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  1. Mamidi MK, Das AK, Zakaria Z, Bhonde R
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2016 Aug;24(8):1307-16.
    PMID: 26973328 DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2016.03.003
    Treatment for articular cartilage damage is quite challenging as it shows limited repair and regeneration following injury. Non-operative and classical surgical techniques are inefficient in restoring normal anatomy and function of cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, investigating new and effective strategies for OA are necessary to establish feasible therapeutic solutions. The emergence of the new discipline of regenerative medicine, having cell-based therapy as its primary focus, may enable us to achieve repair and restore the damaged articular cartilage. This review describes progress and development of employing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy as a promising alternative for OA treatment. The objective of this review is to first, discuss how in vitro MSC chondrogenic differentiation mimics in vivo embryonic cartilage development, secondly, to describe various chondrogenic differentiation strategies followed by pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrating their feasibility and efficacy. However, several challenges need to be tackled before this research can be translated to the clinics. In particular, better understanding of the post-transplanted cell behaviour and learning to enhance their potency in the disease microenvironment is essential. Final objective is to underscore the importance of isolation, storage, cell shipment, route of administration, optimum dosage and control batch to batch variations to realise the full potential of MSCs in OA clinical trials.
  2. Ude CC, Ng MH, Chen CH, Htwe O, Amaramalar NS, Hassan S, et al.
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2015 Aug;23(8):1294-306.
    PMID: 25887366 DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2015.04.003
    OBJECTIVES: Our previous studies on osteoarthritis (OA) revealed positive outcome after chondrogenically induced cells treatment. Presently, the functional improvements of these treated OA knee joints were quantified followed by evaluation of the mechanical properties of the engineered cartilages.
    METHODS: Baseline electromyogram (EMGs) were conducted at week 0 (pre-OA), on the locomotory muscles of nine un-castrated male sheep (Siamese long tail cross) divided into controls, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), before OA inductions. Subsequent recordings were performed at week 7 and week 31 which were post-OA and post-treatments. Afterwards, the compression tests of the regenerated cartilage were performed.
    RESULTS: Post-treatment EMG analysis revealed that the control sheep retained significant reductions in amplitudes at the right medial gluteus, vastus lateralis and bicep femoris, whereas BMSCs and ADSCs samples had no further significant reductions (P < 0.05). Grossly and histologically, the treated knee joints demonstrated the presence of regenerated neo cartilages evidenced by the fluorescence of PKH26 tracker. Based on the International Cartilage Repair Society scores (ICRS), they had significantly lower grades than the controls (P < 0.05). The compression moduli of the native cartilages and the engineered cartilages differed significantly at the tibia plateau, patella femoral groove and the patella; whereas at the medial femoral condyle, they had similar moduli of 0.69 MPa and 0.40-0.64 MPa respectively. Their compression strengths at all four regions were within ±10 MPa.
    CONCLUSION: The tissue engineered cartilages provided evidence of functional recoveries associated to the structural regenerations, and their mechanical properties were comparable with the native cartilage.
    KEYWORDS: Cartilage; Cell therapy; Function; Osteoarthritis; Regeneration
  3. Peake NJ, Hobbs AJ, Pingguan-Murphy B, Salter DM, Berenbaum F, Chowdhury TT
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2014 Nov;22(11):1800-7.
    PMID: 25086404 DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.07.018
    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been demonstrated in human and mouse models to play critical roles in cartilage homeostasis and endochondral bone formation. Indeed, targeted inactivation of the genes encoding CNP results in severe dwarfism and skeletal defects with a reduction in growth plate chondrocytes. Conversely, cartilage-specific overexpression of CNP was observed to rescue the phenotype of CNP deficient mice and significantly enhanced bone growth caused by growth plate expansion. In vitro studies reported that exogenous CNP influenced chondrocyte differentiation, proliferation and matrix synthesis with the response dependent on CNP concentration. The chondroprotective effects were shown to be mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor (Npr)2 and enhanced synthesis of cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) production. Recent studies also showed certain homeostatic effects of CNP are mediated by the clearance inactivation receptor, Npr3, highlighting several mechanisms in maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, the CNP signalling systems are complex and influenced by multiple factors that will lead to altered signalling and tissue dysfunction. This review will discuss the differential role of CNP signalling in regulating cartilage and bone homeostasis and how the pathways are influenced by age, inflammation or sex. Evidence indicates that enhanced CNP signalling may prevent growth retardation and protect cartilage in patients with inflammatory joint disease.
  4. Zolio L, Lim KY, McKenzie JE, Yan MK, Estee M, Hussain SM, et al.
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2021 08;29(8):1096-1116.
    PMID: 33971205 DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2021.03.021
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of neuropathic-like pain (NP) and pain sensitization (PS) defined by self-report questionnaires in knee and hip osteoarthritis, and whether prevalence is potentially explained by disease-severity or affected joint.

    DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL were systematically searched (1990-April 2020) for studies describing the prevalence of NP and PS in knee and hip osteoarthritis using self-report questionnaires. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Statistical heterogeneity between studies and sub-groups (affected joint and population source as a proxy for disease severity) was assessed (I2 statistic and the Chi-squared test).

    RESULTS: From 2,706 non-duplicated references, 39 studies were included (2011-2020). Thirty-six studies reported on knee pain and six on hip pain. For knee osteoarthritis, the pooled prevalence of NP was: using PainDETECT, possible NP(score ≥13) 40% (95%CI 32-48%); probable NP(score >18) 20% (95%CI 15-24%); using Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, 32% (95%CI 26-38%); using Douleur Neuropathique (DN4) 41% (95% CI 24-59%). The prevalence of PS using Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) was 36% (95% CI 12-59%). For hip osteoarthritis, the pooled prevalence of NP was: using PainDETECT, possible NP 29% (95%CI 22-37%%); probable NP 9% (95%CI 6-13%); using DN4 22% (95%CI 12-31%) in one study. The prevalence of possible NP pain was higher at the knee (40%) than the hip (29%) (difference 11% (95% CI 0-22%), P = 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Using self-report questionnaire tools, NP was more prevalent in knee than hip osteoarthritis. The prevalence of NP in knee and hip osteoarthritis were similar for each joint regardless of study population source or tool used. Whether defining NP using self-report questionnaires enables more effective targeted therapy in osteoarthritis requires investigation.

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