OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the relationships between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), cognitive impairment and burden of care of patients with dementia.
METHOD: A cross-sectional, non-randomised study of 65 elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers was conducted over a 3-month period in January 2007 at the memory clinics of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Patients' cognitive functions were assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Caregivers were interviewed to determine the severity of BPSD and caregiver burden (CB) using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Questionnaire and Zarit Burden Interview (BI) respectively.
RESULTS: Cognitive impairment did not contribute significantly to CB. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that high BPSD scores contributed 0.27 more in BI score, female patients contributed 0.37 less in BI score and caregivers with higher educational level contribute 0.5 more in BI score.
CONCLUSION: Patients' BPSD and male gender, but not cognitive impairment, were associated with CB. Even though CB was experienced more among caregivers with better education, all caregivers should be screened to ensure their general well-being.
KEYWORDS: BPSD; Caregiver burden; Cognitive impairment
Study site: Memory clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM) and Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The Bland-Altman method is the most popular method used to assess the agreement of medical instruments. The main concern about this method is the presence of proportional bias. The slope of the regression line fitted to the Bland-Altman plot should be tested to exclude proportional bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether the overestimation of bias in the Bland-Altman analysis is still present even when the proportional bias has been excluded.
OBJECTIVE: Develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led education program related to HIV/AIDS among university students.
DESIGN: randomized controlled trial with 276 university students at Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang in 2011.
INTERVENTION: A peer-led education program on HIV prevention by university students.
OUTCOME: differences in knowledge, attitude and risk behavior practices related to HIV between baselines, immediate follow-up after intervention and after three months.
RESULTS: Significant improvement in sound knowledge in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI 1.01, 3.00; p=0.04) and improvement in good attitude related to HIV (Odds ratio 2.22; 95% CI 1.37, 3.61; p=0.01). The odds of high substance risk behavior was significantly reduced in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio 0.07; 95% CI 0.02, 0.34; p=0.01). The association between good knowledge and intervention was modified by the different time points (baseline, immediately after intervention and 3 months after intervention), ethnicity and gender.
Peer-led education program in HIV prevention improves knowledge, attitude and substance risk behavior. Changes in sexual risk behavior may require a longer follow-up.
This study aimed to evaluate changes in maternal adiposity and lipid profile and to correlate these parameters with Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels among pregnant women.
To investigate the psychometric properties of the developed 21 item questionnaire to measure definitions, attitudes and management practices in relation to diarrhea during enteral nutrition (DAPonDEN).
OBJECTIVES: To identify the correlates between risk perceptions and cervical cancer screening among urban Malaysian women.
METHOD: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 231 women in Petaling Jaya city in 2007. The association of risk perceptions of cervical cancer and screening practice was analyzed using Poisson regression.
RESULTS: 56% of the respondents ever had a Pap smear test. Knowledge of signs and symptoms (aPR=1.11, 95% CI=1.03-1.19), age (aPR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.03), number of pregnancies (aPR=1.06, 95% CI=1.01-1.11), marital status, education level and religion were found to be significant correlates of Pap smear screening. Respondents who were never married were less likely to have had a Pap smear. Those who had no education or primary education were less likely to have had a Pap smear compared to those with degree qualification. The prevalence of screening was significantly higher among Christians and others (aPR=1.35; 95% CI=1.01-1.81) and Buddhists (aPR=1.38; 95% CI=1.03-1.84), compared to Muslims.
CONCLUSION: Eliminating anecdotal beliefs as risks via targeted knowledge on established risk factors and culturally sensitive screening processes are strategic for increasing and sustaining uptake of Pap smear screening versus current opportunistic screening practices.
KEYWORDS: Cervical cancer; Malaysia; Pap smear; Risk perception; Screening; Targeted knowledge
In the absence of raised intraocular pressure (IOP), haemodynamic parameters have been implicated in the development of normal tension glaucoma (NTG). The purpose of this study is to compare 24-hour IOP and haemodynamic parameters in NTG patients and non-glaucoma patients.
OBJECTIVE: Treatment delays in breast cancer are generally thought to affect prognosis but the impact on survival remains unclear. Indicators for breast cancer care include time to primary treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether time to primary treatment (TPT) in breast cancer impacts survival.
METHOD: A total of 648 breast cancer patients treated in the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia between 2004 and 2005 were included in the study. TPT was calculated from the date of pathological diagnosis to the date of primary treatment. Mortality data was obtained from the National Registry of Births and Deaths. Last date of follow-up was November 2010.
RESULTS: Median TPT was 18 days. Majority 508 (69.1%) of the patients received treatment within 30 days after diagnosis. The majority was surgically treated. Ethnicity (p=0.002) and stage at presentation (p=0.007) were significantly associated with delayed TPT. Malay ethnicity had delayed TPT compared to the Chinese; Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.9 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.237, 2.987). Delayed TPT did not affect overall survival on univariate and multivariate analyses.
CONCLUSION: Time to primary treatment after a diagnosis of breast cancer had no impact on overall survival. Further studies on care before diagnosis are important in drawing up meaningful quality indicators.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotic monotherapy in Malaysia.
METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted at multiple centres between June 2008 and September 2011. Two hundred and five patients who fulfilled the DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and who had been on antipsychotic medication for at least one year, were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving a mood stabilizer were excluded from the study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults Treatment Panel III (ATP III) modified for Asian waist circumference.
RESULTS: In the first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) group, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was among patients treated with trifluoperazine and flupenthixol decanoate (66.7% each). For the second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) group, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was among patients treated with clozapine (66.7%). The component with the highest prevalence in metabolic syndrome was waist circumference in both FGA and SGA groups except for aripiprazole in SGA.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotic monotherapy in Malaysia was very high. Intervention measures are urgently needed to combat these problems.
KEYWORDS: Antipsychotics; Metabolic syndrome; Monotherapy; Prevalence; Schizophrenia
This study investigated rural women's knowledge of breast cancer and screening methods by ethnicity and examined the predictors of breast screening methods.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in five rural districts of Perak; 959 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. ANOVA and regression analysis were used in data analysis.
Women below 50 years old, of Malay ethnicity and who had secondary education scored better than those older, of Chinese ethnicity and had primary education (p<0.001). The uptake of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammogram was 59%, 51% and 6.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed knowledge of breast cancer and CBE as top predictors of BSE, being married and knowledge of breast cancer as top predictors for CBE; and CBE as the top predictor of mammography uptake. Support from husbands and family members for breast cancer screening was a predictor for CBE and BSE.
Knowledge of breast cancer and its screening uptake varies by ethnicity, location and the type of support received. Efforts and approaches to improve the women's knowledge of breast cancer and its screening uptake therefore should be customized to address the different influencing factors.