forms were sent to contact lens fitters in up to 40 countries between January and March every year for five consecutive years (2007 to 2011). Practitioners were asked to record data relating to the first 10 contact lens fits or refits performed after receiving the survey form. Survey data collected between 1996 and 2011 were also analyzed to assess rigid lens fitting trends in seven nations during this period.
    RESULTS: Data were obtained for 12,230 rigid and 100,670 soft lens fits between 2007 and 2011. Overall, rigid lenses represented 10.8% of all contact lens fits, ranging from 0.2% in Lithuania to 37% in Malaysia. Compared with soft lens fits, rigid lens fits can be characterized as follows: older age (rigid, 37.3 ± 15.0 years; soft, 29.8 ± 12.4 years); fewer spherical and toric fits; more bifocal/multifocal fits; less frequent replacement (rigid, 7%; soft, 85%); and less part-time wear (rigid, 4%; soft, 10%). High-Dk (contact lens oxygen permeability) (36%) and mid-Dk (42%) materials are predominantly used for rigid lens fitting. Orthokeratology represents 11.5% of rigid contact lens fits. There has been a steady decline in rigid lens fitting between 1996 and 2011.
    CONCLUSIONS: Rigid contact lens prescribing is in decline but still represents approximately 10% of all contact lenses fitted worldwide. It is likely that rigid lenses will remain as a viable, albeit increasingly specialized, form of vision correction.
  3. Efron N, Morgan PB, Woods CA, International Contact Lens Prescribing Survey Consortium
    Optom Vis Sci, 2012 Feb;89(2):122-9.
    PMID: 22179218
    PURPOSE: To determine the extent of extended wear (EW) contact lens prescribing worldwide and to characterize the associated demographics and fitting patterns.
    METHODS: Up to 1000 survey forms were sent to contact lens fitters in up to 39 countries between January and March every year for five consecutive years (2006-2010). Practitioners were asked to record data relating to the first 10 contact lens fits or refits performed after receiving the survey form. Survey data collected since 1997 was also analyzed to assess EW fitting trends since that time.
    RESULTS: Details for lens modality were received for 107,094 rigid and soft lens fits of which 88,392 were for soft lens daily wear (DW) and 7470 were for soft lens EW. Overall, EW represents 7.8% of all soft lens fits, ranging from 0.6% in Malaysia to 27% Norway. Compared with DW fittings, EW fittings can be characterized as follows: older age (32.7 ± 13.6 vs. 29.4 ± 12.0 years for DW); males are over-represented; greater proportion of refits; 72% silicone hydrogel; higher proportion of presbyopia and spherical designs; and higher proportion of monthly lens replacement. Of those wearing EW lenses, 80% use multipurpose solutions, whereas 9% do not use any care system. Between 1997 and 1999, the rate of EW prescribing decreased from 5 to 1% of all soft lens fits; it increased to a peak of 12% in 2006, and settled back to 8% by 2010.
    CONCLUSIONS: EW prescribing has failed to break through the "glass ceiling" of 15% and is unlikely to become a mainstream lens wearing modality until the already low risks of ocular complications can be reduced to be equivalent to that for DW.
  4. Zahari M, Ong YM, Taharin R, Ramli N
    Optom Vis Sci, 2014 Apr;91(4):459-63.
    PMID: 24637481 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000220
    To evaluate ocular biometric parameters and darkroom prone provocative test (DPPT) in family members of primary angle closure (PAC) glaucoma (PACG) patients and to establish any correlation between these biometric parameters and the DPPT response.
  5. Ramli N, Supramaniam G, Samsudin A, Juana A, Zahari M, Choo MM
    Optom Vis Sci, 2015 Sep;92(9):e222-6.
    PMID: 25730335 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000542
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of ocular surface disease (OSD) in glaucoma and nonglaucoma subjects using different clinical tests and to determine the effect of number of antiglaucoma medications and preservatives on OSD.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, case-comparison study at the Eye Clinic of the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, between June 2012 and January 2013. Glaucoma subjects (n = 105) using topical antiglaucoma medications were compared with control subjects (n = 102) who were not on any topical medications. The presence of OSD was assessed using the tear film breakup time (TBUT) test, corneal staining, Schirmer test, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire grading.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of OSD varied from 37 to 91% in the glaucoma group, depending on the type of clinical test. More subjects in the glaucoma group had corneal staining (63% vs. 36%, p = 0.004), abnormal Schirmer tests (39% vs. 25%, p = 0.049), and moderate OSDI symptoms (17% vs. 7%, p = 0.028). The percentage with abnormal TBUT increased with higher numbers of topical medications and was high with both benzalkonium chloride-containing and preservative-free eye drops (90% and 94%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Benzalkonium chloride was associated with a nearly three times higher odds ratio of showing abnormal OSDI.
    CONCLUSIONS: Ocular surface disease is common in those using topical antiglaucoma medications. Abnormal TBUT is associated with increasing number of eye drops and benzalkonium chloride-containing eye drops, although this also occurs with the use of preservative-free eye drops.
    Study site: Eye Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
  6. Ismail F, Peyman M, Waran V, Vasudevan S, Subrayan V
    Optom Vis Sci, 2015 Apr;92(4 Suppl 1):S33-5.
    PMID: 25730333 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000528
    To report a rare case of nasal chondroma presenting as hypertelorism.
  7. Chung KM, Mohidin N, Yeow PT, Tan LL, O'Leary D
    Optom Vis Sci, 1996 Nov;73(11):695-700.
    PMID: 8950751
    We performed a vision screening of 1883 Chinese schoolchildren from 4 schools around Kuala Lumpur in June 1990. The group contained 1083-males and 800 females. Visual acuity, refractive error, oculomotor balance, and axial length were measured. The prevalence of myopia in Chinese schoolchildren was found to be 37% in the 6- to 12-year age group and 50% in the 13- to 18-year age group. Approximately 63% of the sample had unaided visual acuity of 6/6 or better and 24% had unaided acuity of 6/12 or worse. Six hundred twenty-five students (33%) failed the vision screening test and were referred for further examinations. The group which failed the vision screening test and had the highest rate of referral (46%) was the 11- to 12-year-old age group. The most common visual disorder was uncorrected myopia, accounting for 38% of the referrals (235 students). Only 26% of the sample were wearing a spectacle correction.
  8. Chung KM
    Optom Vis Sci, 1999 Feb;76(2):121-6.
    PMID: 10082059
    The clinical significance of fundus magnification produced during direct ophthalmoscopy of the corrected eye has not been fully established. Based on paraxial ray tracing, fundus magnification (M) can be defined by a simple equation, M = (K'/4) x (Fs/K), where K' is the dioptric axial power of the eye, Fs is the correcting thin lens power and K is the ocular ametropia. Refractive myopes produce greater fundus magnification than axial myopes, whereas refractive hyperopes produce lower fundus magnification than axial hyperopes. If we assume 15 x fundus magnification as our standard magnification for an emmetropic reduced eye, then wearing glasses or putting the focusing lens at or close to the anterior focus of the eye is able to achieve the standard magnification for axial myope and axial hyperope, whereas wearing contact lenses is able to achieve the standard magnification for refractive myope and refractive hyperope. Vertex distance has greater influence on fundus magnification produced during direct ophthalmoscopy than other funduscopic techniques. In conclusion, the newly defined formula has clinical applications during direct ophthalmoscopy.
  9. Ong BL
    Optom Vis Sci, 1996 Mar;73(3):208-10.
    PMID: 8725025
    This study attempted to determine whether contact lens wear has any adverse effect on the Meibomian glands. The study also tried to elucidate the prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction in the general population. The results of the study showed that Meibomian gland dysfunction exists in 43% of the population (lens wearers and nonlens wearers), 49% of the contact lens wearing population (81 subjects), and 39% of nonlens wearers (150 subjects). No statistically significant difference was found in the prevalence of Meibomian gland dysfunction between healthy contact lens wearers and the control group of nonlens wearers. The study therefore could not prove that contact lens wear is a contributing factor to Meibomian gland dysfunction.
  10. Wu HM, Seet B, Yap EP, Saw SM, Lim TH, Chia KS
    Optom Vis Sci, 2001 Apr;78(4):234-9.
    PMID: 11349931
    To study interethnic variation in myopia prevalence and severity in young adult males in Singapore and to determine whether these variations are related to differences in education level.
  11. Chung KM
    Optom Vis Sci, 1993 Mar;70(3):228-33.
    PMID: 8483585
    Studies of optical defocus on refractive development and ocular growth in animals are presented and discussed in relation to the accommodation hypothesis. None of these studies fully support the accommodation hypothesis. The problems encountered in these studies are also discussed.
  12. Yeow PT, Taylor SP
    Optom Vis Sci, 1991 Dec;68(12):930-41.
    PMID: 1787950
    Since their rapid introduction into the workplace visual display terminals (VDT's) have been the source of a number of studies aimed at detecting effects on office workers. The published studies have been either short-term or cross-sectional, with one exception. The results have shown varying degrees of relation but by not having a comparable control group all have been limited in their value. We set out to monitor at regular intervals over a 2-year period specific visual functions that have been reported to be affected by VDT usage, and to compare VDT and non-VDT users in the same office environment. By assessing the VDT operators from the time the systems were introduced we have an accurate baseline to work from when assessing change due to the introduction of the VDT.
  13. Yeow PT, Taylor SP
    Optom Vis Sci, 1989 Jul;66(7):459-66.
    PMID: 2771333
    An on-site comparative study was carried out on the effects of video display terminal (VDT) and non-VDT work on visual functions in two working populations in the same office environment. Both continuous VDT usage in a training situation over a few days and intermittent VDT usage in a normal working situation were assessed and particular attention paid to their effects on the refractive error of different refractive groups and for different age populations. Other visual functions measured were visual acuity (VA), accommodation, and convergence. Results show that VDT work does not have a significantly greater effect on visual function than non-VDT work.
  14. Nadarajah S, Samsudin A, Ramli N, Tan CT, Mimiwati Z
    Optom Vis Sci, 2017 10;94(10):981-985.
    PMID: 28858045 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001117
    SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first time a study looking at the association between corneal hysteresis (CH) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity has been reported. We provide evidence that CH is lower in OSAS and speculate on the possible causes.

    PURPOSE: The present study aims to look at the association between CH and severity of OSAS, and whether CH could be another link between OSAS and the development of glaucoma.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, observational study at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Patients undergoing polysomnography for assessment of OSAS were recruited. We measured central corneal thickness (CCT) using optical biometry, and CH using ocular response analysis. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) indices were also measured. The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) divided patients into normal, mild, moderate, and severe OSAS categories. The normal and mild categories (47.9%) were then collectively called group 1, and the moderate and severe categories (52.1%) were called group 2. T tests, Pearson correlation tests, and general linear model analysis were performed, with P .05). CH correlated negatively with AHI (r = -0.229, P = .013) and positively with lowest oxygen saturation (r = 0.213, P = .022).

    CONCLUSIONS: CH is lower in moderate/severe OSAS than in normal/mild cases. This may be another link between OSAS and the development of glaucoma; further studies are indicated to determine the significance of this connection.

  15. Sailoganathan A, Rou LX, Buja KA, Siderov J
    Optom Vis Sci, 2018 Aug;95(8):643-647.
    PMID: 30063661 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001253
    SIGNIFICANCE: Vision charts comprising single Lea symbols surrounded by either flanking bars or flanking Lea symbols are available for measurement of visual acuity in children. However, the results obtained with such charts may not be interchangeable owing to potential differences in the crowding effect.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare habitual visual acuity in a sample of young children using two versions of the single Lea symbols charts with different crowding features.

    METHODS: Monocular habitual visual acuity was measured in a sample of 77 young children aged between 4 and 6 years using crowded Lea symbols charts with either flanking bars separated from the central symbol by 0.5 optotype width or flanking Lea optotypes separated from the central symbol by 1.0 optotype width.

    RESULTS: Mean visual acuity was higher (i.e., lower logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) with the Lea symbols crowded using flanking optotypes, equivalent to about 1.5 optotype difference. Visual acuity measured with the two charts was significantly correlated; however, the 95% limits of agreement were larger than expected from repeatability studies using Lea symbols.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lea symbols with flanking optotypes resulted in higher visual acuity than the Lea symbols with flanking bars, probably as a result of differences in the crowding effect. The two charts showed insufficient agreement, and we do not recommend their use interchangeably. We recommend using the Lea symbols with flanking bars because of the closer flanker-target separation.

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