Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Abd Rahman RN, Ali MS, Sugiyama S, Leow AT, Inoue T, Basri M, et al.
    Protein Pept Lett, 2015;22(2):173-9.
    PMID: 25329331
    Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., which produces a putative thermostable lipase, represents a novel species, with type strain T1. The characterisation of this intrinsically thermostable T1 lipase either physicochemically or structurally is an important task. The crystallisation of T1lipase in space was carried out using a High-Density Protein Crystal Growth (HDPCG) apparatus with the vapour diffusion method, and X-ray diffraction data were collected. The microgravity environment has improved the size and quality of the crystals as compared to earth grown crystal. The effect of microgravity on the crystallisation of T1 lipase was clearly evidenced by the finer atomic details at 1.35 A resolution. Better electron densities were observed overall compared with the Earth-grown crystals, and comparison shows the subtle but distinct conformations around Na(+) ion binding site stabilized via cation-π interactions. This approach could be useful for solving structure and function of lipases towards exploiting its potentials to various industrial applications.
  2. Moin SF, Omar MN
    Protein Pept Lett, 2014;21(8):707-13.
    PMID: 23855667
    Laccases belong to the multicopper binding protein family that catalysis the reduction of oxygen molecule to produce water. These enzymes are glycosylated proteins and have been isolated and purified from fungi, bacteria, plant, insects and lichens. The variety of commercial and industrial application of laccases has attracted much attention towards the research addressing different aspects of the protein characterization, production and fit for purpose molecule. Here we briefly discuss the purification, catalytic mechanism in light of available understanding of structure-function relationship and the tailoring side of the protein, which has been the subject of recent research. Purification strategy of laccases is a method of choice and is facilitated by increased production of the enzyme. The structure-function relationship has given insights to unfold the catalytic mechanism. Site directed mutagenesis and other modification at C-terminal end or surrounding environment of copper centres have shown promising results to fit for purpose aspect, with a lot remains to be explored in glycosylation status and its alteration.
  3. Dehzangi A, Phon-Amnuaisuk S
    Protein Pept Lett, 2011 Feb;18(2):174-85.
    PMID: 21054271
    One of the most important goals in bioinformatics is the ability to predict tertiary structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence. In this paper, new feature groups based on the physical and physicochemical properties of amino acids (size of the amino acids' side chains, predicted secondary structure based on normalized frequency of β-Strands, Turns, and Reverse Turns) are proposed to tackle this task. The proposed features are extracted using a modified feature extraction method adapted from Dubchak et al. To study the effectiveness of the proposed features and the modified feature extraction method, AdaBoost.M1, Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) that have been commonly and successfully applied to the protein folding problem are employed. Our experimental results show that the new feature groups altogether with the modified feature extraction method are capable of enhancing the protein fold prediction accuracy better than the previous works found in the literature.
  4. Abdul Rahman MB, Karjiban RA, Salleh AB, Jacobs D, Basri M, Thean Chor AL, et al.
    Protein Pept Lett, 2009;16(11):1360-70.
    PMID: 20001926
    The stability of biocatalysts is an important criterion for a sustainable industrial operation economically. T1 lipase is a thermoalkalophilic enzyme derived from Geobacillus zalihae strain T1 (T1 lipase) that was isolated from palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Malaysia. We report here the results of high temperatures molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of T1 lipase in explicit solvent. We found that the N-terminal moiety of this enzyme was accompanied by a large flexibility and dynamics during temperature-induced unfolding simulations which preceded and followed by clear structural changes in two specific regions; the small domain (consisting of helices alpha3 and alpha5, strands beta1 and beta2, and connecting loops) and the main catalytic domain or core domain (consisting of helices alpha6- alpha9 and connecting loops which located above the active site) of the enzyme. The results suggest that the small domain of model enzyme is a critical region to the thermostability of this organism.
  5. Karjiban RA, Basyaruddin M, Rahman A, Salleh AB, Basri M, Zaliha RN, et al.
    Protein Pept Lett, 2010 Jun;17(6):699-707.
    PMID: 19958281
    An all-atom level MD simulation in explicit solvent at high temperature is a powerful technique to increase our knowledge about the structurally important regions modulating thermal stability in thermenzymes. In this respect, two large-sized thermoalkalophilic enzymes from Bacillus stearothermophilus L1 (L1 lipase) and Geobacillus zalihae strain T1 (T1 lipase) are well-established representatives. In this paper, comparative results from temperature-induced MD simulations of both model systems at 300 K, 400 K and 500 K are presented and discussed with respect to identification of highly flexible regions critical to thermostability. From our MD simulation results, specific regions along the L1 lipase and T1 lipase polypeptide chain including the small domain and the main catalytic domain or core domain of both enzymes show a marked increase in fluctuations and dynamics followed by clear structural changes. Overall, the N-terminal moiety of both enzymes and their small domains exhibit hyper-sensitivity to thermal stress. The results appear to propose that these regions are critical in determining of the overall thermal stability of both organisms.
  6. Kandandapani S, Tan CY, Shuib AS, Tayyab S
    Protein Pept Lett, 2016;23(6):537-43.
    PMID: 26936029
    The influence of buffer composition on the conformational stability of native and calciumdepleted Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) was investigated against guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) denaturation using circular dichroism, fluorescence and UV-difference spectroscopy. Differential effect of buffer composition on GdnHCl denaturation of BLA was evident from the magnitude of these spectral signals, which followed the order: sodium phosphate > Tris-HCl > HEPES > MOPS. These effects became more pronounced with calcium-depleted BLA. Sephacryl S-200 gel chromatographic results showed significant BLA aggregation in the presence of 6 M GdnHCl.
  7. Manoharan P, Wong YH, Tayyab S
    Protein Pept Lett, 2015;22(7):611-7.
    PMID: 25961707
    Stabilizing effect of diazepam and ketoprofen, Sudlow's site II markers on human serum albumin (HSA) against urea denaturation was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. The two-step, three-state urea transition of HSA was transformed into a single-step, two-state transition with the abolishment of the intermediate state along with a shift of the transition curve towards higher urea concentrations in the presence of diazepam or ketoprofen. Interestingly, a greater shift in the transition curve of HSA was observed in the presence of ketoprofen compared to diazepam. A comparison of the intrinsic fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of HSA and partially-denatured HSAs, obtained in the absence and the presence of diazepam or ketoprofen suggested significant retention of native-like conformation in the partially-denatured states of HSA in the presence of Sudlow's site II markers. Taken together, all these results suggested stabilization of HSA in the presence of diazepam or ketoprofen, being greater in the presence of ketoprofen.
  8. Wong YH, Kadir HA, Tayyab S
    Protein Pept Lett, 2016;23(10):898-904.
    PMID: 27586182
    Urea and thermal denaturations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied in the absence and the presence of honey or simulated honey sugar cocktail (SHSC) using far-UV CD and ANS fluorescence spectroscopy. Presence of 20% (w/v) honey or SHSC in the incubation mixture shifted the urea transition curve towards higher urea concentrations, being higher in the presence of honey and transformed the two-step, three-state transition into a single-step, two-state transition. A comparison of the far-UV CD and the ANS fluorescence spectra of 4.6 M urea-denatured BSA (U-BSA) in the absence and the presence of 20% (w/v) honey or SHSC suggested greater stabilizing potential of honey than SHSC, as U-BSA maintained native like conformation in the presence of 20% (w/v) honey. Furthermore, thermal transition curves of BSA were also shifted towards higher temperature range in the presence of 20% (w/v) SHSC and honey, showing greater shift in the presence of honey. The far-UV CD spectra of the heat-denatured BSA also showed greater stabilization in the presence of honey. Taken together all these results suggested greater protein stabilizing potential of honey than SHSC against chemical and thermal denaturations of BSA.
  9. Kameel NI, Shuib AS, Tayyab S
    Protein Pept Lett, 2016;23(12):1111-1117.
    PMID: 27774894
    Acid denaturation of champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin was studied in the pH range, 7.0-1.0 using intrinsic fluorescence and ANS fluorescence measurements. The lectin remained stable up to pH 5.0 and showed local disordering in the vicinity of the protein fluorophores within the pH range, 5.0-3.5. Decrease in the pH from pH 3.5 to pH 2.5 led to structural transition, marked by the decrease in the intrinsic fluorescence and increase in the ANS fluorescence signals. This can be ascribed to the dissociation of the tetrameric lectin into monomeric forms. Further decrease in the pH up to pH 1.5 produced another transition, which specified the unfolding of monomers as reflected from the decrease in both intrinsic fluorescence and ANS fluorescence signals. Characterization of the conformational states obtained at pH 7.0, pH 2.5 and pH 1.5 based on intrinsic and ANS fluorescence spectra, gel chromatographic behavior and thermal denaturation confirmed the existence of folded monomeric forms at pH 2.5 and unfolded states at pH 1.5. However, the aciddenatured state of CGB lectin at pH 1.5 retained significant residual structure, as evident from the greater loss of both secondary and tertiary structures in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride at low pH values. Anion-induced refolding below pH 1.5 was also seen using ANS fluorescence measurements.
  10. Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Blidi LE, Rashid U, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(2):164-170.
    PMID: 28240158 DOI: 10.2174/0929866524666170223150839
    BACKGROUND: Biodiesel is a green fuel consisting of long chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters, which can be blended with diesel or used alone which is usually produced from vegetable oils/fats by either lipasecatalyzed transesterification. In this investigation, an enzyme (Novozym 435) catalyzed process was optimized to prepare methyl esters from crude Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) by transesterification of CCO with methanol. However, as per our knowledge, lipase-catalyzed transesterification have not been used for biodiesel production from Citrullus colocynthis.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to transesterify the CCO in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase as catalyst and methanol. Additionally, the physicochemical parameters/fuel properties of the Citrullus colocynthis methyl ester (CCME) were assessed and compared.

    METHODS: Lipase-catalyzed reactions were carried out in three necked flask (50 mL) attached with reflux condenser and thermometer, immersed in oil bath at constant stirring speed (400 rpm). The reaction mixture was consisted of CCO and varying the calculated amount of methanol, tert-butyl alcohol, and Novozym 435. The experimental parameters reaction time, methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, tert-butanol content, Novozym 435 content and water content were optimized for the transesterification reaction. The CCME yield was measured using gas chromatograph. The fuel properties of the produced CCME were determined as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and European (EN) biodiesel standard methods.

    RESULTS: In this study, an enzymatic catalyst was employed to synthesize the CCME from CCO via transesterification. Several variables affecting the CCME yield were optimized as lipase quantity (4%), water content (0.5%), methanol/oil molar ratio (5:1), reaction temperature (43 °C), reaction medium composition (80% tertbutanol/ oil), and reaction time (3.7 h). A CCME yield of 97.8% was achieved using enzyme catalyzed transesterification of CCO under optimal conditions. The significant biodiesel fuel properties of CCME, i.e. cloud point (0.70 °C); cetane number (49.07); kinematic viscosity (2.27 mm2/s); flash point (143 °C); sulfur content (2 ppm) density (880 kg/m3) and acid value (0.076 mg KOH/g) were appraised. CCME also exhibited long-term storage stability (4.80 h) and all the biodiesel fuel properties were within the range of standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214).

    CONCLUSION: The lipase-catalyzed transesterification produced better conversion than the base-catalyzed reaction. The fuel properties of CCME were within the limits of the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. Furthermore, CCME showed good oxidative stability and a long shelf life due its high natural antioxidant content. CCME showed better fuel properties and long-term storage stability due to which it can be used as a potential alternative fuel.

  11. Agyei D, Ahmed I, Akram Z, Iqbal HM, Danquah MK
    Protein Pept Lett, 2017;24(2):94-101.
    PMID: 28017145 DOI: 10.2174/0929866523666161222150444
    Bioactive proteins and peptides are recognised as novel therapeutic molecules with varying biological properties for potential medical applications. Development of protein and peptidebased therapeutic products for human use is growing steadily as they continue to receive an increasing rate of approval by the United States Food and Drugs Administration (US FDA). In this short review, we describe the current status and methodologies involved in the synthesis of protein and peptide biopharmaceuticals with an emphasis on the drivers and restrains to their exploitation in the therapeutic products sector.
  12. Tan YC, Ang CL, Wong MY, Ho CL
    Protein Pept Lett, 2016;23(11):994-1002.
    PMID: 27719656
    Plant defensins are plant defence peptides that have many different biological activities, including antifungal, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities. A cDNA (EgDFS) encoding defensin was isolated from Elaeis guineensis. The open reading frame of EgDFS contained 231 nucleotides encoding a 71-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight at 8.69 kDa, and a potential signal peptide. The eight highly conserved cysteine sites in plant defensins were also conserved in EgDFS. The EgDFS sequence lacking 30 amino acid residues at its N-terminus (EgDFSm) was cloned into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS and successfully expressed as a soluble recombinant protein. The recombinant EgDFSm was found to be a thermal stable peptide which demonstrated inhibitory activity against the growth of G. boninense possibly by inhibiting starch assimilation. The role of EgDFSm in oil palm defence system against the infection of pathogen G. boninense was discussed.
  13. Syahir A, Kajikawa K, Mihara H
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(1):34-41.
    PMID: 29237369 DOI: 10.2174/0929866525666171214111957
    BACKGROUND: Direct bio-monitoring essentially involves optical means since photon has insignificant effects over biomolecules. Over the years, laser induced surface Plasmon resonance method with various modifications as well as versatile localized Plasmon excited by incoherent light have facilitated in recording many nanobiological activities. Yet, monitoring interactions of small molecules including drugs requires signal amplification and improvement on signal-to-noise ratio.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper focused on how the refractive index based nanobio-sensoring gold platform can produce more efficient, adaptable and more practical detection techniques to observe molecular interactions at high degree of sensitivity. It discusses surface chemistry approach, optimisation of the refractive index of gold platform and manipulation of gold geometry augmenting signal quality.

    METHODS: In a normal-incidence reflectivity, r0 can be calculated using the Fresnel equation. Particularly at λ = 470 nm the ratio of r / r0 showed significant amplitude reduction mainly stemmed from the imaginary part of the Au refractive index. Hence, the fraction of reduction, Δr = 1 - r / r0. Experimentally, in a common reference frame reflectivity of a bare gold surface, R0 is compared with the reflectivity of gold surface in the presence of biolayer, R. The reduction rate (%) of reflectivity, ΔR = 1 - R / R0 is denoted as the AR signal. The method therefore enables quantitative measurement of the surface-bound protein by converting ΔR to the thickness, d, and subsequently the protein mass. We discussed four strategies to improve the AR signal by changing the effective refractive index of the biosensing platform. They are; a) Thickness optimisation of Au thin layer, b) Au / Ag bimetallic layer, c) composing alloy or Au composite, and d) Au thinlayer with nano or micro holes.

    RESULTS: As the result we successfully 'move' the refractive index, ε of the AR platform (gold only) to ε = -0.948 + 3.455i, a higher sensitivity platform. This was done by composing Au-Ag2O composite with ratio = 1:1. The results were compared to the potential sensitivity improvement of the AR substrate using other that could be done by further tailoring the ε advanced method.

    CONCLUSION: We suggested four strategies in order to realize this purpose. It is apparent that sensitivity has been improved through Au/Ag bimetallic layer or Au-Ag2O composite thin layer, This study is an important step towards fabrication of sensitive surface for detection of biomolecular interactions.

  14. Jamadon NK, Busairi N, Syahir A
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(1):90-95.
    PMID: 29237368 DOI: 10.2174/0929866525666171214111503
    BACKGROUND: Mercury (II) ion, Hg2+ is among the most common pollutants with the ability to affect the environment. The implications of their elevation in the environment are mainly due to the industrialization and urbanization process. Current methods of Hg2+ detection primarily depend on sophisticated and expensive instruments. Hence, an alternative and practical way of detecting Hg2+ ions is needed to go beyond these limitations. Here, we report a detection method that was developed using an inhibitive enzymatic reaction that can be monitored through a smartphone. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) converted 4-aminoantipyrene (4-AAP) into a red colored product which visible with naked eye. A colorless product, on the other hand, was produced indicating the presence of Hg2+ that inhibit the reaction.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to develop a colorimetric sensor to detect Hg2+ in water sources using HRP inhibitive assay. The system can be incorporated with a mobile app to make it practical for a prompt in-situ analysis.

    METHODS: HRP enzyme was pre-incubated with different concentration of Hg2+ at 37°C for 1 hour prior to the addition of chromogen. The mix of PBS buffer, 4-AAP and phenol which act as a chromogen was then added to the HRP enzyme and was incubated for 20 minutes. Alcohol was added to stop the enzymatic reaction, and the change of colour were observed and analyse using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 520 nm wavelength. The results were then analysed using GraphPad PRISM 4 for a non-linear regression analysis, and using Mathematica (Wolfram) 10.0 software for a hierarchical cluster analysis. The samples from spectroscopy measurement were directly used for dynamic light scattering (DLS) evaluation to evaluate the changes in HRP size due to Hg2+ malfunctionation. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations comparing normal and malfunctioned HRP were carried out to investigate structural changes of the HRP using YASARA software.

    RESULTS: Naked eye detection and data from UV-Vis spectroscopy showed good selectivity of Hg2+ over other metal ions as a distinctive color of Hg2+ is observed at 0.5 ppm with the IC50 of 0.290 ppm. The mechanism of Hg2+ inhibition towards HRP was further validated using a dynamic light scattering (DLS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to ensure that there is a conformational change in HRP size due to the presence of Hg2+ ions. The naked eye detection can be quantitatively determined using a smartphone app namely ColorAssist, suggesting that the detection signal does not require expensive instruments to be quantified.

    CONCLUSION: A naked-eye colorimetric sensor for mercury ions detection was developed. The colour change due to the presence of Hg2+ can be easily distinguished using an app via a smartphone. Thus, without resorting to any expensive instruments that are mostly laboratory bound, Hg2+ can be easily detected at IC50 value of 0.29 ppm. This is a promising alternative and practical method to detect Hg2+ in the environment.

  15. Mukhtar H, Suliman SM, Shabbir A, Mumtaz MW, Rashid U, Rahimuddin SA
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(2):195-201.
    PMID: 29359654 DOI: 10.2174/0929866525666180122112805
    BACKGROUND: Lipid-producing microorganisms, said to be oleaginous have been recognized since several years. We had investigated the effects of medium components and culturing situations on cell growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeasts which were analytically examined so as to enhance lipid yield for biodiesel production.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to explore oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica isolated from soil and optimization of culture conditions and medium components to obtained better quality microbial oil for biodiesel production.

    METHODS: Fifty yeast strains were isolated from soil from different regions of Lahore and eleven of them were selected for oil production. The isolated yeast colonies were screened to further check their lipid producing capabilities by the qualitative analysis. Five yeast strains were designated as oleaginous because they produced more than 16% of oil based on their biomass. To estimate the total lipid content of yeast cells, the extraction of lipids was done by performing the procedure proposed by Bligh and Dyer. The transesterification of yeast oils was performed by using different methods. There were three different strategies customized to transesterifying microbial oil using base catalyzed transesterification, acid catalyzed transesterification and enzyme-based transesterification. After completion of transesterification, sample was used for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas-chromatograph with ionization detector type MS.

    RESULTS: The isolate IIB-10 identified as Yarrowia lipolytica produced maximum amount of lipids i.e. 22.8%. More amount of biomass was obtained when cane molasses was utilized as carbon source where it produced 29.4 g/L of biomass while sucrose and lactose were not utilized by IIB-10 and no biomass was obtained. Similarly, meat extracts showed best results when it was used as nitrogen source because it resulted in 35.8 g/L biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica IIB-10. The culturing conditions like size of inoculum, effect of pH and time of incubation were also studied. The 10% of inoculum size produced 25.4 g/L biomass at 120 h incubation time, while the pH 7 was the optimum pH at which 24.8 g/L biomass was produced by Yarrowia lipolytica IIB-10. GC-MS analysis showed that biodiesel produced by transesterification contained similar fatty acids as found in vegetable oil for this reason it is widely accepted feedstock for biodiesel production.

    CONCLUSION: The analysis of fatty acids methyl esters showed the similar composition of microbial oil as in vegetable oils and high amount of methyl esters were obtained after transesterification. Therefore, potentially oleaginous yeast could be used to generate a large amount of lipids for biodiesel production that will be the better substitute of petroleum-based diesel and will also control the environmental pollution.

  16. Raof NA, Yunus R, Rashid U, Azis N, Yaakub Z
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(2):171-179.
    PMID: 29359647 DOI: 10.2174/0929866525666180122095056
    BACKGROUND: The transesterification of high oleic palm oil methyl ester (HOPME) with neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been investigated. The present study revealed the application of low-pressure technology as a new synthesis method to produce NPG diesters. Single variable optimization and response surface methodology (RSM) were implemented to optimize the experimental conditions to achieve the maximum composition (wt%) of NPG diesters.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to optimize the production of NPG diesters and to characterize the optimized esters with typical chemical, physical and electrical properties to study its potential as insulating oil.

    METHODS: The transesterification reaction between HOPME and NPG was conducted in a 1L three-neck flask reactor at specified temperature, pressure, molar ratio and catalyst concentration. For the optimization, four factors have been studied and the diester product was characterized by using gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The synthesized esters were then characterized with typical properties of transformer oil such as flash point, pour point, viscosity and breakdown voltage and were compared with mineral insulating oil and commercial NPG dioleate. For formulation, different samples of NPG diesters with different concentration of pour point depressant were prepared and each sample was tested for its pour point measurement.

    RESULTS: The optimum conditions inferred from the analyses were: molar ratio of HOPME to NPG of 2:1.3, temperature = 182°C, pressure = 0.6 mbar and catalyst concentration of 1.2%. The synthesized NPG diesters showed very important improvement in fire safety compared to mineral oil with flash point of 300°C and 155°C, respectively. NPG diesters also exhibit a relatively good viscosity of 21 cSt. The most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison with NPG diester was the breakdown voltage, which was higher than mineral oil and definitely in conformance to the IEC 61099 limit at 67.5 kV. The formulation of synthesized NPD diesters with VISCOPLEX® pour point depressant has successfully increased the pour point of NPG diester from -14°C to -48°C.

    CONCLUSION: The reaction time for the transesterification of HOPME with NPG to produce NPG diester was successfully reduced to 1 hour from the 14 hours required in the earlier synthesis method. The main highlight of this study was the excess reactant which is no longer methyl ester but the alcohol (NPG). The optimum reaction conditions for the synthesis were molar ratio of 2:1.13 for NPG:HOPME, 182°C, 0.6 mbar and catalyst concentration of 1.2 wt%. The maximum NPG diester yield of 87 wt% was consistent with the predicted yield of 87.7 wt% obtained from RSM. The synthesized diester exhibited better insulating properties than the commercial products especially with regards to the breakdown voltage, flash point and moisture content.

  17. Kameel NIA, Shuib AS, Tayyab S
    Protein Pept Lett, 2018;25(3):314-324.
    PMID: 29384048 DOI: 10.2174/0929866525666180130155007
    BACKGROUND: Champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin is a tetrameric protein with noncovalently bound monomers, isolated from Artocarpus integer fruit seeds. We had previously reported existence of a structured monomer and an unfolded monomer of CGB lectin at pH 2.5 and pH 1.5, respectively. Polyols are known to induce significant refolding in denatured proteins and stabilize proteins against environmental stresses. Studies on the effect of various polyols on the acid-denatured states of CGB lectin are lacking.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four different polyols, namely, ethylene glycol, erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol on the acid-denatured states of CGB lectin.

    METHODS: CGB lectin was subjected to acid denaturation at pH 2.5 and pH 1.5, both in the absence and presence of 30% (w/v) polyols, i.e. ethylene glycol, erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol. Thermal denaturation of the acid-denatured states was also studied in the absence and presence of these polyols. Different spectroscopic probes such as tryptophan fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and far-UV CD spectral signal were used to monitor structural changes in the acid-denatured states of CGB lectin in the presence of polyols.

    RESULTS: Presence of erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol in the incubation mixture was found to stabilize the lectin at both pH 2.5 and pH 1.5, as evident from the burial of the hydrophobic clusters and decreased polarity around Trp residues. These polyols also stabilized the acid-denatured states of CGB lectin against thermal denaturation by shifting the thermal transition curves towards higher temperatures. Exposure of the acid-denatured states of CGB lectin, obtained at pH 2.5 and pH 1.5 to 61°C and 51°C, respectively, induced formation of non-native β-structures, compared to that present at 25°C, and this phenomenon was significantly suppressed in the presence of these polyols. Based on the spectral data, both sorbitol and erythritol appeared to exude better stabilizing effect. On the other hand, ethylene glycol was shown to destabilize the aciddenatured states of CGB lectin.

    CONCLUSION: Thermal stabilization of the lectin was noticed in the presence of erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol at both pH 2.5 and pH 1.5. These polyols also stabilize the secondary and tertiary structures of the acid-denatured CGB lectin at 25°C. Ethylene glycol was proved to be a destabilizer of the acid-denatured CGB lectin.

  18. Kwan SH, Abdul Aziz NHK, Ismail MN
    Protein Pept Lett, 2020;27(1):48-59.
    PMID: 31362651 DOI: 10.2174/0929866526666190730121711
    BACKGROUND: Channa striata are speculated to contain bioactive proteins with the ability to enhancing wound healing. It is commonly consumed after surgery for a faster recovery of the wound.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the bioactive proteins and evaluate their ability in cell proliferation and angiogenesis promotion.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Freeze-Dried Water Extracts (FDWE) and Spray-Dried Water Extracts (SDWE) of C. striata were tested with MTT assay using EA.hy926 endothelial cell line and ex-vivo aortic ring assay. Later the proteins were fractionated and analysed using an LC-QTOF mass spectrometer. The data generated were matched with human gene database for protein similarity and pathway identification.

    RESULTS: Both samples have shown positive cell proliferation and pro-angiogenic activity. Four essential proteins/genes were identified, which are collagen type XI, actin 1, myosin light chain and myosin heavy chain. The pathways discovered that related to these proteins are integrin pathway, Slit-Robo signalling pathway and immune response C-C Chemokine Receptor-3 signalling pathway in eosinophils, which contribute towards wound healing mechanism.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results presented have demonstrated that C. striata FDWE and SDWE protein fractions contain bioactive proteins that are highly similar to human proteins and thus could be involved in the wound healing process via specific biological pathways.

  19. Vijakumaran U, Nordin F, Hamid ZA, Abdullah M, Jun TG
    Protein Pept Lett, 2020;27(11):1092-1101.
    PMID: 32484079 DOI: 10.2174/0929866527666200525164135
    The cell membrane is a protective layer that strictly controls the passage of molecules restricting the delivery of biomolecules such as drugs, oligonucleotides, peptides, and siRNA into the cells. This shortcoming has been overcome by the discovery of Cell-Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) that has undergone 30 years of evolution. To date, CPPs are largely modified to improve its efficacy and to suit the different delivery applications. The modes of CPPs penetration are still an unresolved mystery and requires further investigations to increase its effectiveness and to diversify its use. Despite having huge potential as a biomolecule carrier, CPPs also have some drawbacks. In this review, the natural and synthetic CPPs, the modifications that have been conducted on CPPs to improve its efficacy, its extended applications, modes of penetration and limitation as well as challenges will be discussed.
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