Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Ng CJ, Teo CH, Ho CC, Tan WP, Tan HM
    Prev Med, 2014 Oct;67:295-302.
    PMID: 25117523 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.08.007
    This study aims to compare health status and its risk factors between men and women who are from countries of different income status in Asia.
  2. Su TT, Sim PY, Nahar AM, Majid HA, Murray LJ, Cantwell MM, et al.
    Prev Med, 2014 Oct;67:100-5.
    PMID: 25016043 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.07.001
    BACKGROUND: Obesity and lack of physical activity are fast becoming a concern among Malaysian adolescents.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess physical activity levels among Malaysian adolescents and investigate the association between physical activity levels and body composition such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 1361 school-going 13 year old multi-ethnic adolescents from population representative samples in Malaysia were involved in our study. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Height, weight, body fat composition and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Data collection period was from March to May 2012.

    RESULTS: 10.8% of the males and 7.4% of the females were obese according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. A majority of the adolescents (63.9%) were physically inactive. There is a weak but significant correlation between physical activity scores and the indicators of obesity. The adjusted coefficient for body fatness was relatively more closely correlated to physical activity scores followed by waist circumference and lastly BMI.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that high physical activity scores were associated with the decreased precursor risk factors of obesity.

  3. Reidpath DD, Davey TM, Kadirvelu A, Soyiri IN, Allotey P
    Prev Med, 2014 Feb;59:37-41.
    PMID: 24270054 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.11.011
    OBJECTIVES: Evidence that age of smoking initiation represents a risk factor for regular smoking in adolescence is complicated by inconsistencies in the operational definition of smoking initiation and simultaneous inclusion of age as an explanatory variable. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between age, age of smoking initiation and subsequent regular smoking.
    METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted of the U.S. Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011. A sex stratified multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model the likelihood of regular smoking with age and age of smoking initiation as explanatory variables and race/ethnicity as a covariate.
    RESULTS: After controlling for race/ethnicity, age and age of smoking initiation were independently associated with regular smoking in males and females. Independent of age, a one year's decrease in the age of smoking initiation was associated with a 1.27 times increase in odds of regular smoking in females (95% CI: 1.192-1.348); and similar associations for males (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.216-1.341).
    CONCLUSION: While the majority of high school students do not become regular smokers after initiating smoking, earlier initiation of smoking is associated with subsequent regular smoking irrespective of sex or race/ethnicity. These findings have potentially important implications for intervention targeting.
    KEYWORDS: Adolescent; Epidemiology; Smoking
  4. Robson N, Bond A, Wolff K
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S8-10.
    PMID: 23624111 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.04.010
    OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that smoking behaviour differs by ethnicity. This study aims to compare smoking behaviour characteristics between Caucasian and Malay smokers.
    METHODS: A cross sectional survey, involving 175 smokers attending smoking cessation clinics at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom and University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between May 2005 and February 2007. Data on demographics, smoking history, nicotine dependence and smoking behaviour were collected.
    RESULTS: All participants were males, mean age 30.7 ± 10.3 years. Caucasians initiated smoking significantly earlier (mean age 14.8 ± 2.8 years) (p = 0.001) and smoked regularly significantly earlier (mean age 17.3 ± 3.5) (p = 0.003) than Malays (mean starting age 16.9 ± 4.4 years and mean age regular use 19.5 ± 4.5 years), respectively. Caucasians smoked less for social integration than Malays (p = 0.03) but smoked more for regulation of negative affect than Malays (p = 0.008) and smoked more for hedonism than Malays (p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: Malays smoke as a means of socially integrating. This has important public health implications. Social reasons and the social environment play a role in smoking uptake, smoking maintenance and smoking cessation and this should be borne in mind for strategies planning to promote smoking cessation.
    KEYWORDS: Behaviour; Caucasian; Character; Cigarette; Malay; Nicotine; Smoking
  5. Su TT, Bulgiba AM, Sampatanukul P, Sastroasmoro S, Chang P, Tharyan P, et al.
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S5-7.
    PMID: 23624253 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.04.009
    Clinical Epidemiology (CE) and Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) have become increasingly important in an era of rising costs, patient safety concerns and evidence-based health care. CE and EBM research in the Asia Pacific region have grown significantly. However, there are three main challenges such as linking evidence to practice and policy; developing a strong collaborative network; and a need for resources and technical expertise to produce evidence. The Cochrane Collaboration is a possible solution to resolve above challenges identified, particularly the challenge of transforming evidence to practice. In addition, training can be carried out to enhance technical expertise in the region and there is also the promising potential that collaborations could extend beyond systematic reviews. To improve the adoption of evidence-based health policy, selection of the best evidence for the right audience and focusing on the relevant issues through appropriate methodology are essential. Information on effectiveness and cost effectiveness needs to be highlighted for policy makers. The way forward to strengthen research and capacity building is to establish the Asia Pacific Consortium for CE and EBM. The consortium would help to create mutually rewarding scientific research and collaborations that will augur well for advances in CE and EBM.
  6. Wong LP
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S60-3.
    PMID: 23583477 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.03.013
    OBJECTIVE: The prime purpose of this study is to assess HIV/AIDS-related self-stigma and discrimination (S&D) attitudes and associated factors using multivariate analysis of data from the 2010-11 National Survey of Understanding the Root of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma and Discrimination.
    METHOD: A national telephone survey was carried out with 2271 of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years. The sample was contacted by random digit dialing covering the whole of Peninsular Malaysia from December 2010 to May 2011. The HIV-transmission knowledge, HIV-related self-stigma, and public stigma were investigated.
    RESULTS: Despite high level of HIV-transmission knowledge [mean (SD)=10.56 (2.42), mean score at 70th percentile] the respondents in this study had moderate levels (mean scores near midpoints) of self-stigma and public stigma attitudes. HIV-transmission knowledge score was not significantly correlated with self-stigma score, but showed a significantly small positive effect (r<0.2) for public stigma scores. Ethnicity is the strongest correlate of HIV-transmission knowledge, self-stigma, and public stigma attitudes in the multivariate analyses. Other significant correlates were age, socioeconomic group, and urban-rural setting.
    CONCLUSIONS: The root causes of HIV stigma and discriminatory attitudes were not associated with knowledge deficiency. Interventions should be oriented towards promoting de-stigmatization of HIV/AIDS, and tailored socio-culturally.
    KEYWORDS: Discriminatory; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Stigma
  7. Maniam T, Chinna K, Lim CH, Kadir AB, Nurashikin I, Salina AA, et al.
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S45-6.
    PMID: 23454536 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.02.022
    The aim of this paper is to identify at-risk groups for a focused suicide prevention program for Malaysia.
  8. Isa MR, Moy FM, Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S37-40.
    PMID: 23454597 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.02.011
    To determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on health related quality of life among prostate cancer patients.
  9. Abdullah F, Su TT
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S83-6.
    PMID: 23415623 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.02.001
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a call-recall approach in enhancing Pap smear practice by changes of motivation stage among non-compliant women.
  10. Fransen HP, Beulens JW, May AM, Struijk EA, Boer JM, de Wit GA, et al.
    Prev Med, 2015 Aug;77:119-24.
    PMID: 26007298 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.05.014
    Dietary patterns have been associated with the incidence or mortality of individual non-communicable diseases, but their association with disease burden has received little attention.
  11. Masilamani R, Bulgiba A, Chinna K, Darus A, Isahak M, Kandiben S, et al.
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S57-9.
    PMID: 23352959 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.01.008
    This study aims to determine the prevalence of stress and the associated socio-demographic and work factors among police personnel in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  12. Lubis R, Bulgiba A, Kamarulzaman A, Hairi NN, Dahlui M, Peramalah D
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S54-6.
    PMID: 23352555 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.01.006
    To determine the predictors of death in Malaysian HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART).
  13. Rafizah AA, Aziah BD, Azwany YN, Imran MK, Rusli AM, Nazri SM, et al.
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S11-3.
    PMID: 23295174 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.017
    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Risk factors for the disease may vary among countries.
  14. Ismail I, Bulgiba A
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S27-30.
    PMID: 23295172 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.023
    To determine predictors of unsuccessful treatment in HIV-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients.
  15. Hairi NN, Bulgiba A, Peramalah D, Mudla I
    Prev Med, 2013 Jan;56(1):8-11.
    PMID: 23103916 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.10.016
    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others.
  16. Majid HA, Bin Sidek MA, Chinna K
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S64-6.
    PMID: 23298820 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.021
    To investigate the psychometric properties of the developed 21 item questionnaire to measure definitions, attitudes and management practices in relation to diarrhea during enteral nutrition (DAPonDEN).
  17. Ibrahim N, Rampal L, Jamil Z, Zain AM
    Prev Med, 2012 Nov;55(5):505-10.
    PMID: 22982947 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.09.003
    OBJECTIVE: Develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led education program related to HIV/AIDS among university students.
    METHOD:
    DESIGN: randomized controlled trial with 276 university students at Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang in 2011.
    INTERVENTION: A peer-led education program on HIV prevention by university students.
    OUTCOME: differences in knowledge, attitude and risk behavior practices related to HIV between baselines, immediate follow-up after intervention and after three months.
    RESULTS: Significant improvement in sound knowledge in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI 1.01, 3.00; p=0.04) and improvement in good attitude related to HIV (Odds ratio 2.22; 95% CI 1.37, 3.61; p=0.01). The odds of high substance risk behavior was significantly reduced in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio 0.07; 95% CI 0.02, 0.34; p=0.01). The association between good knowledge and intervention was modified by the different time points (baseline, immediately after intervention and 3 months after intervention), ethnicity and gender.
    CONCLUSION:
    Peer-led education program in HIV prevention improves knowledge, attitude and substance risk behavior. Changes in sexual risk behavior may require a longer follow-up.
  18. Said MA, Hatim A, Habil MH, Zafidah W, Haslina MY, Badiah Y, et al.
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S50-3.
    PMID: 23337566 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.01.005
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotic monotherapy in Malaysia.
    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted at multiple centres between June 2008 and September 2011. Two hundred and five patients who fulfilled the DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and who had been on antipsychotic medication for at least one year, were screened for metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving a mood stabilizer were excluded from the study. Metabolic syndrome was defined by using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults Treatment Panel III (ATP III) modified for Asian waist circumference.
    RESULTS: In the first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) group, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was among patients treated with trifluoperazine and flupenthixol decanoate (66.7% each). For the second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) group, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was among patients treated with clozapine (66.7%). The component with the highest prevalence in metabolic syndrome was waist circumference in both FGA and SGA groups except for aripiprazole in SGA.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotic monotherapy in Malaysia was very high. Intervention measures are urgently needed to combat these problems.
    KEYWORDS: Antipsychotics; Metabolic syndrome; Monotherapy; Prevalence; Schizophrenia
  19. Neelamegam M, Looi I, Cheah WK, Narayanan P, Hamid AM, Ong LM
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S77-9.
    PMID: 23295169 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.022
    This community based incidence study aims to report the stroke incidence in the south-west region of the Penang Island.
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