The present study investigated the analgesic effect of a novel synthetic cyclohexanone derivative, 2,6-bis-4-(hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzilidine)-cyclohexanone or BHMC in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in mice, when evaluated using Randall-Selitto mechanical analgesiometer. It was also demonstrated that pretreatment of naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor blocker), nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI, selective κ-opioid receptor blocker), but not β-funaltrexamine (β-FN, selective μ-opioid receptor blocker) and naltrindole hydrochloride (NTI, selective δ-opioid receptor blocker), reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of BHMC. In addition, the analgesic effect of BHMC was also reverted by pretreatment of 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, soluble guanosyl cyclase blocker) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) but not Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase blocker). Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the systemic administration of BHMC attenuated chronic constriction, injury-induced neuropathic pain. We also suggested that the possible mechanisms include κ-opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide-independent cyclic guanosine monophosphate activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel opening.
Several lines of evidence indicate that beta amyloid (β-A) production, neurofibrillary tangles and neuroinflammation are interrelated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is associated with enhanced β-A production and accumulation resulting in neuroinflammation probably via activation of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of LOX and COX inhibitors (zafirlukast and valdecoxib) in amyloidogenesis in β-A1-42 oligomer induced experimental AD in rats. The behavioral activities were assessed using actophotometer, novel object recognition test (ORT), Morris water maze (MWM) followed by biochemical assessments, determination of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β and PGE2), β-A1-42 levels and histopathological analysis. ICV administration of β-A1-42 oligomer produced significant impairment in memory consolidation. In addition to this significant increase in mito-oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) toxicity, β-A1-42 level, neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation are more profound in β-A1-42 oligomer treated AD rats. Administration of zafirlukast (15 and 30mg/kg), and valdecoxib (5 and 10mg/kg) significantly improved the behavioral performances and showed significant reversal of mito-oxidative damage declining the neuroinflammation in β-A1-42 oligomer treated rats. Furthermore, more profound effects were observed at the sub-therapeutic dose combination of zafirlukast (15mg/kg) and valdecoxib (5mg/kg). The results of the present study indicate that protective effects of zafirlukast and valdecoxib are achieved through the blockade of release of LOX and COX metabolites therefore, representing a new therapeutic target for treating AD and other neurodegenerative disorders.