Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

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  1. Loo SK, Ch'ng ES, Lawrie CH, Muruzabal MA, Gaafar A, Pomposo MP, et al.
    Pathology, 2017 Dec;49(7):731-739.
    PMID: 29074044 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2017.08.009
    DNMT1 is a target of approved anti-cancer drugs including decitabine. However, the prognostic value of DNMT1 protein expression in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) remains unexplored. Here we showed that DNMT1 was expressed in the majority of DLBCL cases (n = 209/230, 90.9%) with higher expression in germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCL subtype. Low and negative DNMT1 expression (20% cut-off, n = 33/230, 14.3%) was predictive of worse overall survival (OS; p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS; p < 0.001). Nonetheless, of the 209 DNMT1 positive patients, 33% and 42% did not achieve 5-year OS and PFS, respectively, indicating that DNMT1 positive patients showed considerably heterogeneous outcomes. Moreover, DNMT1 was frequently expressed in mitotic cells and significantly correlated with Ki-67 or BCL6 expression (r = 0.60 or 0.44, respectively; p < 0.001). We demonstrate that DNMT1 is predictive of DLBCL patients' survival, and suggest that DNMT1 could be a DLBCL therapeutic target due to its significant association with Ki-67.
    Matched MeSH terms: B-Lymphocytes/pathology; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology; Germinal Center/pathology
  2. Ng KL, Yap NY, Rajandram R, Small D, Pailoor J, Ong TA, et al.
    Pathology, 2018 Aug;50(5):511-518.
    PMID: 29935727 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.03.003
    Better characterisation and understanding of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development and progression lead to better diagnosis and clinical outcomes. In this study, expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) subunits: p65 (RelA), p105/p50, p100/p52, and cRel in RCC tissue were compared with corresponding normal kidney, along with tumour characteristics and survival outcome. Ninety-six cases of RCC with paired normal kidney were analysed. Clinicopathological data, demographics and survival data were available. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NF-κB subtypes was analysed using the Aperio digital pathology system for overall cellular expression and localisation. The prognostic cancer-specific survival value of the subunits in RCC patients was analysed. Approximately 50% of patients had clinical stage T1, with 22 patients having metastases at presentation. RCC subtypes were: clear cell (n = 76); papillary (n = 11); chromophobe (n = 5); clear cell tubulopapillary (n = 3); and one multilocular cystic RCC. Median follow up was 54.5 months (0.2-135), with 28 deaths at time of analysis. NF-κB p65 had higher overall and nuclear expressions, with lower overall and nuclear expressions of p50, p52 and cRel in RCC compared with normal kidney. Higher expressions of p65 (nuclear), p52 (overall and nuclear) and p50 (overall) correlated significantly with worse cancer-specific survival. This is the first large series of analysis of expression of NF-κB subunits in RCC. Especially with regards to the less studied subunits (p52, p50, cRel), our results allow a better understanding the role of NF-κB in RCC development and progression, and may pave the way for future targeted NF-κB subunit specific therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  3. Ng KL, Del Vecchio SJ, Samaratunga H, Morais C, Rajandram R, Vesey DA, et al.
    Pathology, 2018 Aug;50(5):504-510.
    PMID: 29970253 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.01.007
    One of the challenges in differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) from benign renal oncocytoma (RO) is overlapping morphology between the two subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of expression of leptin (Ob) and its receptor (ObR) in discriminating chRCC from RO. Sections from paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tumour nephrectomy specimens of 45 patients, made up of 30 chRCC (15 eosinophilic variant and 15 non-eosinophilic variant) and 15 RO, were used in this study. Samples (30) of clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the most common histological subtype, were used to verify staining patterns found by others in our cohort of Australasian patients. Matched morphologically normal non-cancer kidney tissues were included for each specimen. Sections were batch-immunostained using antibodies against Ob and ObR. Stained sections were digitally scanned using Aperio ImageScope, and the expression pattern of Ob and ObR was studied. In this cohort, male to female ratio was 2:1; median age was 64 (45-88 years); and median tumour size was 3.8 cm (range 1.2-18 cm). There were 47 (62.7%) T1, seven T2, 20 T3 and one T4 stage RCC. Two patients with ccRCC presented with metastases. Nuclear expression of Ob was significantly higher in RO compared with chRCC. The increased nuclear expression of Ob in RO compared with chRCC may be a useful aid in the difficult histological differentiation of RO from chRCC, especially eosinophilic variants of chRCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology*; Kidney/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Adenoma, Oxyphilic/pathology
  4. Ting HY, Sthaneshwar P, Bee PC, Shanmugam H, Lim M
    Pathology, 2019 Aug;51(5):507-511.
    PMID: 31253381 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2019.04.002
    Serum protein (SPE) and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) have been extensively validated for the routine use of identifying, characterising and quantifying monoclonal proteins. However, accurate quantitation of IgA monoclonal proteins can be difficult when they migrate in to the β fraction, due to co-migration with transferrin and complement components. The heavy/light chain (HLC) immunoassay is an additional tool for measuring intact immunoglobulin monoclonal proteins. Therefore, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the HLC assay for the disease monitoring of IgG and IgA multiple myeloma (MM) patients. A total of 177 samples from 30 MM patients (21 IgG and 9 IgA) were analysed retrospectively with median number of six follow up samples per patient (range 3-13). Serum free light chains (sFLC) and HLC were quantified using Freelite and Hevylite immunoassays. Details of M-protein concentration, β-globulin levels, total immunoglobulin levels and disease treatment response were obtained from the laboratory and patient information system. Passing-Bablok regression analysis was performed to compare (i) M-protein quantification with involved HLC (iHLC) and (ii) total immunoglobulin with summated HLC pairs for each immunoglobulin type (e.g., IgGκ+IgGλ). For 127 IgG MM samples, IgG iHLC levels showed a good correlation with SPE quantification (iHLC y=0.96x+4.9; r=0.917) and summated HLC showed a good correlation with total IgG concentration (summated HLC y=0.94x+5.74; r=0.91). In total, 95/127 (75%) IgG MM follow-up samples had an abnormal HLC ratio and 122/127 (96%) had a positive SPE, probably due to the lower sensitivity of HLC assay in detecting clonality in patients with IgG MM. Consistent with this, one patient assigned a very good partial response by International Myeloma Working Group criteria would be assigned a complete response based on HLC measurements. For 50 IgA MM samples, 42/50 (84%) had an abnormal HLC ratio. Conversely, 50/50 (100%) of M-proteins showed β fraction migration and were difficult to accurately quantify by SPE. Therefore, M-protein concentration and iHLC did not correlate as well in IgA MM (y=1.9x-8.4; r=0.8) compared to IgG MM. However, there was good correlation between total IgA and summated IgA HLC (IgAκ+IgAλ y=1.35x-0.33; r=0.95). Of the 8/50 (16%) IgA samples with a normal HLC ratio, 6/8 (75%) were consistent with the disease status being in complete remission. Interestingly, in one IgA MM patient, SPE and IFE were negative, but the serum FLC ratio and involved FLC were highly abnormal, consistent with the presence of light chain escape. Our data suggest HLC measurements could add value to the current disease monitoring of MM patients. In IgG MM patients, the M-protein level correlated well with HLC values. The HLC assay complements the serum FLC assay and is especially useful for monitoring of IgA MM patients who display M-proteins migrating in the β region on SPE.
  5. Siar CH, Ng KH
    Pathology, 2019 Aug;51(5):494-501.
    PMID: 31262562 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2019.04.004
    The ameloblastoma is the most common and clinically significant odontogenic epithelial neoplasm known for its locally-invasive behaviour and high recurrence risk. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process whereby epithelial cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain mesenchymal properties. EMT induction via transcription repression has been investigated in ameloblastoma. However, morphologically evident mesenchymal phenotypic transition remains ill-defined. To determine this, 24 unicystic (UA), 34 solid/multicystic (SA) and 18 recurrent ameloblastoma (RA) were immunohistochemically examined for three EMT-related mesenchymal markers, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), osteonectin and neuronal cadherin (N-cadherin). All three factors were heterogeneously detected in ameloblastoma samples (α-SMA, n=71/76, 93.4%; osteonectin, n=72/76, 94.7%; N-cadherin, n=24/76, 31.6%). In the tumoural parenchyma, immunoreactive cells were not morphologically distinct from their non-reactive cellular counterparts. Rather, α-SMA and osteonectin predominantly labelled the cytoplasm of central polyhedral > peripheral columnar/cuboidal tumour cells. N-cadherin demonstrated weak-to-moderate circumferential membranous staining in both neoplastic cell types and cytoplasmic expression in spindle-celled epithelium of desmoplastic amelobastoma. For all tumour subsets, α-SMA and osteonectin scored significantly higher in the stroma > parenchyma whilst α-SMA was overexpressed along the tumour invasive front > centre (p<0.05). Stromal N-cadherin scored higher in SA > UA and RA > UA (p<0.05). Other clinicopathological parameters showed no significant associations. Taken together, acquisition of mesenchymal traits without morphologically evident mesenchymal alteration suggests partial EMT in ameloblastoma. Stromal upregulation of these proteins in SA and RA implicates a role in local invasiveness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ameloblastoma/pathology*; Jaw Neoplasms/pathology*; Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology*
  6. Looi LM, Prathap K
    Pathology, 1979 Oct;11(4):575-82.
    PMID: 93739
    Material from 334 consecutive autopsies on Orang Asli subjects performed in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between May 1967 and June 1978 was examined for amyloidosis. Nine positive cases were found, all in patients above 40 years of age, giving an age-corrected incidence of about 9%. In 6 cases, amyloidosis was probably secondary to tuberculosis. The remaining 3 cases exhibited a pericollagenous distribution characteristic of primary amyloidosis. Involvement of the heart and lungs was prominent. However, there were considerable similarities in the distribution and staining properties of the amyloid in the 2 groups. Though both the heart and kidney were frequently affected, the kidney was the most common organ to give rise to clinical symptoms. Infection probably plays a major contributory role in amyloidosis in the Orang Asli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*; Kidney/pathology; Liver/pathology; Myocardium/pathology; Spleen/pathology
  7. Leong AS
    Pathology, 1979 Apr;11(2):241-9.
    PMID: 460949
    Marchiafava-Bignami disease, a rare affliction of alcoholic males, is described in a severely malnourished Malaysian Indian male who took no alcohol. It is the second report of the disease in an Asian and represents one of the few cases which have occurred in non-alcoholics. Besides the pathognomonic demyelination of the central portion of the corpus callosum, there were striking demyelinative plaques in the subcortical white matter. In addition, neuropathological features of Wernicke's disease were found suggesting that severe malnutrition with thiamine deficiency was probably the cause of his demise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alcoholism/pathology*; Brain Diseases/pathology*; Corpus Callosum/pathology
  8. Prathap K, Montgomery GL
    Pathology, 1974 Jul;6(3):255-61.
    PMID: 4412062
    Matched MeSH terms: Aorta/pathology; Aortic Diseases/pathology; Arteriosclerosis/pathology; Coronary Disease/pathology; Coronary Vessels/pathology
  9. Mohamad Zaki FH, Nik Hussain NH, Ismail P, Wan Yusoff WZ, Othman NH
    Pathology, 2016 Feb;48 Suppl 1:S148.
    PMID: 27772923 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2015.12.402
    Background: The major problem with cervical cancer screening in countries which have no organized national screening program for cervical cancer is sub-optimal participation. Implementation of self-sampling method may increase the participation of women to screen for cervical cancer.
    Aims: To determine the agreement of cytological diagnoses made on samples collected by women themselves (self-sampling) versus cytological diagnoses made on samples collected
    by physicians (Physician sampling)
    Methods: We invited women volunteers to undergo two procedures; cervical self-sampling using the Evalyn brush and physician scraping using Cervex brush. They women were
    shown a video presentation on how to take their own cervical samples before the procedure. The samples taken by physicians were taken as per routine testing (Gold Standard). All
    samples were subjected to Thin Prep monolayer smears. The diagnoses made were according to the Bethesda classification. The results from the two sampling methods were analysed and compared.
    Results: A total of 367 women were recruited into the study. Thin Prep smears by physicians were better in terms of volume and variety of the cells seen. There is significant good agreement of the cytological diagnoses made on the samples from the two sampling methods with the Kappa value of 0.568 (p=0.040). The Thin Prep smears by self-sampling method were better in detecting microorganisms.
    Conclusion: This study shows that samples taken by women themselves (self-sampling) and physicians sampling had good cytology agreement. Self-sampling could be the method of
    choice in countries in which the coverage of women attending clinics for screening for cervical cancer is poor.
  10. Wong CY, Cheong SK, Mok PL, Leong CF
    Pathology, 2008 Jan;40(1):52-7.
    PMID: 18038316
    AIMS: Adult human bone marrow contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that contributes to the regeneration of tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, and fat. In recent years, it has been shown that functional stem cells exist in the adult bone marrow, and they can contribute to renal remodelling or reconstitution of injured renal glomeruli, especially mesangial cells. The purpose of this study is to examine the ability of MSC isolated from human bone marrow to differentiate into mesangial cells in glomerular injured athymic mice.

    METHODS: MSC were isolated from human bone marrow mononuclear cells based on plastic adherent properties and expanded in vitro in the culture medium. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were characterised using microscopy, immunophenotyping, and their ability to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. hMSC were then injected into athymic mice, which had induced glomerulonephropathy (GN).

    RESULTS: Test mice (induced GN and infused hMSC) were shown to have anti-human CD105(+) cells present in the kidneys and were also positive to anti-human desmin, a marker for mesangial cells. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays also demonstrated that anti-human desmin(+) cells in the glomeruli of these test mice were in the proliferation stage, being positive to anti-human Ki-67.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that hMSC found in renal glomeruli differentiated into mesangial cells in vivo after glomerular injury occurred.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Marrow Cells/pathology; Glomerulonephritis/pathology*; Kidney Glomerulus/pathology*; Mesangial Cells/pathology*; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/pathology*
  11. Wong KK, Prepageran N, Peh SC
    Pathology, 2009 Feb;41(2):133-9.
    PMID: 18972319 DOI: 10.1080/00313020802436790
    AIMS: To stratify upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into prognostic subgroups by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) method, and to evaluate the association rate of UAT DLBCL with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

    METHODS: Using a panel of antibodies to CD10, Bcl-6, MUM1 and CD138, consecutive cases of primary UAT DLBCL were stratified into subgroups of germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB, phenotype profile patterns A, B and C, as proposed by Hans et al. and Chang et al., respectively. EBER in situ hybridisation technique was applied for the detection of EBV in the tumours.

    RESULTS: In this series of 32 cases of UAT DLBCL, 34% (11/32) were GCB, and 66% (21/32) were non-GCB types; 59% (19/32) had combined patterns A and B, and 41% (13/32) had pattern C. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the occurrence of these prognostic subgroups in the UAT when compared with series of de novo DLBCL from all sites. There was also no site difference in phenotype protein expressions, with the exception of MUM1. EBER in situ hybridisation stain demonstrated only one EBV infected case.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic subgroup distribution of UAT DLBCL is similar to de novo DLBCL from all sites, and EBV association is very infrequent.

    Matched MeSH terms: Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms/pathology; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology
  12. Jayaranee S, Sthaneshwar P, Sokkalingam S
    Pathology, 2009 Feb;41(2):178-82.
    PMID: 18972320 DOI: 10.1080/00313020802436840
    AIM: Hepcidin, a recently identified peptide, acts as a central regulator of iron metabolism. It is regarded as a factor regulating the uptake of dietary iron and its mobilisation from macrophages and hepatic stores. It is considered as a mediator of anaemia of inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum prohepcidin concentration is able to distinguish iron deficiency from anaemia of inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 20 healthy blood donors, 30 RA patients who presented with anaemia and 30 patients who had pure iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The samples were analysed for full blood count, iron, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor and prohepcidin.

    RESULTS: The mean prohepcidin level in the control subjects was 256 microg/L. The prohepcidin level was significantly lower in IDA patients (100 microg/L; p < 0.0001) but not significantly different from that of control in RA patients (250 microg/L; p > 0.05). Higher serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels were observed in IDA (p < 0.0001) but not in RA compared with that of control (p > 0.05). RA patients were divided into iron depleted and iron repleted subgroups based on the ferritin level. Prohepcidin in the iron depleted group was significantly lower than the iron repleted group and the control (p < 0.0001) and higher levels were observed in the iron repleted group (p < 0.01). sTfR levels in the iron depleted group were significantly higher than the control and the iron repleted patients (p < 0.001). In the iron repleted group, sTfR level was not statistically different from that of control (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Serum prohepcidin is clearly reduced in uncomplicated iron deficiency anaemia. The reduced prohepcidin levels in the iron depleted RA patients suggests that there may be conflicting signals regulating hepcidin production in RA patients. In RA patients who have reduced hepcidin in the iron depleted group (ferritin <60 microg/L) where sTfR levels are increased suggests that these patients are iron deficient. Further studies with a larger cohort of patients are required to substantiate this point.

  13. El-Tawil SG, Adnan R, Muhamed ZN, Othman NH
    Pathology, 2008 Oct;40(6):600-3.
    PMID: 18752127 DOI: 10.1080/00313020802320622
    AIMS: To evaluate Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as new tool for screening of cervical cancer in comparison with cervical cytology.

    METHODS: A total of 800 cervical scrapings were taken by cytobrush and placed in ThinPrep medium. The samples were dried over infrared transparent matrix. Beams of infrared light were directed at the dried samples at frequency of 4000 to 400 cm(-1). The absorption data were produced using a Spectrum BX II FTIR spectrometer. Data were compared with the reference absorption data of known samples using FTIR spectroscopy software. FTIR spectroscopy was compared with cytology (gold standard).

    RESULTS: FTIR spectroscopy could differentiate normal from abnormal cervical cells in the samples examined. The sensitivity was 85%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 19.5% and negative predictive value of 99.5%.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy could be used as an alternative method for screening for cervical cancer.

  14. Hoe SL, Lee ES, Khoo AS, Peh SC
    Pathology, 2009;41(6):561-5.
    PMID: 19900105
    AIMS: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignancy among men in Malaysia. To determine the role of p53 in NPC, we screened for p53 mutations and evaluated the protein expression levels in samples from local patients with NPC.

    METHODS: Fifty-three formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue blocks were chosen for this study. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was determined by in situ hybridisation using an EBER probe. p53 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry. Simultaneously, amplifications by PCR were performed for p53 exons 5 to 8, followed by mutation screening via single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Sequencing of all the four exons was performed in five samples with mobility shift. To rule out false negative results by SSCP, 13 samples with p53 overexpression and five samples with low p53 expression were randomly selected and sequenced.

    RESULTS: There was no mutation found in exons 5 to 8 in all the samples despite 46 (87%) of them having high p53 levels. EBV was detected in 51 (96%) out of 53 samples. There was no statistically significant association between p53 expression level and EBV presence.

    CONCLUSIONS: High-intensity staining for p53 by immunohistochemistry was common in our series of NPC tissue samples but was not associated with 'hot spot' mutations of exons 5-8 of the gene. We did not find a significant relationship between the expression level of p53 and presence of EBV. Our study confirms that mutation of the DNA-binding domain of p53 is rare in NPC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adenocarcinoma/pathology; Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology; Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology
  15. Tan LP, Ng BK, Balraj P, Lim PK, Peh SC
    Pathology, 2007 Apr;39(2):228-34.
    PMID: 17454753
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colorectal cancers of different subtypes involve different pathogenic pathways like the Wnt and the mutator pathways. In this study, we screened 73 colorectal cancer cases from a multi-racial group for genetic and expression profile defects with the aim of correlating these with patients' clinicopathological characteristics.
    METHODS: Mutation screening of the entire coding region of APC and exon 3 of CTNNB1, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC, and microsatellite instability (MSI) status were assessed for 44 patients with available paired frozen normal and tumour tissues. In addition, 29 cases with available paraffin embedded tumour blocks were screened for mutation in exon 3 of CTNNB1, the APC mutation cluster region (codon 1286-1513), and hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry method.
    RESULTS: In our study, 15/73 cases showed APC mutations (20.5%), 1/73 cases had CTNNB1 mutation (1.4%), 5/32 cases had APC LOH (15.6%), and 16/70 (22.9%) cases revealed at least some form of mismatch repair (MMR) defect. Tumour grade (poor differentiation) was found to correlate significantly with right-sided tumour and mucinous histology (p = 0.01879 and 0.00320, respectively). Patients of younger age (below 45 years) more often had tumours of mucinous histology (p = 0.00014), while patients of older age (above 75 years) more often had tumours on the right side of the colon (p = 0.02448). Tumours of the mucinous histology subtype often had MMR defects (p = 0.02686). There was no difference in the occurrence of APC and CTNNB1 mutations and MMR defects found within our multi-racial colorectal cancer patient cohort.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings support the notion that racial factor may not be related to the occurrence of MMR defects and APC and CTNNB1 mutations in our multi-racial patient cohort.
  16. Tan JA, Chin PS, Wong YC, Tan KL, Chan LL, George E
    Pathology, 2006 Oct;38(5):437-41.
    PMID: 17008283
    In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/pathology
  17. Looi LM, Azura WW, Cheah PL, Ng MH
    Pathology, 2001 Aug;33(3):283-6.
    PMID: 11523925
    This investigation was carried out to gain insight into the prevalence of pS2 expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma in the Malaysian population and its correlation with oestrogen receptor (ER) protein expression and tumour aggressiveness. Seventy consecutive infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas treated with mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance were investigated, using the standard avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method with microwave antigen retrieval and commercial monoclonal antibodies (Dako), for expression of pS2 and human ER. This was correlated against histological grade (modified Bloom and Richardson) and the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis of these carcinomas. Four (5.7%) were grade 1, 40 (57.1%) grade 2 and 26 (37.1%) grade 3 tumours. A total of 45 (64%) showed histological evidence of axillary lymph node metastasis. Forty (57%) were ER-positive, while 31 (44%) were pS2-positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between pS2 and ER expressions (chi2-test with Yates correction: P<0.005). There was no correlation between pS2 expression and histological grade (P>0.1) and the presence of lymph node metastasis (P>0.1). Our findings support the views that pS2 may be a co-marker of endocrine responsiveness in invasive breast cancer and that it does not influence breast cancer biology in terms of potential for metastatic spread.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology; Lymph Nodes/pathology
  18. Wong SF, Lai LC
    Pathology, 2001 Feb;33(1):85-92.
    PMID: 11280615
    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is secreted as a large latent precursor from both normal and transformed cells which needs to be activated for biological activity. The active TGFbeta binds either directly to TbetaR-II or indirectly by binding to beta-glycan which then presents the TGFbeta to TbetaR-II. Formation of the TGFbeta-TbetaR-II complex rapidly leads to phosphorylation of TbetaR-I. TbetaR-I, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-specific Smads and induces their translocation into the nucleus. TGFbeta is able to act as a growth stimulator or inhibitor and elicits a broad spectrum of biological effects on various cell types. However, these cells may lose their sensitivity and responsiveness to TGFbeta. Down-regulation or loss of functional receptors, aberrant signal transduction pathways due to Smad mutations, loss of the cell's ability to activate latent TGFbeta, loss of the peptide itself or functional genes that control the transcription and translation of TGFbeta may contribute to development of cancer.
  19. Saw S, Aw TC
    Pathology, 2000 Nov;32(4):245-9.
    PMID: 11186419
    Cancer of the prostate is the sixth most frequently found cancer in Singapore. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most clinically useful tumour marker available today for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. To enhance the value of PSA as a screening test we developed age-specific intervals for our ethnic population. The measurement of free PSA was included in the study to calculate the free:total ratio which enhances the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis. The total PSA upper limits of 10-year intervals, beginning at 30-years-old, were 1.4, 1.7, 2.3, 4.0, 6.3 and 6.6 microg/l. Free PSA cut-off limits were 0.4, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.6 microg/l. The free:total ratio of PSA was not age dependent. Abbott AxSym standardised their calibration material for both free and total PSA assays with the Stanford 90:10 reference material. This laboratory has implemented these age-specific reference intervals and are currently following up their pick-up rate in the detection of prostate cancer.
  20. Wong MS, Chew WL, Aw TC
    Pathology, 1999 Aug;31(3):225-9.
    PMID: 10503268
    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is formed when apolipoprotein(a) is linked to low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol via a single disulfide bond. It is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and raised concentrations are associated with an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease. Singapore has a multi-racial population of 77% Chinese, 14% Malays and 7% Indians. Studies have shown that the Indians have significantly higher standardised mortality ratios (SMR) compared to the Chinese and the Malays. We measured serum Lp(a) concentrations in 803 healthy individuals recruited from the Multiphasic Health Screening Programme, using the Macra Lp(a) sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit (Strategics Diagnostics, Delaware, USA). Lp(a) concentrations were skewed in all three groups. Our population mean was 9.0 mg/dl, with 50th, 75th and 95th percentile values of 10.2, 19.8 and 43.1 mg/dl, respectively, which are lower than values reported from Caucasian populations (15.0, 29.0 and 60.0 mg/dl, respectively). Males had lower Lp(a) concentrations than females (P < 0.05). The Indian group had significantly higher concentrations (median 12.3 mg/dl) compared to their Chinese (median 9.6 mg/dl) and Malay (median 8.4 mg/dl) counterparts (P < 0.05). This could partly account for the higher SMR seen in the Indian population in Singapore. As serum Lp(a) concentrations are method- and population-dependent, we recommend that laboratories determine their own reference ranges by their method to avoid misclassification of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of patients.
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