Ridleyandra chuana, a new species of Gesneriaceae, is described and illustrated. It is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia and known from two small and restricted populations in montane forest. Its conservation status is assessed as vulnerable.
A new endemic species of Ridleyandra (Gesneriaceae), Ridleyandra iminii Siti-Munirah from Peninsular Malaysia is described and illustrated. Among Ridleyandra species, it is the only one with a dark red flower.
Codonoboea personatiflora Kiew & Y.Y.Sam, sp. nov., is described from lowland forest in the foothills in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. It is unique in the genus in its personate flower. Its conservation status falls within the IUCN Endangered category.
Two new Hoya R.Br. species from Borneo are described and illustrated. The first, Hoyaruthiae Rodda was collected in Sabah on Bukit Baturong, a limestone outcrop. It is one of the few species in the genus to have clear exudate. It is compared with the morphologically related Hoyauncinata Teijsm. and Binn. The other, Hoyabakoensis Rodda, was collected in the kerangas forests of Bako National Park. It belongs to HoyasectionAcanthostemma (Bl.) Kloppenb., a section with numerous members in the Philippines but under-represented in Borneo.
A new species in the genus Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae), Aristolochia vallisicola T.L.Yao, from Peninsular Malaysia is described and illustrated. Among all Peninsular Malaysian Aristolochia,itis the only species with a pinnately veined lamina and a disc-liked perianth limb. A distribution map is provided and its conservation status is assessed as Least Concern.
A new genus from Borneo, Borneocola Y.Y.Sam, is described here. The genus currently contains eight species previously classified as members of the Scaphochlamys Baker. The finding is based on the results of the morphological and molecular studies of Scaphochlamys throughout its geographical range and its closely allied sister groups, Distichochlamys M.F.Newman and Myxochlamys A.Takano & Nagam. Borneocola is nested within the tribe Zingibereae and its monophyly is strongly supported by both ITS and matK sequence data. The genus is characterised by several thin, translucent and marcescent floral bracts, absence of coloured streaks on the labellum and capitate stigma with two dorsal knobs. The genus is distributed in northwest Borneo and all species are very rare and highly endemic.
Two new species of the mycoheterotrophic genus Thismia Griff. (Thismiaceae), Thismiadomei Siti-Munirah and T.terengganuensis Siti-Munirah from Peninsular Malaysia, are described and illustrated. Thismiadomei, characterized by its perianth lobes that are upright and curve inward, but are imperfectly connate, falls within sectionOdoardoa. Thismiaterengganuensis is characterized by its mitre with three appendages on its apex, so falls within sectionGeomitra. Both new species are unique and totally different from other described species, T.domei by the trichomes on its outer perianth tube surface and T.terengganuensis by its mitre with slender appendages. Thismiajavanica J.J.Sm, also from Terengganu, is a new record for Peninsular Malaysia.
A new species, Microchiritahairulii Rafidah (Gesneriaceae) from limestone hills in Perlis, Peninsular Malaysia, is described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters, description, detailed illustrations, geographical distribution, regional provisional conservation status assessment (Endangered) and ecological observations of the new taxon, as well as an updated key to Microchirita species in Peninsular Malaysia, are provided.
Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest harbours 59 species, two subspecies and five varieties of mosses in 32 genera and 16 families that had been identified from a total of 589 specimens collected from the area. These figures represent 11.8% out of the 558 taxa, 20.2% out of the 158 genera and 34.7% out of the 46 families of mosses reported for Peninsular Malaysia. The total also represents 14.9% of the 442 taxa, 24.0% of the 133 genera and 40.0% of the 40 families of mosses recorded in Pahang. The largest family of mosses found in this limestone forest is Calymperaceae followed by Fissidentaceae. There are two new records for Pahang, Calymperespallidum Mitt. and Taxitheliumbinsteadii Broth. & Dixon. The analysis of species similarities of mosses found in the study area with some other selected areas showed that Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest had a high percentage of species similarity with Perlis State Park at Wang Kelian, another limestone forest, at 38%. Corticol is the main habitat utilised by mosses in Gunung Senyum Recreational Forest with 47 taxa, followed by the lignicol and calcicol each with 35 and 26 taxa, respectively.
Of the 92 Codonoboea species that occur in Peninsular Malaysia, 20 are recorded from the state of Terengganu, of which 9 are endemic to Terengganu including three new species, C. norakhirrudiniana Kiew, C. rheophytica Kiew and C. sallehuddiniana C.L.Lim, that are here described and illustrated. A key and checklist to all the Terengganu species are provided. The majority of species grow in lowland rain forest, amongst which C. densifolia and C. rheophytica are rheophytic. Only four grow in montane forest. The flora of Terengganu is still incompletely known, especially in the northern part of the state and in mountainous areas and so, with botanical exploration, more new species can be expected in this speciose genus.
Two new species, Phlegmariurus iminii Kiew (Lycopodiaceae) from limestone karst and P. monticola Kiew from montane habitats, are described from Peninsular Malaysia and a new combination is made for Phlegmariurus pinifolius (Trevis.) Kiew. Phlegmariurus iminii, known from a single hill threatened by quarrying, is Critically Endangered; while P. monticola and P. pinifolius that are relatively widespread are of Least Concern.
Vatica najibiana Ummul-Nazrah (Dipterocarpaceae), from the Relai Forest Reserve, Gua Musang, Kelantan and Gua Tanggang, Merapoh, Pahang, is described and illustrated. This species is Endangered and known from small populations restricted to two isolated karst limestone hills. The type locality, Relai Forest Reserve limestone, is currently under threat from encroaching oil palm plantations and ongoing logging, which, if it continues, will threaten the Kelantan population with extinction. The morphology of V. najibiana and the similar V. odorata subsp. odorata and V. harmandiana is compared.
Begoniayenyeniae is a new species of horticultural value known only from the Endau Rompin National Park, Peninsular Malaysia. It is similar to Begoniarajah with which it had previously been confused in the number of tepals and leaf characters. The new species is compared with three similar species, B.foxworthyi, B.rajah and B.reginula and photographs of all four species and descriptions of B.yenyeniae and B.rajah are provided. Molecular analysis using the ndhF-rpl132 chloroplast marker confirms the four species as distinct. Amongst native species, the three variegated species, B.yenyeniae, B.rajah and B.reginula, are some of the most popular Malaysian begonias in cultivation. Based on its restricted distribution, Begoniayenyeniae, under the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, is assessed as Critically Endangered.
A new species of Asplenium is described from two collections made on limestone hills in Peninsular Malaysia. Conspicuous by its extremely narrow pinnae, it is probably allied to A. salignum but differs in sufficient characters (scale size, size and shape of lamina, venation and sorus length, position and orientation) to be a species in its own right.
This paper reports the mosses from Crocker Range Park (CRP) in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. In total, 293 species, three subspecies and eight varieties belonging to 118 genera and 36 families are reported. This represents about 40% and 47% of the species and infra-specific taxa reported from Borneo and Sabah, respectively. Out of these, six species are new records for Borneo, namely Barbella horridula, Chaetomitrium lancifolium, Distichophyllum leiopogon, Rhaphidostichum luzonense, Rosulabryum capillare and Taxiphyllum taxirameum and 12 species and one variety are new to Sabah. With these additions, the current number of mosses in Sabah and Borneo are 651 and 766, respectively. The largest family of mosses is Calymperaceae with 35 species and one subspecies, followed by Sematophyllaceae with 32 species and two varieties and Pylaisiadelphaceae with 21 species and one variety. In conclusion, CRP has a very high species richness of mosses which is the second highest in Borneo, after Mount Kinabalu.
Ridleyandra merohmerea, a new species of Gesneriaceae, is described and illustrated. It is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia and known from a few populations along the Tuang River in the lowland dipterocarp forest of the Ulu Galas Forest Reserve in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. Its conservation status is assessed as Critically Endangered.
Ardisia argentiana and A. nagaensis from subgenus Tetrardisia are herein described and illustrated as new species. They are endemic to Borneo and the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan and to the Malaysian state of Sarawak, respectively. Ardisia argentiana is unique in its linear-oblong leaves, with a long, acuminate-caudate apex, and finely serrulate margins, while A. nagaensis can be easily recognized by its elliptic-lanceolate leaves.
We evaluated the species richness and beta diversity of epiphyllous assemblages from three selected localities in Sabah, i.e. Mt. Silam in Sapagaya Forest Reserve, and Ulu Senagang and Mt. Alab in Crocker Range Park. A total of 98 species were found and a phytosociological survey was carried out based on the three study areas. A detailed statistical analysis including standard correlation and regression analyses, ordination of species and leaves using centered principal component analysis, and the SDR simplex method to evaluate the beta diversity, was conducted. Beta diversity is very high in the epiphyllous liverwort assemblages in Sabah, with species replacement as the major component of pattern formation and less pronounced richness difference. The community analysis of the epiphyllous communities in Sabah makes possible their detailed description and comparison with similar communities of other continents.
Two new species of Aglaia from Indonesia are described, Aglaia monocaula restricted to West Papua, and Aglaia nyaruensis occurring on Borneo (Kalimantan, Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak). A phylogenetic analysis using nuclear ITS and ETS, and plastid rps15-ycf1 sequence data indicates that the two new species of Aglaia are also genetically distinct. Aglaia monocaula belongs to sectionAmoora, while A. nyaruensis is included in section Aglaia. A dichotomous key, drawings and three-locus DNA barcodes are provided as aids for the identification of the two new species of Aglaia. In addition, the geographic range of Aglaia mackiana (section Amoora) is expanded from a single previously known site in Papua New Guinea to West Papua, Indonesia.