METHODS: MSC were isolated from human bone marrow mononuclear cells based on plastic adherent properties and expanded in vitro in the culture medium. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were characterised using microscopy, immunophenotyping, and their ability to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. hMSC were then injected into athymic mice, which had induced glomerulonephropathy (GN).
RESULTS: Test mice (induced GN and infused hMSC) were shown to have anti-human CD105(+) cells present in the kidneys and were also positive to anti-human desmin, a marker for mesangial cells. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays also demonstrated that anti-human desmin(+) cells in the glomeruli of these test mice were in the proliferation stage, being positive to anti-human Ki-67.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that hMSC found in renal glomeruli differentiated into mesangial cells in vivo after glomerular injury occurred.
METHODS: Using a panel of antibodies to CD10, Bcl-6, MUM1 and CD138, consecutive cases of primary UAT DLBCL were stratified into subgroups of germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB, phenotype profile patterns A, B and C, as proposed by Hans et al. and Chang et al., respectively. EBER in situ hybridisation technique was applied for the detection of EBV in the tumours.
RESULTS: In this series of 32 cases of UAT DLBCL, 34% (11/32) were GCB, and 66% (21/32) were non-GCB types; 59% (19/32) had combined patterns A and B, and 41% (13/32) had pattern C. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the occurrence of these prognostic subgroups in the UAT when compared with series of de novo DLBCL from all sites. There was also no site difference in phenotype protein expressions, with the exception of MUM1. EBER in situ hybridisation stain demonstrated only one EBV infected case.
CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic subgroup distribution of UAT DLBCL is similar to de novo DLBCL from all sites, and EBV association is very infrequent.
METHOD: Blood samples were obtained from 20 healthy blood donors, 30 RA patients who presented with anaemia and 30 patients who had pure iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The samples were analysed for full blood count, iron, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor and prohepcidin.
RESULTS: The mean prohepcidin level in the control subjects was 256 microg/L. The prohepcidin level was significantly lower in IDA patients (100 microg/L; p < 0.0001) but not significantly different from that of control in RA patients (250 microg/L; p > 0.05). Higher serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels were observed in IDA (p < 0.0001) but not in RA compared with that of control (p > 0.05). RA patients were divided into iron depleted and iron repleted subgroups based on the ferritin level. Prohepcidin in the iron depleted group was significantly lower than the iron repleted group and the control (p < 0.0001) and higher levels were observed in the iron repleted group (p < 0.01). sTfR levels in the iron depleted group were significantly higher than the control and the iron repleted patients (p < 0.001). In the iron repleted group, sTfR level was not statistically different from that of control (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Serum prohepcidin is clearly reduced in uncomplicated iron deficiency anaemia. The reduced prohepcidin levels in the iron depleted RA patients suggests that there may be conflicting signals regulating hepcidin production in RA patients. In RA patients who have reduced hepcidin in the iron depleted group (ferritin <60 microg/L) where sTfR levels are increased suggests that these patients are iron deficient. Further studies with a larger cohort of patients are required to substantiate this point.
METHODS: A total of 800 cervical scrapings were taken by cytobrush and placed in ThinPrep medium. The samples were dried over infrared transparent matrix. Beams of infrared light were directed at the dried samples at frequency of 4000 to 400 cm(-1). The absorption data were produced using a Spectrum BX II FTIR spectrometer. Data were compared with the reference absorption data of known samples using FTIR spectroscopy software. FTIR spectroscopy was compared with cytology (gold standard).
RESULTS: FTIR spectroscopy could differentiate normal from abnormal cervical cells in the samples examined. The sensitivity was 85%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 19.5% and negative predictive value of 99.5%.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy could be used as an alternative method for screening for cervical cancer.
METHODS: Fifty-three formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue blocks were chosen for this study. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was determined by in situ hybridisation using an EBER probe. p53 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry. Simultaneously, amplifications by PCR were performed for p53 exons 5 to 8, followed by mutation screening via single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Sequencing of all the four exons was performed in five samples with mobility shift. To rule out false negative results by SSCP, 13 samples with p53 overexpression and five samples with low p53 expression were randomly selected and sequenced.
RESULTS: There was no mutation found in exons 5 to 8 in all the samples despite 46 (87%) of them having high p53 levels. EBV was detected in 51 (96%) out of 53 samples. There was no statistically significant association between p53 expression level and EBV presence.
CONCLUSIONS: High-intensity staining for p53 by immunohistochemistry was common in our series of NPC tissue samples but was not associated with 'hot spot' mutations of exons 5-8 of the gene. We did not find a significant relationship between the expression level of p53 and presence of EBV. Our study confirms that mutation of the DNA-binding domain of p53 is rare in NPC.