Several criteria have been used to stratify acute kidney injury (AKI) in dengue infection and have resulted in variations in its incidence as well as clinic-laboratory characteristics. The current study was aimed to compare three commonly used criteria of AKI among patients with dengue.
Malaria remains a significant cause of travel-related mortality and morbidity. Asians are known to have higher risks because they are less careful in pre-travel health preparations. This study reports on a cohort of travellers to malaria-prone regions examined in a previous study, which explored general levels of pre-travel health preparation.
Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal symptom in pregnancy that can present as lumbar pain or pelvic girdle pain, with significant physical and psychosocial implications. Pelvic girdle pain is more prevalent and results in greater disability than lumbar pain. It is possible to distinguish between these two conditions from a detailed history based on the site of the pain, its intensity, disability and pain provocation tests. Management of low back pain in pregnancy is conservative, with physical exercise for lumbar pain and minimising activities that exacerbate pain, analgesics and bed rest for pelvic girdle pain, as well as avoiding abduction beyond the pain-free zone in labour. There is evidence that stabilising exercises in patients with pelvic girdle pain postpartum have a beneficial effect. Other treatment modalities that have been shown to be safe and effective include pelvic belts, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture and complementary therapy with yoga. Other orthopaedic complications in pregnancy such as carpal tunnel syndrome, pubic symphysis rupture, transient osteoporosis and osteonecrosis are usually self-limiting with a satisfactory outcome. However, a lack of awareness and failure to recognise these complications can result in long-term morbidity. Knowledge of the preoperative diagnostic investigations, surgical approaches and intraoperative positioning of the mother to avoid gravid uterus compression is vital in orthopaedic emergencies such as lumbar disc herniation, cauda equina syndrome, fractures and acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb to ensure a safe maternal and fetal outcome and to prevent serious disability. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in women with pre-existing orthopaedic complications such as kyphoscoliosis and total hip arthroplasty as there is no evidence to suggest increased maternal or fetal risks.
INTRODUCTION: Achieving target door-needle times for ST elevation myocardial infarction remains challenging. Data on emergency department (ED) doctor-led thrombolysis in developing countries and factors causing delay are limited.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect on door-needle times by transferring responsibility for thrombolysis to the ED doctors and to identify predictors of prolonged door-needle times.
METHODOLOGY: Data on medical on-call team-led thrombolysis at a tertiary Asian hospital were prospectively collected from May 2007 to Aug 2008 (1st study period). In September 2008, ED doctors were empowered to perform thrombolysis. The practice change was accompanied by new guidelines, tick chart implementation, and training sessions. Data were then consecutively collected from September 2008 to May 2009 (2nd study period). Door-to-needle times for the 1st and 2nd study periods were compared. All cases were analysed for factors of delay by multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS: 297 patients were thrombolysed, 169 by the medical on-call team during the 1st study period and 128 by the ED doctors during the 2nd study period. Median door-needle times were 54 and 48 min, respectively (p=0.76). Significant delays were predicted by 'incorrect initial ECG interpretation' (adjusted OR (aOR) 14.3), 'inappropriate triage' (aOR 10.4) and 'multiple referrals' (aOR 5.9). No cases of inappropriate thrombolysis were recorded.
CONCLUSIONS: Transfer of responsibility for thrombolysis to the ED doctors did not improve door-needle times despite measures introduced to facilitate this change. Key causative factors for this failure were identified.
KEYWORDS: Accident & Emergency Medicine; Quality improvement
Study site: Emergency department, University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensory motor neurological disorder that is characterised by an irresistible urge to move the legs that significantly affects the quality of life of the patient. Prevalence in the general population is 5-25% and it is twice as prevalent in women as in men. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy with a fourfold increased risk of developing this disorder later in life. The pathophysiology of RLS is centred on dopaminergic dysfunction, reduced central nervous system iron, genetic linkages, or alteration in neurotransmitters such as hypocretins, endorphins levels and immune dysfunction and inflammatory mechanisms. With the emergence of new evidence, there are changes to the previous treatment recommendations for RLS. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that dopamine agonists such as rotigotine transdermal patch, pramipexole, ropinirole, gabapentin enacarbil, pregabalin and gabapentin are effective in the short-term treatment of RLS and rotigotine, followed by gabapentin enacarbil, ropinirole, pramipexole and gabapentin for long-term treatment. Based on expert consensus, the recommendation for daily RLS is dopamine agonists or gabapentin or low-potency opioids. Levodopa is less preferred for treating daily RLS due to its high risk of augmentation. For intermittent RLS, it is levodopa or dopamine agonists or low-potency opioids or benzodiazepines. For refractory RLS, the choice is to change to gabapentin or a different dopamine agonist, addition of a second agent like gabapentin or benzodiazepine to the existing drug or changing to a high-potency opioid or tramadol. Medications with safety record in pregnancy include opioids and antiepileptics such as carbamazepine and gabapentin. There are concerns that patients with RLS are at risk for metabolic deregulation, autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. However, a recent study concluded that RLS is not associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications.
Hypertension is a chronic disorder which often entails debilitating cardiovascular and renal complications. Hypertension mostly arises as a complex quantitative trait that is affected by varying combinations of genetic and environmental factors. Secondary hypertension has been encountered with increasing frequency. The common causes of secondary hypertension include renal parenchymal disease, renal artery stenosis, primary aldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, and Cushing's syndrome. The detection of a secondary cause is of the utmost importance because it provides an opportunity to convert an incurable disease into a potentially curable one. Early identification and treatment will provide a better opportunity for cure, prevent target organ damage, reduce socioeconomic burden and health expenditure associated with drug costs, and improve patients' quality of life. Hence, it is a condition not to be missed.
Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) are essential fatty acids with diverse biological effects in human health and disease. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a well-established benefit of their intake. Dietary supplementation may also benefit patients with dyslipidaemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, obesity, inflammatory diseases, neurological/ neuropsychiatric disorders and eye diseases. Consumption of omega-3 FAs during pregnancy reduces the risk of premature birth and improves intellectual development of the fetus. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of omega-3 FAs. According to the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition guidelines (2004), a healthy adult should consume a minimum of two portions of fish a week to obtain the health benefit. This review outlines the health implications, dietary sources, deficiency states and recommended allowances of omega-3 FAs in relation to human nutrition.
Post-radiation large vessel injury has not received as much attention as microvascular irradiation injury. A few studies have shown that common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is increased after radiotherapy to the head and neck. However, in most of these studies, the irradiated subjects also had other major risk factors for atherosclerosis. In this study, irradiated subjects with major risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, history of previous cerebrovascular accident and connective tissue disorder were excluded.
BACKGROUND: This study was proposed to develop a composite of outcome measures using forced expiratory volume percentage of predicted, exercise capacity and quality of life scores for assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with COPD were enrolled into a prospective, observational study at the respiratory outpatient clinic, National University Hospital Malaysia (Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia--HUKM), Kuala Lumpur.
RESULTS: Our study found modest correlation between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), 6 min walk distance and the SGRQ scores with mean (SD) values of 0.97 (0.56) litres/s, 322 (87) m and 43.7 (23.6)%, respectively. K-Means cluster analysis identified four distinct clusters which reached statistical significance which was refined to develop a new cumulative staging system. The SAFE Index score correlated with the number of exacerbations in 2 years (r = 0.497, p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: We have developed the SGRQ, Air-Flow limitation and Exercise tolerance Index (SAFE Index) for the stratification of severity in COPD. This index incorporates the SGRQ score, the FEV(1) % predicted and the 6 min walk distance. The SAFE Index is moderately correlated with the number of disease exacerbations.
Study site: Respiratory clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Cryptococcal infection uncommonly presents with pulmonary manifestations and even more rarely so as massive bilateral effusions. Pleural involvement is usually associated with underlying pulmonary parenchymal lesions and is unusual while on antifungal therapy. We report a patient with cryptococcal meningitis who, while on intravenous 5-flucytosine and amphotericin B, developed life-threatening bilateral massive pleural effusions with evidence of spontaneous resolution, consistent with prior hypothesis of antigenic stimulation as the cause of pleural involvement.
Pregnancy following idiopathic aplastic anaemia is rare and is difficult to manage because of life-threatening episodes of bleeding and infections. Only a handful of cases has been reported in the literature. The pregnancies were unsuccessful in the majority. The present report describes a patient with moderately severe idiopathic aplastic anaemia who was managed with intensive haematological support leading to delivery of a healthy infant by caesarean section. Despite platelet transfusion refractoriness as a result of transfusions prior to pregnancy, adequate platelet transfusions prevented excessive bleeding. The literature is reviewed and management with platelet transfusions is discussed.
Acute aortic thrombosis is a rare condition, occurring mainly as a result of trauma or atherosclerosis and occasionally secondary to hypercoagulable states. We report a patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia who developed an unusual complication, acute aortic thrombosis.