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  1. Mohd Zaki F, Moineddin R, Grant R, Chavhan GB
    Pediatr Radiol, 2016 Nov;46(12):1684-1693.
    PMID: 27406610
    BACKGROUND: Safety concerns are increasingly raised regarding the use of gadolinium-based contrast media for MR imaging.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of pre-contrast abdominal MR imaging for lesion detection and characterization in pediatric oncology patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 120 children (37 boys and 83 girls; mean age 8.94 years) referred by oncology services. Twenty-five had MRI for the first time and 95 were follow-up scans. Two authors independently reviewed pre-contrast MR images to note the following information about the lesions: location, number, solid vs. cystic and likely nature. Pre- and post-contrast imaging reviewed together served as the reference standard.

    RESULTS: The overall sensitivity was 88% for the first reader and 90% for the second; specificity was 94% and 91%; positive predictive value was 96% and 94%; negative predictive value was 82% and 84%; accuracy of pre-contrast imaging for lesion detection as compared to the reference standard was 90% for both readers. The difference between mean number of lesions detected on pre-contrast imaging and reference standard was not significant for either reader (reader 1, P = 0.072; reader 2, P = 0.071). There was substantial agreement (kappa values of 0.76 and 0.72 for readers 1 and 2) between pre-contrast imaging and reference standard for determining solid vs. cystic lesion and likely nature of the lesion. The addition of post-contrast imaging increased confidence of both readers significantly (P 

  2. Thajunnisa bte Hassan Mohd, Yip CH
    Pediatr Radiol, 1988;18(5):406.
    PMID: 3050845
    Neuroblastoma is the most common malignant tumour in infancy originating in about 70% of cases in the adrenal gland. Haemorrhage and necrosis is often seen in neuroblastoma but cyst formation is uncommon. Fistulous communication between an adrenal cystic neuroblastoma and the large bowel has never to our knowledge been reported before.
  3. Navallas M, Inarejos Clemente EJ, Iglesias E, Rebollo-Polo M, Zaki FM, Navarro OM
    Pediatr Radiol, 2020 03;50(3):415-430.
    PMID: 32065272 DOI: 10.1007/s00247-019-04536-9
    Autoinflammatory diseases constitute a family of disorders defined by aberrant stimulation of inflammatory pathways without involving antigen-directed autoimmunity. They may be divided into monogenic and polygenic types. Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes are those with identified genetic mutations, such as familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency or hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome, cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes (CAPS), pyogenic arthritis pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10 receptor deficiencies, adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency and pediatric sarcoidosis. Those without an identified genetic mutation are known as polygenic and include systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, idiopathic recurrent acute pericarditis, Behçet syndrome, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis and inflammatory bowel disease among others. Autoinflammatory disorders are defined by repeating episodes or persistent fever, rash, serositis, lymphadenopathy, arthritis and increased acute phase reactants, and thus may mimic infections clinically. Most monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present in childhood. However, because of their infrequency, diverse and nonspecific presentation, and the relatively new genetic recognition, diagnosis is usually delayed. In this article, which is Part 1 of a two-part series, the authors update monogenic autoinflammatory diseases in children with special emphasis on imaging features that may help establish the correct diagnosis.
  4. Ramli N, Lim CH, Rajagopal R, Tan LK, Seow P, Ariffin H
    Pediatr Radiol, 2020 Jun 26.
    PMID: 32591982 DOI: 10.1007/s00247-020-04717-x
    BACKGROUND: Intrathecal and intravenous chemotherapy, specifically methotrexate, might contribute to neural microstructural damage.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess, by diffusion tensor imaging, microstructural integrity of white matter in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) following intrathecal and intravenous chemotherapy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven children diagnosed with de novo ALL underwent MRI scans of the brain with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) prior to commencement of chemotherapy and at 12 months after diagnosis, using a 3-tesla (T) MRI scanner. We investigated the changes in DTI parameters in white matter tracts before and after chemotherapy using tract-based spatial statistics overlaid on the International Consortium of Brain Mapping DTI-81 atlas. All of the children underwent formal neurodevelopmental assessment at the two study time points.

    RESULTS: Whole-brain DTI analysis showed significant changes between the two time points, affecting several white matter tracts. The tracts demonstrated longitudinal changes of decreasing mean and radial diffusivity. The neurodevelopment of the children was near compatible for age at the end of ALL treatment.

    CONCLUSION: The quantification of white matter tracts changes in children undergoing chemotherapy showed improving longitudinal values in DTI metrics (stable fractional anisotropy, decreasing mean and radial diffusivity), which are incompatible with deterioration of microstructural integrity in these children.

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