Background radiation dose is used in dosimetry for estimating occupational doses of radiation workers or determining radiation dose of an individual following accidental exposure. In the present study, the absorbed dose and the background radiation level are determined using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method on tooth samples. The effect of using different tooth surfaces and teeth exposed with single medical X-rays on the absorbed dose are also evaluated. A total of 48 molars of position 6-8 were collected from 13 district hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty-six teeth had not been exposed to any excessive radiation, and 12 teeth had been directly exposed to a single X-ray dose during medical treatment prior to extraction. There was no significant effect of tooth surfaces and exposure with single X-rays on the measured absorbed dose of an individual. The mean measured absorbed dose of the population is 34 ± 6.2 mGy, with an average tooth enamel age of 39 years. From the slope of a regression line, the estimated annual background dose for Peninsular Malaysia is 0.6 ± 0.3 mGy y(-1). This value is slightly lower than the yearly background dose for Malaysia, and the radiation background dose is established by ESR tooth measurements on samples from India and Russia.
The xCELLigence real-time cell impedance system uses a non-invasive and label-free method to create a cell index that is a composite measure of cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate xCELLigence against clonogenic assay (gold standard) for measuring radiobiological effects and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). A radiobiological study was conducted by irradiating EMT6.5, 4T1.2 and NMUMG cell lines with different radiation doses, while a RIBE study was done using transfer of conditioned media (CM) harvested from donor to the same type of recipient cell (EMT6.5, 4T1.2, NMUMG, HACAT and SW48). CM was harvested using two protocols which differed in the dose chosen and the exposure to the recipient cells. Results showed that xCELLigence measured a radiobiological effect which correlated with the clonogenic assay. For the RIBE study, no statistically significant differences were observed between xCELLigence or clonogenic survival in control or recipient cells incubated with CM in protocol one. However, there was a significant increase in cell index slope using CM from EMT-6.5 cells irradiated at 7.5 Gy compared with the control group under the second protocol. No other evidence of RIBE was detected by either xCELLigence or clonogenic assay. In conclusion, xCELLigence methods can measure radiobiological effects and the results correlate with clonogenic assay. We observed a lack of RIBE in all tested cell lines with the clonogenic assay; however, we observed a RIBE effect in EMT6.5 cells under one particular protocol that showed RIBE is cell type dependent, is not universally observed and can be detected in different assays.
For the first time, Rhizophora spp. (Rh. spp.) particleboard phantoms were developed using defatted soy flour (DSF) and soy protein isolate (SPI) modified by sodium hydroxide and itaconic acid polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (IA-PAE) adhesive. The microstructural characterization and X-ray diffraction patterns of the material revealed that the modified DSF and SPI adhesives became more compact and homogeneous when NaOH/IA-PAE was added, which prevented damage by moisture. It was confirmed that the composite is crystalline with (101), (002), and (004) orientations. Phantoms made of this material were scanned with X-ray computed tomography (CT) typically used for abdominal examinations with varying energies corresponding to 80, 120, and 135 kVp, to determine CT numbers, electron densities, and density distribution profiles. The radiation attenuation parameters were found to be not significantly different from those of water (XCOM) with p values [Formula: see text] 0.05 for DSF and SPI. The DSF- and SPI-based particleboard phantoms showed CT numbers close to those of water at the three X-ray CT energies. In addition, electron density and density distribution profiles of DSF-SPI-Rh. spp. particleboard phantoms with 15 wt% IA-PAE content were even closer to those of water and other commercial phantom materials at the three X-ray CT energies. It is concluded that DSF-SPI with NaOH/IA-PAE added can be used as a potential adhesive in Rh. spp. particleboard phantoms for radiation dosimetry.
Accidents resulting in widespread dispersal of radioactive materials have given rise to a need for materials that are convenient in allowing individual dose assessment. The present study examines natural Dead Sea salt adopted as a model thermoluminescence dosimetry system. Samples were prepared in two different forms, loose-raw and loose-ground, subsequently exposed to 60Co gamma-rays, delivering doses in the range 2-10 Gy. Key thermoluminescence (TL) properties were examined, including glow curves, dose response, sensitivity, reproducibility and fading. Glow curves shapes were found to be independent of given dose, prominent TL peaks for the raw and ground samples appearing in the temperature ranges 361-385 ºC and 366-401 ºC, respectively. The deconvolution of glow curves has been undertaken using GlowFit, resulting in ten overlapping first-order kinetic glow peaks. For both sample forms, the integrated TL yield displays linearity of response with dose, the loose-raw salt showing some 2.5 × the sensitivity of the ground salt. The samples showed similar degrees of fading, with respective residual signals 28 days post-irradiation of 66% and 62% for the ground and raw forms respectively; conversely, confronted by light-induced fading the respective signal losses were 62% and 80%. The effective atomic number of the Dead Sea salt of 16.3 is comparable to that of TLD-200 (Zeff 16.3), suitable as an environmental radiation monitor in accident situations but requiring careful calibration in the reconstruction of soft tissue dose (soft tissue Zeff 7.2). Sample luminescence studies were carried out via Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction, ionizing radiation dependent variation in lattice structure being found to influence TL response.