Polyphenol-rich marine macroalgae are gaining dietary importance due to their influence over diabetes mellitus and the role as a vital source of high-value nutraceuticals. Their assorted beneficial effects on human health include competitive inhibition of digestive enzymes, varying the activity of hepatic glucose-metabolizing enzymes, lowering the plasma glucose levels, and lipid peroxidation, delaying the aging process.
Vanillic acid (VA), a flavoring agent used in food and drug products, obtained naturally from the plant Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Apiaceae), used in the traditional Chinese medicine. It is reported to possess strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. However, the pharmacological effects on oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration are not well investigated.
Dillenia (Dilleniaceae) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in tropical and subtropical trees of Southern Asia, Australasia, and the Indian Ocean Islands. Until now, only eight Dillenia species have been reported to be used traditionally in different countries for various medical purposes. Out of eight species, D. pentagyna (Roxb), D. indica (Linn.) and D. suffruticosa (Griffith Ex. Hook. F. & Thomsom Martelli) have been reported to be used to treat cancerous growth.
Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100 mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500 mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67 ± 0.38) and (5.42 ± 0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30 µm and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60 µm and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p
Abstract Context: Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae) is a native plant species of the American continent and is widely cultivated in warm areas in Asia, including Malaysia. The plant is traditionally used to relieve pain from gastric ulcers. Objective: This study was designed to determine the antiulcer activity of a methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and the possible mechanisms of action involved. Materials and methods: An acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg MEMC. The antiulcer activity of MEMC was evaluated in absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer rat models. MEMC was administered orally (dose range 25-500 mg/kg) to rats fasted for 24 h. The animals were pretreated with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters (l-NAME) or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prior to MEMC treatment to assess the possible involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMC. Results: As the administered dose did not cause toxicity in the rats, the oral median lethal dose (LD50) of MEMC was >2000 mg/kg in rats. MEMC exerted significant (p
Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a rich source of essential minerals and antioxidants; it has been used in human and animal nutrition. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance.
CONTEXT: Bauhinia purpurea L. (Fabaceae) is a native plant species of many Asian countries, including Malaysia and India. In India, the root, stem, bark, and leaf of B. purpurea are used to treat various ailments, including ulcers and stomach cancer.
OBJECTIVE: In an attempt to establish its pharmacological potential, we studied the antiulcer activity of lipid-soluble extract of B. purpurea obtained via extraction of air-dried leaves using chloroform.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were administered the chloroform extract (dose range of 100-1000 mg/kg) orally after 24 h fasting. They were subjected to the absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, and pyloric ligation assays after 30 min. The acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg extract and the rats were observed for the period of 14 days. omeprazole (30 mg/kg) was used as the standard control.
RESULTS: At 5000 mg/kg, the extract produced no sign of toxicity in rats. The extract exhibited significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antiulcer activity for the ethanol-induced model. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric wall mucus production and pH of gastric content, while significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the total volume and total acidity of the gastric content in the pylorus ligation assay.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The extract possesses antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective activities, which could be attributed to its flavonoid and tannin content. These findings provide new information regarding the potential of lipid-soluble compounds of B. purpurea for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers.
Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant widely cultivated in southern Asia, China, and Europe. It is used in the treatment of skin infections in India, China, and Malaysia by folk medicine practitioners.
Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden (Annonaceae) is a coniferous tree that is confined to mountain forests. The chemical constituents of this species have been studied previously; however, its biological activity has never been investigated before and is reported here for the first time.
Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Zingiberaceae), locally known to the Malays as "lengkuas ranting", is native to Peninsular Malaysia. The Malays traditionally used it to treat infection and rashes, and as a health drink. This study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of A. conchigera rhizomes in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic activity was elucidated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test, while the anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan-induced paw edema. The extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) exhibited antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in all tests used. The range of percentage of analgesia obtained for all doses of extract in the writhing test was 50-92%, and in the early and late phases of the formalin test was 25-62% and 63-98%, respectively. In addition, naloxone (5 mg/kg) given subcutaneously (s.c.) was found to reverse the extract (300 mg/kg)-induced antinociceptive activity in the writhing, hot plate, and formalin tests. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the ethanol extract of A. conchigera rhizomes possessed a peripheral and central antinociceptive activity that was mediated, in part, via the opioid receptor, as well as anti-inflammatory activity.
The methanol extract of Vernonia cinerea Less (Asteraceae), which exhibited antimicrobial activity, was tested for toxicity. In an acute toxicity study using mice, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg, and we found no pathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. As well as the oral acute toxicity study, the brine shrimp lethality test was also done. Brine shrimp test LC(50) values were 3.87 mg/mL (6 h) and 2.72 mg/mL (24 h), exhibiting no significant toxicity result. In conclusion, the methanol extract of V. cinerea did not produce toxic effects in mice and brine shrimp.
Morinda elliptica Ridley (Rubiaceae) has been used traditionally as a medicine to treat various diseases in Malaysia and southeast Asia. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of damnacanthal isolated from the roots of Morinda elliptica. The immunomodulatory effect of this compound was evaluated by using the lymphocyte proliferation assay with mouse thymocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In addition, the effect of the compound on PBMC cell cycle progression was studied by using flow cytometry. The production of human interleukin-2 and human inteleukin-12 cytokines was also assessed using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The lymphocyte proliferation assay showed that damnacanthal was able to activate mouse thymocytes and PBMC at a low concentration (0.468 microg/mL). Moreover, the production of human interleukin-2 and human interleukin-12 cytokines in the culture supernatant from damnacanthal activated lymphocytes was markedly up-regulated at 24 h and sustained until 72 h with a slight decrease with time. A positive correlation was found between the level of these two cytokines and the MTT-based proliferation assay. Based on the above results, damnacanthal can act as an immunomodulatory agent which may be very useful for maintaining a healthy immune system.
Context: Alpinia galanga Willd (Zingiberaceae) (AG) is a rhizomatous herb widely cultivated in shady regions of Malaysia, India, Indochina and Indonesia. It is used in southern India as a domestic remedy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, cough, asthma, obesity, diabetes, etc. It was reported to have anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties.
Objective: A flavonol glycoside, galangin, was isolated from AG rhizomes. Based on its in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect, the study was further aimed to clarify whether galangin prevented obesity induced in female rats by feeding cafeteria diet (CD) for 6 weeks.
Materials and methods: The in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect of galangin was determined by measuring the release of oleic acid from triolein. For in vivo experiments, female albino rats were fed CD with or without 50 mg/kg galangin for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake was measured at weekly intervals. On day 42, serum lipids levels were estimated and then the weight of liver and parametrial adipose tissue (PAT) was determined. The liver lipid peroxidation and triglyceride (TG) content was also estimated.
Results: The IC50 value of galangin for pancreatic lipase was 48.20 mg/mL. Galangin produced inhibition of increased body weight, energy intake and PAT weight induced by CD. In addition, galangin produced a significant decrease in serum lipids, liver weight, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of hepatic TGs.
Conclusion: Galangin present in AG rhizomes produces anti-obesity effects in CD-fed rats; this may be mediated through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.