Displaying all 2 publications

  1. Choy C, Lim LY, Chan LW, Cui Z, Mao S, Wong TW
    Pharmacol Rev, 2022 Oct;74(4):962-983.
    PMID: 36779351 DOI: 10.1124/pharmrev.122.000631
    Subcutaneous and inhaled insulins are associated with needle phobia, lipohypertrophy, lipodystrophy, and cough in diabetes treatment. Oral nanoinsulin has been developed, reaping the physiologic benefits of peroral administration. This review profiles intestinal receptors exploitable in targeted delivery of oral nanoinsulin. Intestinal receptor targeting improves oral insulin bioavailability and sustains blood glucose-lowering response. Nonetheless, these studies are conducted in small animal models with no optimization of insulin dose, targeting ligand type and content, and physicochemical and molecular biologic characteristics of nanoparticles against the in vivo/clinical diabetes responses as a function of the intestinal receptor population characteristics with diabetes progression. The interactive effects between nanoinsulin and antidiabetic drugs on intestinal receptors, including their up-/downregulation, are uncertain. Sweet taste receptors upregulate SGLT-1, and both have an undefined role as new intestinal targets of nanoinsulin. Receptor targeting of oral nanoinsulin represents a viable approach that is relatively green, requiring an in-depth development of the relationship between receptors and their pathophysiological profiles with physicochemical attributes of the oral nanoinsulin. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Intestinal receptor targeting of oral nanoinsulin improves its bioavailability with sustained blood glucose-lowering response. Exploring new intestinal receptor and tailoring the design of oral nanoinsulin to the pathophysiological state of diabetic patients is imperative to raise the insulin performance to a comparable level as the injection products.
  2. Sieghart W, Chiou LC, Ernst M, Fabjan J, M Savić M, Lee MT
    Pharmacol Rev, 2022 Jan;74(1):238-270.
    PMID: 35017178 DOI: 10.1124/pharmrev.121.000293
    GABAA receptors containing the α6 subunit are highly expressed in cerebellar granule cells and less abundantly in many other neuronal and peripheral tissues. Here, we for the first time summarize their importance for the functions of the cerebellum and the nervous system. The cerebellum is not only involved in motor control but also in cognitive, emotional, and social behaviors. α6βγ2 GABAA receptors located at cerebellar Golgi cell/granule cell synapses enhance the precision of inputs required for cerebellar timing of motor activity and are thus involved in cognitive processing and adequate responses to our environment. Extrasynaptic α6βδ GABAA receptors regulate the amount of information entering the cerebellum by their tonic inhibition of granule cells, and their optimal functioning enhances input filtering or contrast. The complex roles of the cerebellum in multiple brain functions can be compromised by genetic or neurodevelopmental causes that lead to a hypofunction of cerebellar α6-containing GABAA receptors. Animal models mimicking neuropsychiatric phenotypes suggest that compounds selectively activating or positively modulating cerebellar α6-containing GABAA receptors can alleviate essential tremor and motor disturbances in Angelman and Down syndrome as well as impaired prepulse inhibition in neuropsychiatric disorders and reduce migraine and trigeminal-related pain via α6-containing GABAA receptors in trigeminal ganglia. Genetic studies in humans suggest an association of the human GABAA receptor α6 subunit gene with stress-associated disorders. Animal studies support this conclusion. Neuroimaging and post-mortem studies in humans further support an involvement of α6-containing GABAA receptors in various neuropsychiatric disorders, pointing to a broad therapeutic potential of drugs modulating α6-containing GABAA receptors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: α6-Containing GABAA receptors are abundantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells, but their pathophysiological roles are widely unknown, and they are thus out of the mainstream of GABAA receptor research. Anatomical and electrophysiological evidence indicates that these receptors have a crucial function in neuronal circuits of the cerebellum and the nervous system, and experimental, genetic, post-mortem, and pharmacological studies indicate that selective modulation of these receptors offers therapeutic prospects for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and for stress and its consequences.
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