Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

  1. Tay Za K, Bee PC, Shanmugam H
    Pathology, 2020 Feb;52(2):273-276.
    PMID: 31883672 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2019.10.013
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma/pathology*; Lung Neoplasms/pathology*
  2. Mohamad Zaki FH, Nik Hussain NH, Ismail P, Wan Yusoff WZ, Othman NH
    Pathology, 2016 Feb;48 Suppl 1:S148.
    PMID: 27772923 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2015.12.402
    Background: The major problem with cervical cancer screening in countries which have no organized national screening program for cervical cancer is sub-optimal participation. Implementation of self-sampling method may increase the participation of women to screen for cervical cancer.
    Aims: To determine the agreement of cytological diagnoses made on samples collected by women themselves (self-sampling) versus cytological diagnoses made on samples collected
    by physicians (Physician sampling)
    Methods: We invited women volunteers to undergo two procedures; cervical self-sampling using the Evalyn brush and physician scraping using Cervex brush. They women were
    shown a video presentation on how to take their own cervical samples before the procedure. The samples taken by physicians were taken as per routine testing (Gold Standard). All
    samples were subjected to Thin Prep monolayer smears. The diagnoses made were according to the Bethesda classification. The results from the two sampling methods were analysed and compared.
    Results: A total of 367 women were recruited into the study. Thin Prep smears by physicians were better in terms of volume and variety of the cells seen. There is significant good agreement of the cytological diagnoses made on the samples from the two sampling methods with the Kappa value of 0.568 (p=0.040). The Thin Prep smears by self-sampling method were better in detecting microorganisms.
    Conclusion: This study shows that samples taken by women themselves (self-sampling) and physicians sampling had good cytology agreement. Self-sampling could be the method of
    choice in countries in which the coverage of women attending clinics for screening for cervical cancer is poor.
  3. Loo SK, Ch'ng ES, Lawrie CH, Muruzabal MA, Gaafar A, Pomposo MP, et al.
    Pathology, 2017 Dec;49(7):731-739.
    PMID: 29074044 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2017.08.009
    DNMT1 is a target of approved anti-cancer drugs including decitabine. However, the prognostic value of DNMT1 protein expression in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) remains unexplored. Here we showed that DNMT1 was expressed in the majority of DLBCL cases (n = 209/230, 90.9%) with higher expression in germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCL subtype. Low and negative DNMT1 expression (20% cut-off, n = 33/230, 14.3%) was predictive of worse overall survival (OS; p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS; p < 0.001). Nonetheless, of the 209 DNMT1 positive patients, 33% and 42% did not achieve 5-year OS and PFS, respectively, indicating that DNMT1 positive patients showed considerably heterogeneous outcomes. Moreover, DNMT1 was frequently expressed in mitotic cells and significantly correlated with Ki-67 or BCL6 expression (r = 0.60 or 0.44, respectively; p < 0.001). We demonstrate that DNMT1 is predictive of DLBCL patients' survival, and suggest that DNMT1 could be a DLBCL therapeutic target due to its significant association with Ki-67.
    Matched MeSH terms: B-Lymphocytes/pathology; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology; Germinal Center/pathology
  4. Ng KL, Yap NY, Rajandram R, Small D, Pailoor J, Ong TA, et al.
    Pathology, 2018 Aug;50(5):511-518.
    PMID: 29935727 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.03.003
    Better characterisation and understanding of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development and progression lead to better diagnosis and clinical outcomes. In this study, expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) subunits: p65 (RelA), p105/p50, p100/p52, and cRel in RCC tissue were compared with corresponding normal kidney, along with tumour characteristics and survival outcome. Ninety-six cases of RCC with paired normal kidney were analysed. Clinicopathological data, demographics and survival data were available. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NF-κB subtypes was analysed using the Aperio digital pathology system for overall cellular expression and localisation. The prognostic cancer-specific survival value of the subunits in RCC patients was analysed. Approximately 50% of patients had clinical stage T1, with 22 patients having metastases at presentation. RCC subtypes were: clear cell (n = 76); papillary (n = 11); chromophobe (n = 5); clear cell tubulopapillary (n = 3); and one multilocular cystic RCC. Median follow up was 54.5 months (0.2-135), with 28 deaths at time of analysis. NF-κB p65 had higher overall and nuclear expressions, with lower overall and nuclear expressions of p50, p52 and cRel in RCC compared with normal kidney. Higher expressions of p65 (nuclear), p52 (overall and nuclear) and p50 (overall) correlated significantly with worse cancer-specific survival. This is the first large series of analysis of expression of NF-κB subunits in RCC. Especially with regards to the less studied subunits (p52, p50, cRel), our results allow a better understanding the role of NF-κB in RCC development and progression, and may pave the way for future targeted NF-κB subunit specific therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  5. Wong HT, Mun KS, Zulkiflee AB, Prepageran N
    Pathology, 2016 Jan;48(1):95-6.
    PMID: 27020222 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2015.11.022
    Matched MeSH terms: Maxillary Sinus/pathology; Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms/pathology*; Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/pathology*
  6. Azizi A, Sthaneshwar P, Shanmugam H, Arumugam S
    Pathology, 2015 Aug;47(5):495-7.
    PMID: 26126045 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000286
  7. Noor KM, Shephard L, Bastian I
    Pathology, 2015 Apr;47(3):250-6.
    PMID: 25719854 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000232
    The phenotypic methods of smear microscopy, culture and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) remain the 'gold standard' diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) in 2015. However, this review demonstrates that genotypic methods are in the ascendancy. Current-generation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important supplementary tests for the rapid direct detection of (multidrug-resistant) TB in specific clinical settings. Genotypic detection is already the preferred method of detecting rifampicin and pyrazinamide resistance. Next-generation NAATs able to detect about 10 colony forming units/mL of sputum could replace culture as the initial test for detecting TB. Whole genome sequencing could also plausibly replace phenotypic DST but much work is required in method standardisation, database development and elucidation of all resistance gene determinants. The challenge then will be to rollout these increasingly complex and expensive diagnostics in the low-income countries where TB is prevalent.
  8. Rajandram R, Yap NY, Pailoor J, Razack AH, Ng KL, Ong TA, et al.
    Pathology, 2014 Oct;46(6):518-22.
    PMID: 25158810 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000145
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) generally has a poor prognosis because of late diagnosis and metastasis. We have previously described decreased tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-1 (TRAF-1) in RCC compared with paired normal kidney in a patient cohort in Australia. In the present study, TRAF-1 expression in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and normal kidney was again compared, but in a cohort from University Malaya Medical Centre. Serum TRAF-1 was also evaluated in RCC and normal samples.Immunohistochemistry with automated batch staining and Aperio ImageScope morphometry was used to compare TRAF-1 in 61 ccRCC with paired normal kidney tissue. Serum from 15 newly diagnosed and untreated ccRCC and 15 healthy people was tested for TRAF-1 using ELISA.In this cohort, TRAF-1 was highly expressed in proximal tubular epithelium of normal kidney, and significantly decreased in ccRCC tissue (p 
  9. Sthaneshwar P, Shanmugam H, Swan VG, Nasurdin N, Tanggaiah K
    Pathology, 2013 06;45(4):417-9.
    PMID: 23635828 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e32836142eb
    AIM: Measurement of HbA1c provides an excellent measure of glycaemic control for diabetic patients. However, haemoglobin (Hb) variants are known to interfere with HbA1c analysis. In our laboratory HbA1c measurement is performed by Variant II turbo 2.0. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of HbE trait on HbA1c analysis.

    METHODS: Haemoglobin variants were identified by HbA1c analysis in 93 of 3522 samples sent to our laboratory in a period of 1 month. Haemoglobin analysis identified HbE trait in 81 of 93 samples. To determine the influence of HbE trait on HbA1c analysis by Variant II Tubo 2.0, boronate affinity high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Primus PDQ) was used as the comparison method. Two stage linear regression analysis, Bland Altman plot and Deming regression analysis were performed to analyse whether the presence of HbE trait produced a statistically significant difference in the results. The total allowable error for HbA1c by the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists (RCPA) external quality assurance is 5%. Hence clinically significant difference is more than 5% at the medical decision level of 6% and 9%.

    RESULTS: Statistically and clinically significant higher results were observed in Variant II Turbo 2.0 due to the presence of HbE trait. A positive bias of ∼10% was observed at the medical decision levels.

    CONCLUSION: Laboratories should be cautious when evaluating HbA1c results in the presence of haemoglobin variants.

  10. George E, Teh LK, Tan J, Lai MI, Wong L
    Pathology, 2013 01;45(1):62-5.
    PMID: 23222244 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e32835af7c1
    AIMS: Classical carriers of β-thalassaemia are identified by a raised HbA2 level. Earlier studies indicated that the Filipino β-deletion has high raised HbA2 levels. The introduction of automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for thalassaemia screening is an important advance in technology for haematology laboratories. The BioRad Variant II Hb analyser is a common instrument used to quantify HbA2 levels in thalassaemia screening. This study aimed to determine HbA2 levels in carriers of Filipino β-mutation using the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser.

    METHODS: The Filipino β-deletion was identified using gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the parents of transfusion dependent β-thalassaemia patients who were homozygous for the Filipino β-deletion in the indigenous population of Sabah, Malaysia. Hb subtypes were quantified on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser. Concurrent α-thalassaemia was identified by multiplex gap-PCR for deletions and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR for non-deletional mutations.

    RESULTS: The mean HbA2 level for Filipino β-thalassaemia trait was 5.9 ± 0.47 and with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia was 6.3 ± 0.44 (-α heterozygous) and 6.7 ± 0.36 (-α homozygous). The HbA2 levels were all >4% in keeping with the findings of classical β-thalassaemia trait and significantly higher than levels seen in non-deletional forms of β-thalassaemia.

    CONCLUSION: The HbA2 level measured on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser was lower than the level in the first description of the Filipino β-thalassaemia. β-thalassaemia trait with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia (-α) is associated with significantly higher HbA2 level.

  11. Wong KK, Prepageran N, Peh SC
    Pathology, 2009 Feb;41(2):133-9.
    PMID: 18972319 DOI: 10.1080/00313020802436790
    AIMS: To stratify upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into prognostic subgroups by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) method, and to evaluate the association rate of UAT DLBCL with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

    METHODS: Using a panel of antibodies to CD10, Bcl-6, MUM1 and CD138, consecutive cases of primary UAT DLBCL were stratified into subgroups of germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB, phenotype profile patterns A, B and C, as proposed by Hans et al. and Chang et al., respectively. EBER in situ hybridisation technique was applied for the detection of EBV in the tumours.

    RESULTS: In this series of 32 cases of UAT DLBCL, 34% (11/32) were GCB, and 66% (21/32) were non-GCB types; 59% (19/32) had combined patterns A and B, and 41% (13/32) had pattern C. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the occurrence of these prognostic subgroups in the UAT when compared with series of de novo DLBCL from all sites. There was also no site difference in phenotype protein expressions, with the exception of MUM1. EBER in situ hybridisation stain demonstrated only one EBV infected case.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic subgroup distribution of UAT DLBCL is similar to de novo DLBCL from all sites, and EBV association is very infrequent.

    Matched MeSH terms: Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms/pathology; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology
  12. El-Tawil SG, Adnan R, Muhamed ZN, Othman NH
    Pathology, 2008 Oct;40(6):600-3.
    PMID: 18752127 DOI: 10.1080/00313020802320622
    AIMS: To evaluate Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as new tool for screening of cervical cancer in comparison with cervical cytology.

    METHODS: A total of 800 cervical scrapings were taken by cytobrush and placed in ThinPrep medium. The samples were dried over infrared transparent matrix. Beams of infrared light were directed at the dried samples at frequency of 4000 to 400 cm(-1). The absorption data were produced using a Spectrum BX II FTIR spectrometer. Data were compared with the reference absorption data of known samples using FTIR spectroscopy software. FTIR spectroscopy was compared with cytology (gold standard).

    RESULTS: FTIR spectroscopy could differentiate normal from abnormal cervical cells in the samples examined. The sensitivity was 85%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 19.5% and negative predictive value of 99.5%.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy could be used as an alternative method for screening for cervical cancer.

  13. Wong CY, Cheong SK, Mok PL, Leong CF
    Pathology, 2008 Jan;40(1):52-7.
    PMID: 18038316
    AIMS: Adult human bone marrow contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that contributes to the regeneration of tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, and fat. In recent years, it has been shown that functional stem cells exist in the adult bone marrow, and they can contribute to renal remodelling or reconstitution of injured renal glomeruli, especially mesangial cells. The purpose of this study is to examine the ability of MSC isolated from human bone marrow to differentiate into mesangial cells in glomerular injured athymic mice.

    METHODS: MSC were isolated from human bone marrow mononuclear cells based on plastic adherent properties and expanded in vitro in the culture medium. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were characterised using microscopy, immunophenotyping, and their ability to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. hMSC were then injected into athymic mice, which had induced glomerulonephropathy (GN).

    RESULTS: Test mice (induced GN and infused hMSC) were shown to have anti-human CD105(+) cells present in the kidneys and were also positive to anti-human desmin, a marker for mesangial cells. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays also demonstrated that anti-human desmin(+) cells in the glomeruli of these test mice were in the proliferation stage, being positive to anti-human Ki-67.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that hMSC found in renal glomeruli differentiated into mesangial cells in vivo after glomerular injury occurred.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Marrow Cells/pathology; Glomerulonephritis/pathology*; Kidney Glomerulus/pathology*; Mesangial Cells/pathology*; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/pathology*
  14. Tan LP, Ng BK, Balraj P, Lim PK, Peh SC
    Pathology, 2007 Apr;39(2):228-34.
    PMID: 17454753
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colorectal cancers of different subtypes involve different pathogenic pathways like the Wnt and the mutator pathways. In this study, we screened 73 colorectal cancer cases from a multi-racial group for genetic and expression profile defects with the aim of correlating these with patients' clinicopathological characteristics.
    METHODS: Mutation screening of the entire coding region of APC and exon 3 of CTNNB1, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC, and microsatellite instability (MSI) status were assessed for 44 patients with available paired frozen normal and tumour tissues. In addition, 29 cases with available paraffin embedded tumour blocks were screened for mutation in exon 3 of CTNNB1, the APC mutation cluster region (codon 1286-1513), and hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry method.
    RESULTS: In our study, 15/73 cases showed APC mutations (20.5%), 1/73 cases had CTNNB1 mutation (1.4%), 5/32 cases had APC LOH (15.6%), and 16/70 (22.9%) cases revealed at least some form of mismatch repair (MMR) defect. Tumour grade (poor differentiation) was found to correlate significantly with right-sided tumour and mucinous histology (p = 0.01879 and 0.00320, respectively). Patients of younger age (below 45 years) more often had tumours of mucinous histology (p = 0.00014), while patients of older age (above 75 years) more often had tumours on the right side of the colon (p = 0.02448). Tumours of the mucinous histology subtype often had MMR defects (p = 0.02686). There was no difference in the occurrence of APC and CTNNB1 mutations and MMR defects found within our multi-racial colorectal cancer patient cohort.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings support the notion that racial factor may not be related to the occurrence of MMR defects and APC and CTNNB1 mutations in our multi-racial patient cohort.
  15. Tan JA, Chin PS, Wong YC, Tan KL, Chan LL, George E
    Pathology, 2006 Oct;38(5):437-41.
    PMID: 17008283
    In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/pathology
  16. Fernandopulle SM, Cher-Siangang P, Tan PH
    Pathology, 2006 Jun;38(3):219-22.
    PMID: 16753742
    To document the pathological features of breast carcinoma diagnosed in women aged 35 years or less.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*; Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/pathology*; Cell Nucleus/pathology; Lymph Nodes/pathology; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology*
  17. Shaminie J, Peh SC, Tan J
    Pathology, 2005 Feb;37(1):39-44.
    PMID: 15875732
    AIM: Tumour suppressor gene p53 is a common target in carcinogenesis, reported to be altered and functionally inactive in 70% of human cancers. Although p53 mutations are less commonly present in haematological malignancies when compared with other solid tumours, they have been reported in histological transformation of follicular lymphoma. We aimed to investigate the frequency of p53 gene alterations in paraffin-embedded tissue using commercially available PCR-SSCP, and to correlate the results with P53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry.

    METHODS: Surgical samples from seven patients with a total of 17 sequential biopsies were retrieved for the study of p53 gene expression using immunohistochemical stain, and gene status by PCR-SSCP for exons 5-8. The tumours were graded according to the WHO classification criteria. P53 was distinctly over-expressed in five transformed higher grade biopsies, and all except one showed electrophoretic mobility shift in PCR-SSCP analysis. Sequencing analysis revealed single nucleotide substitutions in three of four of these high-grade transformed cases with band shift (75%), whereas some other studies reported a lower frequency of 25-30%, and mobility shift result was found to correlate with P53 expression. Lower grade tumours without P53 over-expression did not demonstrate band shift, and sequencing analysis did not reveal mutations.

    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the feasibility of adopting PCR-SSCP for screening of p53 mutations in archival tissue samples in this study, and there is a strong correlation of p53 gene over-expression and mutation events in high-grade transformed tumours.

  18. Munchar MJ, Sharifah NA, Jamal R, Looi LM
    Pathology, 2003 Apr;35(2):125-9.
    PMID: 12745459
    CD44 is a cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in the cascade of metastasis and progression of human malignant tumours. A large family of variants or isoforms, generated by alternative splicing of a single gene, has been reported to be involved in the malignant process by conferring metastatic potential to non-metastatic cells. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of CD44 standard molecule with the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) for neuroblastic tumours, a histological grading system based on the Shimada system for predicting the clinical outcome in neuroblastic tumours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ganglioneuroma/pathology; Neuroblastoma/pathology
  19. Peh SC, Kim LH, Poppema S
    Pathology, 2002 Oct;34(5):446-50.
    PMID: 12408344
    AIMS: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with many human malignancies. It is implicated in a pathogenetic role in some of these tumours. Two subtypes, type A and B have been identified on the basis of DNA sequence divergence in the nuclear protein genes (EBNA) 2, 3, 4 and 6. They differ in their transforming efficiency and prevalence pattern in different geographical locations. We aimed to identify the virus subtype infection pattern in our EBV-associated diseases.

    METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue from 38 lymphomas (17 Hodgkin's, 14 Burkitt's, four T cell and 3 B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and 14 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) were studied, with 12 reactive lymph nodes and tonsils as normal control. EBER in situ hybridisation was performed to confirm EBV association in the tumour cells. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was employed using two pairs of consensus primers which flanked a 105-bp deletion in the type A virus. U2 region encoding for EBNA-2 was chosen as the target of amplification, with cell lines B95.8 and AG876 serving as positive controls for types A and B virus, respectively.

    RESULTS: All cases showed presence of type A virus, consistently detected with nested PCR protocol but not with single step PCR. There was no type B virus or mix infections detected.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nested PCR technique has successfully increased the sensitivity of EBV subtype detection, and type A virus is the prevalent strain associated with human diseases in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma/pathology; Lymph Nodes/pathology; Lymphoma/pathology; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology; Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology
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