METHODS: Parents whose children aged below 12 years and were scheduled for elective surgery in a teaching hospital, were approached to participate in this survey. The reliability of the modified version of revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha test, while the construct validity was assessed with a principal component analysis using a varimax rotation. The parental satisfaction with pain treatment received was measured.
RESULTS: A total of 108 parents completed the questionnaire. The internal consistency of the questionnaire shows a Cronbach's alpha of 0.798. Principal component analysis revealed a four-factor structure of the 12 items which explained 69.7% of the total variance. The factors are "Interference of sleep and activity," "Pain severity and drowsiness," "Perception of care," and "Adverse effects," respectively. Our study showed that this questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure for "Interference of sleep and activity" and "Pain severity and drowsiness" factors, but not for "Perception of care" and "Adverse effects." The results for "Perception of care" and "Adverse effects," therefore, should be reported as individual items instead of total score. The parental satisfaction with pain treatment given was good (median 8.0; IQR 3.0).
CONCLUSION: The modified version of revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire is a feasible and easy instrument to administer. The questionnaire can be used to obtain feedback from parents about the outcomes and experiences of pain management and is helpful in continuous quality evaluation and improvement in the postoperative care in a pediatric setting.
AIMS: This study investigated the use of extraluminal bronchial blocker placement for one-lung ventilation and the effect of infusion of remifentanil in infants and small children undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the technique of one-lung ventilation and the hemodynamic effects of remifentanil infusion in 31 small children during elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for congenital lung lesions under anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane, oxygen, and air. Patients' heart rate, blood pressure, and endtidal carbon dioxide at baseline (after induction of anesthesia), immediately after one-lung ventilation, during carbon dioxide insufflation, and at the end of one-lung ventilation were extracted from the database and analyzed. The use of vasopressors or dexmedetomidine was also recorded and analyzed.
RESULTS: Extraluminal placement of a bronchial blocker alongside the tracheal tube was successfully performed in 90.3% of cases (28 patients) without any serious complications or arterial oxygen desaturation. There was no significant rise in blood pressure or heart rate even with the rise of endtidal carbon dioxide concentration during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. In 58% of patients (18 patients), phenylephrine was administered to maintain the blood pressure within 20% of the baseline value. There was no significant change in the heart rate of all patients at each time point.
CONCLUSION: One-lung ventilation with an extraluminal parallel blocker was used effectively in this series of young children undergoing thoracoscopic excision of congenital pulmonary lesions. Remifentanil infusion attenuated surgical stress effectively in infants and small children undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.
AIMS: To investigate the effect of ketamine on emergence agitation in children.
METHODS: Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systematically searched from their start date until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous ketamine and placebo in children were sought. The primary outcome was the incidence of emergence agitation. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain score, duration of discharge time, and the adverse effects associated with the use of ketamine, namely postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm.
RESULTS: Thirteen studies (1125 patients) were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. The incidence of emergence agitation was 14.7% in the ketamine group and 33.3% in the placebo group. Children receiving ketamine had a lower incidence of emergence agitation, with an odds ratio being 0.23 (95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.46), certainty of evidence: low. In comparison with the placebo, ketamine group achieved a lower postoperative pain score (odds ratio: -2.42, 95% confidence interval: -4.23 to -0.62, certainty of evidence: very low) and lower pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale at 5 minutes after operation (odds ratio: -3.99, 95% confidence interval: -5.03 to -2.95; certainty of evidence: moderate). However, no evidence was observed in terms of incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm.
CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials, high degree of heterogeneity and low certainty of evidence limit the recommendations of ketamine for the prevention of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or imaging procedures. However, the use of ketamine is well-tolerated without any notable adverse effects across all the included trials.
PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42019131865.