STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-six postnasal biopsy samples and 71 fine-needle aspirate samples of neck masses were obtained from patients who were clinically suspect for NPC. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples, and EBNA1, EBNA2, and LMP genes of EBV were detected by PCR. PCR results were compared with NPC histopathology findings.
RESULTS: The sensitivity of PCR to detect EBNA1 (97.14%), EBNA2 (88.57%), and LMP (91.43%) genes of EBV in nasopharyngeal biopsy samples were higher than those in fine-needle aspirate samples.
CONCLUSION: Detection of EBV by PCR in tissue obtained from nasopharyngeal biopsy and fine-needle aspirate samples of neck masses is a relatively inexpensive, reliable, and accurate method of diagnosing NPC. Detection of EBV genes is on par with histopathological examination (HPE) and superior to fine-needle aspirate cytology.
SIGNIFICANCE: PCR is an ideal tool for suggesting NPC and guiding the diagnostic workup in occult primary tumors, facilitating earlier diagnosis and reducing morbidity and mortality.
STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis.
SETTING: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, and Sri Lanka participated in the study.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Costs were obtained from experts in each country with known costs and published data, with estimation when necessary. A disability-adjusted life-years model was applied with 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost-effectiveness was determined with the World Health Organization standard of cost-effectiveness ratio per gross domestic product (CER/GDP) per capita <3.
RESULTS: Deaf education was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 3.59). CI was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 6.38) and Pakistan (CER/GDP, 3.14)-the latter of which reached borderline cost-effectiveness in the sensitivity analysis (minimum, maximum: 2.94, 3.39).
CONCLUSION: Deaf education and CI are largely cost-effective in participating Asian countries. Variation in CI maintenance and education-related costs may contribute to the range of cost-effectiveness ratios observed in this study.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between December 1, 2019, and June 23, 2020, without language restrictions. There was no restriction on the study design; therefore, observational studies, clinical trials, and case series were included. In addition, preprints were considered if data of interest were reported.
REVIEW METHODS: Two authors independently screened articles for eligibility. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CIs. Quality assessment was done with critical appraisal tools of the Joanna Briggs Institute. The robustness of the pooled estimates was checked by subgroup and sensitivity analyses.
RESULTS: Fifty-nine studies were included (N = 29,349 patients, 64.4% female). The pooled prevalence of taste disorders in patients with COVID-19 was 48.1% (95% CI, 41.3%-54.8%). The prevalence of taste disorders in studies with objective assessments was higher as compared with subjective assessments (59.2% vs 47.3%). The disorders were observed in 55.2% of European patients; 61.0%, North American; 27.1%, Asian; 29.5%, South American; and 25.0%, Australian. Ageusia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia were detected in 28.0%, 33.5%, and 41.3% of patients with COVID-19. We identified 91.5% of the included studies as high quality.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of taste disorders in patients with COVID-19 was 48.1%. Objective assessments have higher prevalence than subjective assessments. Dysgeusia is the most common subtype, followed by ageusia and hypogeusia.