Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

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  1. Shima R, Farizah MH, Majid HA
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:1597-609.
    PMID: 25484577 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S69680
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore patients' experiences with their illnesses and the reasons which influenced them in not following hypertensive care recommendations (antihypertensive medication intake, physical activity, and diet changes) in primary health clinic settings.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A qualitative methodology was applied. The data were gathered from in-depth interviews with 25 hypertensive patients attending follow-up in nine government primary health clinics in two districts (Hulu Langat and Klang) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis.
    RESULTS: There was evidence of lack of patient self-empowerment and community support in Malaysian society. Most of the participants did not take their antihypertensive medication or change their physical activity and diet after diagnosis. There was an agreement between the patients and the health care professionals before starting the treatment recommendation, but there lacked further counseling and monitoring. Most of the reasons given for not taking antihypertensive medication, not doing physical activity and not following diet recommendations were due to side effects or fear of the side effects of antihypertensive medication, patients' attitudes, lack of information from health care professionals and insufficient social support from their surrounding environment. We also observed the differences on these reasons for nonadherence among the three ethnic groups.
    CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should move toward supporting adherence in the management of hypertensive patients by maintaining a dialogue. Patients need to be given time to enable them to overcome their inhibition of asking questions and to accept the recommendations. A self-management approach must be responsive to the needs of individuals, ethnicities, and communities.
    KEYWORDS: adherence; hypertension; in-depth interview; qualitative research
    Study site: Klinik kesihatan, Selangor, Malaysia
  2. Toh LS, Lai PS, Wu DB, Wong KT, Low BY, Tan AT, et al.
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:1365-81.
    PMID: 25328386 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S65718
    Purpose: To develop and validate the English version of the Satisfaction Questionnaire for Osteoporosis Prevention (SQOP) in Malaysia.
    Methods: The SQOP was modified from the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire and developed based on literature review and patient interviews. Face and content validity were established via an expert panel. The SQOP consists of two sections: clinical services and types of counseling. There were 23 items in total, each with a five-point Likert-type response. Satisfaction score was calculated by converting the total score to a percentage. A higher score indicates higher satisfaction. English speaking, non-osteoporotic, postmenopausal women aged 50 years were included in the study. Participants were randomized to either the control or intervention group. Intervention participants were provided counseling, whereas control participants received none. Participants answered the SQOP at baseline and 2 weeks later.
    Results: A total of 140 participants were recruited (control group: n=70; intervention group: n=70). No significant differences were found in any demographic aspects. Exploratory factor analysis extracted seven domains. Cronbach’s α for the domains ranged from 0.531–0.812. All 23 items were highly correlated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient 0.469–0.996 (P<0.05), with no significant change in the control group’s overall test–retest scores, indicating that the
    SQOP achieved stable reliability. The intervention group had a higher score than the control group (87.91±5.99 versus 61.87±8.76; P<0.05), indicating that they were more satisfied than control participants. Flesch reading ease was 62.9.
    Conclusion: The SQOP was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients’ satisfaction towards an osteoporosis screening and prevention service in Malaysia.
    Keywords: patient satisfaction, randomized controlled trial, postmenopausal women, screening
    Study site: primary care clinic, tertiary hospital, Malaysia
  3. Chung WW, Chua SS, Lai PS, Chan SP
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:1185-94.
    PMID: 25214772 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S66619
    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong chronic condition that requires self-management. Lifestyle modification and adherence to antidiabetes medications are the major determinants of therapeutic success in the management of diabetes.
    Purpose: To assess the effects of a pharmaceutical care (PC) model on medication adherence and glycemic levels of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Patients and methods: A total of 241 people with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a major teaching hospital in Malaysia and allocated at random to the control (n=121) or intervention (n=120) groups. Participants in the intervention group received PC from an experienced pharmacist, whereas those in the control group were provided the standard pharmacy service. Medication adherence was assessed using the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale, and glycemic levels (glycated hemoglobin values and fasting blood glucose [FBG]) of participants were obtained at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 months.
    Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences in demographic data, medication adherence, and glycemic levels between participants in the control and intervention groups. However, statistically significant differences in FBG and glycated hemoglobin values were observed between the control and intervention groups at months 4, 8, and 12 after the provision of PC (median FBG, 9.0 versus 7.2 mmol/L [P<0.001]; median glycated hemoglobin level, 9.1% versus 8.0% [P0.001] at 12 months). Medication adherence was also significantly associated with the provision of PC, with a higher proportion in the intervention group than in the control group achieving it (75.0% versus 58.7%; P=0.007).
    Conclusion: The provision of PC has positive effects on medication adherence as well as the glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the PC model used in this study should be duplicated in other health care settings for the benefit of more patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords: pharmaceutical care, medication adherence, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Study site: major teaching hospital in Malaysia
  4. Al-Jumah KA, Hassali MA, Al-Zaagi I
    PMID: 24707170 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S58565
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Armando Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire into Arabic and validate its use in the general population.

    METHODS: The translation was conducted based on the principles of the most widely used model in questionnaire translation, namely Brisling's back-translation model. A written authorization allowing translation into Arabic was obtained from the original author. The Arabic version of the questionnaire was distributed to 480 participants to evaluate construct validity. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0 for Windows was used for the statistical analysis.

    RESULTS: The response rate of this study was 96%; most of the respondents (52.5%) were female. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's α, which showed that this questionnaire provides a high reliability coefficient (reaching 0.9299) and a high degree of consistency and thus can be relied upon in future patient satisfaction research.

  5. Md Redzuan A, Lee MS, Mohamed Shah N
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:263-70.
    PMID: 24600208 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S56467
    PURPOSE: Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide. Poor adherence to prescribed preventive medications, especially among children with asthma, leads to increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess the adherence and persistence levels of asthmatic children at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), a tertiary care teaching hospital, and to determine the factors that influence adherence to prescribed preventive medications.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were asthmatic patients aged 18 years and younger with at least one prescription for a preventive medication refilled between January and December 2011. Refill records from the pharmacy dispensing database were used to determine the medication possession ratio (MPR) and continuous measure of gaps (CMG), measures of adherence and persistence levels, respectively.
    RESULTS: The sample consisted of 218 children with asthma from the General and Respiratory pediatric clinics at UKMMC. The overall adherence level was 38% (n=83; MPR ≥80%), and the persistence level was 27.5% (n=60; CMG ≤20%). We found a significant association between the adherence and persistence levels (r=0.483, P<0.01). The presence of comorbidities significantly predicted the adherence (odds ratio [OR] =16.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.76-33.84, P<0.01) and persistence level (OR =2.63, 95% CI: 0.13-52.79, P<0.01). Other factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, duration of asthma diagnosis, and number of prescribed preventive medications did not significantly affect adherence or persistence (P>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the adherence level among children with asthma at UKMMC was low. The presence of comorbidities was found to influence adherence towards preventive medications in asthmatic children.
    KEYWORDS: asthma; medication possession ratio; non adherence; pediatric patients; persistence
    Study site: General and Respiratory pediatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  6. Ong WM, Chua SS, Ng CJ
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:237-46.
    PMID: 24627628 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S57567
    BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) helps to improve glycemic control and empowerment of people with diabetes. It is particularly useful for people with diabetes who are using insulin as it facilitates insulin titration and detection of hypoglycemia. Despite this, the uptake of SMBG remains low in many countries, including Malaysia.
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators to SMBG, in people with type 2 diabetes using insulin.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Qualitative methodology was employed to explore participants' experience with SMBG. Semistructured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted on people with type 2 diabetes using insulin who had practiced SMBG, in the primary care clinic of a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Participants were purposively sampled from different age groups, ethnicity, education level, and level of glycemic control (as reflected by the glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]), to achieve maximum variation in sampling. All interviews were conducted using a topic guide and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked, and analyzed using a thematic approach.
    RESULTS: A total of 15 participants were interviewed, and thematic saturation was reached. The factors that influenced SMBG were mainly related to cost, participants' emotion, and the SMBG process. The barriers identified included: frustration related to high blood glucose reading; perception that SMBG was only for insulin titration; stigma; fear of needles and pain; cost of test strips and needles; inconvenience; unconducive workplace; and lack of motivation, knowledge, and self-efficacy. The facilitators were: experiencing hypoglycemic symptoms; desire to see the effects of dietary changes; desire to please the physician; and family motivation.
    CONCLUSION: Participants' perceptions of the purpose of SMBG, the emotions associated with SMBG, and the complexity, pain, and cost related to SMBG as well as personal and family motivation are the key factors that health care providers must consider when advising people with diabetes on SMBG.
    KEYWORDS: blood glucose self-monitoring; diabetes mellitus; in-depth interviews; qualitative studyStudy site: primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Hudu SA, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, Harmal NS, Adnan A, Alshrari AS, et al.
    PMID: 24101865 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S49776
    This study aimed to evaluate the level of hepatitis B immunity among undergraduate students 23 years after commencement of the nationwide hepatitis B childhood immunization program in Malaysia.
  8. Chong WW, Aslani P, Chen TF
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2013;7:813-25.
    PMID: 23986631 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S48486
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that pharmacists have a role in addressing antidepressant nonadherence. However, few studies have explored community pharmacists' actual counseling practices in response to antidepressant adherence-related issues at various phases of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate counseling practices of community pharmacists in response to antidepressant adherence-related issues.

    METHODS: A simulated patient method was used to evaluate pharmacist counseling practices in Sydney, Australia. Twenty community pharmacists received three simulated patient visits concerning antidepressant adherence-related scenarios at different phases of treatment: 1) patient receiving a first-time antidepressant prescription and hesitant to begin treatment; 2) patient perceiving lack of treatment efficacy for antidepressant after starting treatment for 2 weeks; and 3) patient wanting to discontinue antidepressant treatment after 3 months due to perceived symptom improvement. The interactions were recorded and analyzed to evaluate the content of consultations in terms of information gathering, information provision including key educational messages, and treatment recommendations.

    RESULTS: There was variability among community pharmacists in terms of the extent and content of information gathered and provided. In scenario 1, while some key educational messages such as possible side effects and expected benefits from antidepressants were mentioned frequently, others such as the recommended length of treatment and adherence-related messages were rarely addressed. In all scenarios, about two thirds of pharmacists explored patients' concerns about antidepressant treatment. In scenarios 2 and 3, only half of all pharmacists' consultations involved questions to assess the patient's medication use. The pharmacists' main recommendation in response to the patient query was to refer the patient back to the prescribing physician.

    CONCLUSION: The majority of pharmacists provided information about the risks and benefits of antidepressant treatment. However, there remains scope for improvement in community pharmacists' counseling practice for patients on antidepressant treatment, particularly in providing key educational messages including adherence-related messages, exploring patients' concerns, and monitoring medication adherence.

  9. Ahmad NS, Ramli A, Islahudin F, Paraidathathu T
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2013;7:525-30.
    PMID: 23814461 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S44698
    Diabetes mellitus is a growing global health problem that affects patients of all ages. Even though diabetes mellitus is recognized as a major chronic illness, adherence to antidiabetic medicines has often been found to be unsatisfactory. This study was conducted to assess adherence to medications and to identify factors that are associated with nonadherence in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients at Primary Health Clinics of the Ministry of Health in Malaysia.
  10. Abdulameer SA, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Subramaniam K, Sahib MN
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2012;6:435-48.
    PMID: 22791981 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S32745
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic and chronic metabolic disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. In addition, osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease with a harmful impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the relationship between OP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Systematic reviews of full-length articles published in English from January 1950 to October 2010 were identified in PubMed and other available electronic databases on the Universiti Sains Malaysia Library Database. The following keywords were used for the search: T2DM, OP, bone mass, skeletal. Studies of more than 50 patients with T2DM were included. Forty-seven studies were identified. The majority of articles (26) showed increased bone mineral density (BMD), while 13 articles revealed decreased BMD; moreover, eight articles revealed normal or no difference in bone mass. There were conflicting results concerning the influence of T2DM on BMD in association with gender, glycemic control, and body mass index. However, patients with T2DM display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. As a conclusion, screening, identification, and prevention of potential risk factors for OP in T2DM patients are crucial and important in terms of preserving a good quality of life in diabetic patients and decreasing the risk of fracture. Patients with T2DM may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls. Patient education about an adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise is important for improving muscle strength and balance. Furthermore, adequate glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications are the starting point of therapy in diabetic patients.
  11. Ramli A, Ahmad NS, Paraidathathu T
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2012;6:613-22.
    PMID: 22969292 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S34704
    Poor adherence to prescribed medications is a major cause for treatment failure, particularly in chronic diseases such as hypertension. This study was conducted to assess adherence to medications in patients undergoing hypertensive treatment in the Primary Health Clinics of the Ministry of Health in Malaysia. Factors affecting adherence to medications were studied, and the effect of nonadherence to blood pressure control was assessed.
  12. Abdulameer SA, Sahib MN, Aziz NA, Hassan Y, Alrazzaq HA, Ismail O
    PMID: 22346346 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S27223
    Prescribing pattern surveys are one of the pharmacoepidemiological techniques that provide an unbiased picture of prescribing habits. Prescription surveys permit the identification of suboptimal prescribing patterns for further evaluation. The aims of this study were to determine the prescribing trend, adherence of the prescribers to the guideline, and the impact of drug expenditure on drug utilization at the cardiac clinic of Penang Hospital, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study. Demographic data of the patients, diagnoses and the drugs prescribed were recorded. The average drug acquisition costs (ADAC) were calculated for each antihypertensive drug class on a daily and annual basis. Adherence to the guideline was calculated as a percentage of the total number of patients. A total of 313 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average age of the study population was 59.30 ± 10.35 years. The mean number of drugs per prescription in the study was 2.09 ± 0.78. There were no significant differences in the demographic data. Antihypertensive drugs were used in monotherapy and polytherapy in 20.8% and 79.2% of the patients, respectively. Adherence to the guideline regarding prescription occurred in 85.30% of the patients. The lowest priced drug class was diuretics and the highest was angiotensin-receptor blockers. In conclusion, the total adherence to the guideline was good; the adherence percentage only slightly decreased with a co-existing comorbidity (such as diabetes mellitus). The use of thiazide diuretics was encouraged because they are well tolerated and inexpensive, and perindopril was still prescribed for diabetic patients since it is relatively cheap (generic drug) and its daily dosage is beneficial.

    Study site: cardiac clinic of Penang Hospital, Malaysia
  13. Lee YK, Ng CJ, Lee PY, Khoo EM, Abdullah KL, Low WY, et al.
    PMID: 23378747 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S36791
    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes often require insulin as the disease progresses. However, health care professionals frequently encounter challenges when managing patients who require insulin therapy. Understanding how health care professionals perceive the barriers faced by patients on insulin will facilitate care and treatment strategies.
    OBJECTIVE: This study explores the views of Malaysian health care professionals on the barriers faced by patients using insulin.
    METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health care professionals involved in diabetes care using insulin. Forty-one health care professionals participated in the study, consisting of primary care doctors (n = 20), family medicine specialists (n = 10), government policymakers (n = 5), diabetes educators (n = 3), endocrinologists (n = 2), and one pharmacist. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a thematic approach.
    RESULTS: FIVE THEMES WERE IDENTIFIED AS BARRIERS: side effects, patient education, negative perceptions, blood glucose monitoring, and patient adherence to treatment and follow-up. Patients perceive that insulin therapy causes numerous negative side effects. There is a lack of patient education on proper glucose monitoring and how to optimize insulin therapy. Cost of treatment and patient ignorance are highlighted when discussing patient self-monitoring of blood glucose. Finally, health care professionals identified a lack of a follow-up system, especially for patients who do not keep to regular appointments.
    CONCLUSION: This study identifies five substantial barriers to optimizing insulin therapy. Health care professionals who successfully identify and address these issues will empower patients to achieve effective self-management. System barriers require government agency in establishing insulin follow-up programs, multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, and subsidies for glucometers and test strips.
    KEYWORDS: diabetes; focus groups; insulin; noncommunicable disease; primary care; qualitative study
  14. Keowmani T, Lee LW
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2016;10:205-11.
    PMID: 26955264 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S96880
    PURPOSE: To study the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the Specific Thalassemia Quality of Life Instrument (STQOLI) in Sabah's adult thalassemia patients.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done at Thalassemia Treatment Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Sabah, Malaysia. Eighty-two adult thalassemia patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conveniently selected for participation in the study. The English version of STQOLI was translated into Malay by using forward and back translations. The content of the questionnaire was validated by the chief hematologist of the hospital. The construct validity of the 40-item questionnaire was assessed by principal component analysis with varimax rotation and the scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha.
    RESULTS: The study failed to replicate the internal structure of the Greek STQOLI. Instead, 12 factors have been identified from the exploratory factor analysis, which accounted for 72.2% of the variance. However, only eight factors were interpretable. The factors were iron chelation pump impact, transfusion impact, time spent on treatment and its impact on work and social life, sex life, side effects of treatment, cardiovascular problems, psychology, and iron chelation pill impact. The overall scale reliability was 0.913.
    CONCLUSION: This study was unable to replicate the internal structure of the Greek STQOLI in Sabah's adult thalassemia patients. Instead, a new structure has emerged that can be used as a guide to develop a questionnaire specific for adult thalassemia patients in Sabah. Future research should focus on the eight factors identified from this study.
    KEYWORDS: Malay; STQOLI; reliability; transfusion; validity
  15. Huri HZ, Mat Sanusi ND, Razack AH, Mark R
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2016;10:807-23.
    PMID: 27257374 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S99544
    BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common health problems in men. ED can significantly affect a man's psychological well-being and overall health.
    PURPOSE: To investigate the association of psychological factors, patients' knowledge, and management among ED patients.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 93 patients with an age range from 31 to 81 years who have undergone treatment for ED were included in this study.
    RESULTS: It was found that the feeling of blame (P=0.001), guilt (P=0.001), anger or bitterness (P=0.001), depression (P=0.001), feeling like a failure (P=0.001), and the feeling of letting down a partner during intercourse (P=0.001) were significantly associated with ED. Age was also found to be significantly associated with patients' psychological scale (P=0.004). In addition, the majority of patients in this study practice the right method of administration of ED therapy. However, no significant correlation was found between patients' knowledge of ED therapy and demographic characteristics.
    CONCLUSION: This study concluded that ED does affect psychological well-being of people. In addition, patient's knowledge about ED and its management is also crucial in ensuring that the patient achieves optimal therapeutic outcomes from ED therapy.
    KEYWORDS: erectile dysfunction; management; patients’ knowledge; psychological factors
  16. Aziz H, Hatah E, Makmor Bakry M, Islahudin F
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2016;10:837-50.
    PMID: 27313448 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S103057
    BACKGROUND: A previous systematic review reported that increase in patients' medication cost-sharing reduced patients' adherence to medication. However, a study among patients with medication subsidies who received medication at no cost found that medication nonadherence was also high. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the influence of different medication payment schemes on patients' medication adherence.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review research reporting the influence of payment schemes and their association with patients' medication adherence behavior.
    METHODS: This study was conducted using systematic review of published articles. Relevant published articles were located through three electronic databases Medline, ProQuest Medical Library, and ScienceDirect since inception to February 2015. Included articles were then reviewed and summarized narratively.
    RESULTS: Of the total of 2,683 articles located, 21 were included in the final analysis. There were four types of medication payment schemes reported in the included studies: 1) out-of-pocket expenditure or copayments; 2) drug coverage or insurance benefit; 3) prescription cap; and 4) medication subsidies. Our review found that patients with "lower self-paying constraint" were more likely to adhere to their medication (adherence rate ranged between 28.5% and 94.3%). Surprisingly, the adherence rate among patients who received medication as fully subsidized was similar (rate between 34% and 84.6%) as that of other payment schemes. The studies that evaluated patients with fully subsidized payment scheme found that the medication adherence was poor among patients with nonsevere illness.
    CONCLUSION: Although medication adherence was improved with the reduction of cost-sharing such as lower copayment, higher drug coverage, and prescription cap, patients with full-medication subsidies payment scheme (received medication at no cost) were also found to have poor adherence to their medication. Future studies comparing factors that may influence patients' adherence to medication among patients who received medication subsidies should be done to develop strategies to overcome medication nonadherence.
    KEYWORDS: drug cost; medication adherence; medication payment scheme
  17. Abdullah A, Liew SM, Hanafi NS, Ng CJ, Lai PS, Chia YC, et al.
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2016;10:99-106.
    PMID: 26869773 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S94687
    BACKGROUND: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure (BP) is found to have a positive effect on BP control. Delivering a BP telemonitoring service in primary care offers primary care physicians an innovative approach toward management of their patients with hypertension. However, little is known about patients' acceptance of such service in routine clinical care.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service delivered in primary care based on the technology acceptance model (TAM).
    METHODS: A qualitative study design was used. Primary care patients with uncontrolled office BP who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into a BP telemonitoring service offered between the period August 2012 and September 2012. This service was delivered at an urban primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty patients used the BP telemonitoring service. Of these, 17 patients consented to share their views and experiences through five in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. An interview guide was developed based on the TAM. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analysis.
    RESULTS: Patients found the BP telemonitoring service easy to use but struggled with the perceived usefulness of doing so. They expressed confusion in making sense of the monitored home BP readings. They often thought about the implications of these readings to their hypertension management and overall health. Patients wanted more feedback from their doctors and suggested improvement to the BP telemonitoring functionalities to improve interactions. Patients cited being involved in research as the main reason for their intention to use the service. They felt that patients with limited experience with the internet and information technology, who worked out of town, or who had an outdoor hobby would not be able to benefit from such a service.
    CONCLUSION: Patients found BP telemonitoring service in primary care easy to use but needed help to interpret the meanings of monitored BP readings. Implementations of BP telemonitoring service must tackle these issues to maximize the patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service.
  18. Ngadimon IW, Islahudin F, Hatah E, Mohamed Shah N, Makmor-Bakry M
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2015;9:665-73.
    PMID: 25999702 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S82844
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to establish baseline information on the current level of knowledge about, attitude toward, and experience with antibiotic usage, and preferences for shared decision making among adolescents in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, involving 1,105 respondents who were aged between 13 and 17 years and who lived in Malaysia, was conducted using a validated questionnaire. The survey assessed knowledge, attitude, and experience with regard to antibiotic usage, and adolescents' preferences for the style of shared decision-making process.
    RESULTS: The majority (n=786 [71.13%]) of the respondents had a low level of knowledge, 296 (26.79%) had a moderate level of knowledge, and 23 (2.08%) had a high level of knowledge. Further, they demonstrated a slightly negative attitude mean score of 3.30±0.05 (range: 0-8 points) but a positive experience mean score of 2.90±0.029 (range: 0-4 points). There was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores, with a higher knowledge level associated with a more positive attitude toward antibiotic usage (r=0.257, P<0.001). Higher knowledge scores were associated with a more negative experience with antibiotic usage (r=-0.83, P=0.006). When assessing preference in shared decision making, more adolescents preferred an active role (n=408 [37%]) compared with collaborative (n=360 [32.6%]) or passive (n=337 [30.5%]) (P=0.028) roles.
    CONCLUSION: Current health care settings should involve adolescents in the decision-making process. Education packages can be introduced to improve adolescents' knowledge of and practice of taking antibiotics, as well as to encourage their participation in decision making, in an attempt to reduce misuse of antibiotics.
    Study site: 14 secondary schools, Malaysia
    KEYWORDS: antibiotic usage; attitude; experience; knowledge
  19. Chew BH, Hassan NH, Mohd Sidik S
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2015;9:639-48.
    PMID: 25999699 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S81612
    Medication adherence (MA) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid profile), lower rates of death and diabetes-related complications, increased quality of life, and decreased health care resource utilization. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of diabetes-related distress, depression, and health-related quality of life on MA. This study examined factors associated with MA in adults with T2D at the primary care level. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics, where adults with T2D were recruited consecutively in 2013. We used the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess MA as the main dependent variable. In addition to sociodemographic data, we included diabetes-related distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life as independent variables. Independent association between the MMAS-8 score and its determinants was done using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link function. The participant response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were female (52.8%), Malay (52.9%), and married (79.1%). About 43% of patients were classified as showing low MA (MMAS-8 score <6). Higher income (adjusted odds ratio 0.90) and depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.99) were significant independent determinants of medication non-adherence in young adults with T2D. Low MA in adults with T2D is a prevalent problem. Thus, primary health care providers in public health clinics should focus on MA counselling for adult T2D patients who are younger, have a higher income, and symptoms of depression.
  20. Hatah E, Lim KP, Ali AM, Mohamed Shah N, Islahudin F
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2015;9:589-96.
    PMID: 25960641 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S79477
    Social support can positively influence patients' health outcomes through a number of mechanisms, such as increases in patients' adherence to medication. Although there have been studies on the influence of social support on medication adherence, these studies were conducted in Western settings, not in Asian settings where cultural and religious orientations may be different. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cultural orientation and religiosity on social support and its relation to patients' medication adherence.
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