Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Batra YK, Al Qattan AR, Ali SS, Qureshi MI, Kuriakose D, Migahed A
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2004 Jun;14(6):452-6.
    PMID: 15153205
    Tracheal intubation in children can be achieved by deep inhalational anaesthesia or an intravenous anaesthetic and a muscle relaxant, suxamethonium being widely used despite several side-effects. Studies have shown that oral intubation can be facilitated safely and effectively in children after induction of anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil without a muscle relaxant. Remifentanil is a new, ultra-short acting, selective mu-receptor agonist that is 20-30 times more potent than alfentanil. This clinical study was designed to assess whether combination of propofol and remifentanil could be used without a muscle relaxant to facilitate tracheal intubation in children.
  2. Chaw S, Lo Y, Shariffuddin II, Wong J, Lee J, Leong DW, et al.
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2019 01;29(1):68-76.
    PMID: 30381868 DOI: 10.1111/pan.13528
    BACKGROUND: Effective pain management involves a cycle of continual pain assessment, good pain control strategies, and assessment of a standard quality improvement measures. A validated questionnaire that focuses on the quality of postoperative pain management in pediatric surgical patients and parental satisfaction on pain treatment is lacking. We, therefore, modified the revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire to evaluate the quality of postoperative pain management in a pediatric surgical setting. The primary aim of this study was to validate the modified version of revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire.

    METHODS: Parents whose children aged below 12 years and were scheduled for elective surgery in a teaching hospital, were approached to participate in this survey. The reliability of the modified version of revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha test, while the construct validity was assessed with a principal component analysis using a varimax rotation. The parental satisfaction with pain treatment received was measured.

    RESULTS: A total of 108 parents completed the questionnaire. The internal consistency of the questionnaire shows a Cronbach's alpha of 0.798. Principal component analysis revealed a four-factor structure of the 12 items which explained 69.7% of the total variance. The factors are "Interference of sleep and activity," "Pain severity and drowsiness," "Perception of care," and "Adverse effects," respectively. Our study showed that this questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure for "Interference of sleep and activity" and "Pain severity and drowsiness" factors, but not for "Perception of care" and "Adverse effects." The results for "Perception of care" and "Adverse effects," therefore, should be reported as individual items instead of total score. The parental satisfaction with pain treatment given was good (median 8.0; IQR 3.0).

    CONCLUSION: The modified version of revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire is a feasible and easy instrument to administer. The questionnaire can be used to obtain feedback from parents about the outcomes and experiences of pain management and is helpful in continuous quality evaluation and improvement in the postoperative care in a pediatric setting.

  3. Mohtar S, Hui TWC, Irwin MG
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2018 11;28(11):1035-1042.
    PMID: 30281181 DOI: 10.1111/pan.13502
    BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery has dramatically increased over the last decade because of both medical and cosmetic benefits. Anesthesia for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in small children is more challenging compared to adults due to the considerable problems posed by small airway dimensions and ventilation. The optimal technique for one-lung ventilation has yet to be established and the use of remifentanil infusion in this setting is not well described.

    AIMS: This study investigated the use of extraluminal bronchial blocker placement for one-lung ventilation and the effect of infusion of remifentanil in infants and small children undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the technique of one-lung ventilation and the hemodynamic effects of remifentanil infusion in 31 small children during elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for congenital lung lesions under anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane, oxygen, and air. Patients' heart rate, blood pressure, and endtidal carbon dioxide at baseline (after induction of anesthesia), immediately after one-lung ventilation, during carbon dioxide insufflation, and at the end of one-lung ventilation were extracted from the database and analyzed. The use of vasopressors or dexmedetomidine was also recorded and analyzed.

    RESULTS: Extraluminal placement of a bronchial blocker alongside the tracheal tube was successfully performed in 90.3% of cases (28 patients) without any serious complications or arterial oxygen desaturation. There was no significant rise in blood pressure or heart rate even with the rise of endtidal carbon dioxide concentration during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. In 58% of patients (18 patients), phenylephrine was administered to maintain the blood pressure within 20% of the baseline value. There was no significant change in the heart rate of all patients at each time point.

    CONCLUSION: One-lung ventilation with an extraluminal parallel blocker was used effectively in this series of young children undergoing thoracoscopic excision of congenital pulmonary lesions. Remifentanil infusion attenuated surgical stress effectively in infants and small children undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

  4. NG KP, Wang CY
    Paediatr Anaesth, 1999;9(6):491-4.
    PMID: 10597551
    Intubating conditions under halothane anaesthesia aided with alfentanil 20 micrograms.kg-1 were compared with suxamethonium 2 mg.kg-1 in 40 children presenting for day dental procedures. The condition of vocal cords, jaw relaxation and presence of movement and coughing were scored to give the overall intubating conditions. Successful intubation was achieved in 100% of the suxamethonium group and 94.7% of the alfentanil group. The cardiovascular response to intubation was attenuated in the alfentanil group. Some 43.7% of those receiving suxamethonium developed myalgia the day after surgery compared with 0% in the alfentanil group (P < 0.01).
  5. Chiu CL, Wang CY
    Paediatr Anaesth, 1999;9(3):268-70.
    PMID: 10320610
    Two children with Tetralogy of Fallot presented for dental extraction. Anaesthesia was induced rapidly and smoothly by inhalation of sevoflurane. We discussed the advantages of sevoflurane as an induction agent as compared to halothane in these children.
  6. Lim SK, Fadhilah T, Ibtisan I
    Paediatr Anaesth, 1998;8(4):337-40.
    PMID: 9672933
    Congenital laryngotracheo-oesophageal cleft is a rare anomaly which presents a challenge to the anaesthetists because of the potential problems of establishing and maintaining an airway. We report the anaesthetic management of a one-month old baby with complete or type IV laryngotracheo-oesophageal presenting for the repair of the defect. The management of the precarious airway is presented and the various techniques of managing the airway are reviewed.
  7. Teoh CY, Lim FS
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2008 Feb;18(2):119-24.
    PMID: 18184242 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2007.02385.x
    The Proseal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is a relatively new supraglottic airway device with a drain tube to minimize the risk of gastric insufflation and aspiration. We compared introducer tool (IT) and gum elastic bougie (GEB)-guided techniques for insertion of the Proseal LMA in children.
  8. Lew YS, Thambi Dorai CR, Phyu PT
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2005 Apr;15(4):346-9.
    PMID: 15787930
    A 4-month-old healthy male infant underwent left herniotomy under general anesthesia with caudal block. Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum was created through the left hernial sac for inspection of the right processus vaginalis. Episodes of desaturation associated with significant reduction in chest compliance were noted intraoperatively. This was overcome by increasing the inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2). The infant failed to regain consciousness and spontaneous respiration at the end of surgery. The chest compliance deteriorated further and clinically a CO2 pneumothorax (capnothorax) was suspected. The endtidal carbon dioxide (P(E)CO2) was initially low in the immediate postoperative period. Subsequent to the readministration of sevoflurane and manual ventilation with a Jackson Rees circuit, a sudden surge in P(E)CO2 with improvement of chest compliance was observed. At that time arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis revealed a PCO2 of 17.5 kPa (134 mmHg) and pH of 6.9. The causes of severe hypercarbia and the physiological changes observed in this infant are discussed.
  9. Batra YK, Ivanova M, Ali SS, Shamsah M, Al Qattan AR, Belani KG
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2005 Dec;15(12):1094-7.
    PMID: 16324030 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01633.x
    BACKGROUND: Laryngospasm is a well-known problem typically occurring immediately following tracheal extubation. Propofol is known to inhibit airway reflexes. In this study, we sought to assess whether the empiric use of a subhypnotic dose of propofol prior to emergence will decrease the occurrence of laryngospasm following extubation in children.
    METHODS: After approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and informed parental consent, we enrolled 120 children ASA physical status I and II, aged 3-14 years who were scheduled to undergo elective tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy under standard general anesthesia. Before extubation, the patients were randomized and received in a blinded fashion either propofol 0.5 mg.kg(-1) or saline (control) intravenously. Tracheal extubation was performed 60 s after administration of study drug, when the child was breathing regularly and reacting to the tracheal tube.
    RESULTS: Laryngospasm was seen in 20% (n = 12) of the 60 children in the control group and in only 6.6% (n = 4) of 60 children in the propofol group (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: During emergence from inhalational anesthesia, propofol in a subhypnotic dose (0.5 mg.kg(-1)) decreases the likelihood of laryngospasm upon tracheal extubation in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy.
  10. Ng KT, Sarode D, Lai YS, Teoh WY, Wang CY
    Paediatr Anaesth, 2019 12;29(12):1163-1172.
    PMID: 31587414 DOI: 10.1111/pan.13752
    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is believed to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or procedure. However, recent randomized controlled trials reported conflicting findings.

    AIMS: To investigate the effect of ketamine on emergence agitation in children.

    METHODS: Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systematically searched from their start date until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous ketamine and placebo in children were sought. The primary outcome was the incidence of emergence agitation. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain score, duration of discharge time, and the adverse effects associated with the use of ketamine, namely postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm.

    RESULTS: Thirteen studies (1125 patients) were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. The incidence of emergence agitation was 14.7% in the ketamine group and 33.3% in the placebo group. Children receiving ketamine had a lower incidence of emergence agitation, with an odds ratio being 0.23 (95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.46), certainty of evidence: low. In comparison with the placebo, ketamine group achieved a lower postoperative pain score (odds ratio: -2.42, 95% confidence interval: -4.23 to -0.62, certainty of evidence: very low) and lower pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale at 5 minutes after operation (odds ratio: -3.99, 95% confidence interval: -5.03 to -2.95; certainty of evidence: moderate). However, no evidence was observed in terms of incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm.

    CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials, high degree of heterogeneity and low certainty of evidence limit the recommendations of ketamine for the prevention of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or imaging procedures. However, the use of ketamine is well-tolerated without any notable adverse effects across all the included trials.


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