Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Abd Karim SH, Wan Zain WZ, Mohd Hashim MN, Zakaria AD, Hayati F, Ng CY
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 May;16(5):1061-1064.
    PMID: 33680277 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.02.030
    Empyema thoracis (ET) is defined as pus in the pleural space, either localized or involving the entire pleural cavity, due to diverse etiologies. In severe form, it may infiltrate the extrapulmonary region. Clinical guideline describes 3 stages of parapneumonic effusion before developing into an ET, namely the exudative stage, the fibrinopurulent stage, and the organizing/late stage. We highlight a 59-year-old gentleman who presented a back swelling masquerading as a deep-seated abscess, in which the diagnosis of ET had not been established early. The principles of treatment are treating the underlying condition such as pneumonia, pleural drainage and debridement, full re-expansion of the collapsed lung by performing chest physiotherapy, and improving nutrition. ET is a condition with a dynamic process due to diverse etiologies, either localized or involving the entire pleural cavity. The gold standard in diagnosing ET is the pleural aspiration of fluid from the pleural space, whereas the management of ET may include non-surgical and/or surgical treatments based on the basic principles of ET treatment.
  2. Ahmed S, Nadarajan C, Ng CY, Teh YG, Abdul Muien MZ, Liew CSL
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Oct;16(10):2908-2912.
    PMID: 34401023 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.06.058
    Wilms tumor is the most common primary malignant renal tumor of childhood which usually presents between 2 and 6 years of age. Its presentation in the neonatal period is extremely rare and presenting with intestinal obstruction is perhaps unknown. We report a 2-day-old baby girl who manifested features of acute upper gastrointestinal obstruction with frequent post-feeding vomiting and abdominal distension. The initial abdominal radiograph showed abnormally displayed small bowel loops to the right hemiabdomen. Subsequent ultrasound and computed tomography scan of the abdomen detected a massive left renal mass. Left-sided nephrectomy was performed, and histopathology demonstrated left-sided Wilms tumor with favorable histology. Post-treatment yearly follow-up for 5 years recorded a disease-free, normally thriving child.
  3. Qader AQ, Abdul Hamid H
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Jul;16(7):1907-1911.
    PMID: 34093935 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.04.059
    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon disorder with an unknown incidence, unless it stays in the back of the diagnostician's mind, diagnosis of gastric volvulus, which can have significant morbidity and mortality associated with it, can be easily missed and can present either in the acute or chronic setting with variable symptoms. When it occurs in the acute scenario, patients present with severe epigastric pain and retching without vomiting. Together with inability to pass nasogastric tube, they constitute Borchardt's triad. The presence of a hiatal hernia with persistent vomiting despite initial antiemetic treatment should trigger one to think of gastric volvulus, despite the patient appearing very stable. We report a case which presented in our hospital with abdominal pain and vomiting. As Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy shows hiatal hernia and peptic ulcer. Primary gastric volvulus occurs in the absence of any defect in the diaphragm or adjacent organ pathology and may be caused by weakening of gastric supports. As conclusion; Gastric volvulus is a surgical case, requiring early diagnosis and aggressive management, as a delay results into complications like gangrene and perforation which substantially increase the morbidity and mortality in these patients, and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the best modality for diagnosis of gastric volvulus.
  4. Roslly MZ, Mustapha AWMM, Zainal IA
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Aug;16(8):2099-2102.
    PMID: 34158902 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.04.069
    Urinary bladder carcinoma is a common malignancy worldwide. The metastatic disease to distant organs including lung, liver, and bone is well established. However, metastasis to below-knee-level; also known as acrometastasis is a rare occurrence and occurs approximately 0.1% of all bone metastases. It is standard of care to obtain a contrast enhanced computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis for pretreatment planning, primary staging, and post treatment disease surveillance. This makes the occurrence of acrometastasis harder to detect and may only manifest clinically in advance disease. We report a case of 55 years old gentleman treated as muscle-invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma, presented with chronic left knee pain, and imaging demonstrating tumor in the left knee region. Histopathologic study shows features of metastatic disease from urinary bladder carcinoma to the left gastrocnemius muscle. The attending physician should raise the suspicion of metastatic disease if the patient with known malignancy presented with new soft tissue lesion elsewhere in the body.
  5. Nadarajan C, Wahid AA, Ng CY, Haron J, Peter JS, Mohd Yusof MF
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Aug;16(8):1993-1998.
    PMID: 34158880 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.05.016
    Aortoilliac occlusive disease is occlusive atherosclerosis disease involving the distal aorta and bifurcation of iliac arteries and it is a subtype of peripheral arterial disease. Total occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a rare occurrence with an incidence of 3% -8.5% among the aortoiliac occlusive disease patients. We present a case of a 53 years old patient with a background history of hypertension and ex intravenous drug abuser with negative retroviral screening status, with no previous complaints who was brought to the Emergency Department with sudden onset of altered sensorium and 1 episode of seizure. Computed tomography angiogram of the brain showed a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Diagnostic conventional angiogram of the brain was planned; however, difficulty was encountered during bilateral femoral artery cannulation with the abrupt termination of bilateral common iliac arteries. Computed tomography angiogram of the abdomen showed incidental finding of total occlusion of the abdominal aorta. As a conclusion, total occlusion of abdominal aorta secondary to aortoiliac occlusive disease with an associated intracranial aneurysm is never reported in the literature to date. This case highlights the possibility of association in between these two conditions which may benefit from further research.
  6. Muien MZA, Jeyaprahasam K, Krisnan T, Ng CY, Teh YG
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Sep;16(9):2542-2545.
    PMID: 34276850 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.06.024
    Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) is due to a defect in the diaphragm and is usually detected soon after birth. However, in rare cases, asymptomatic CDHs can be missed and present later in life. Late-presentation CDH can be misdiagnosed as tension pneumothorax leading to iatrogenic complications. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with non-specific symptoms of vomiting and occasional breathlessness, but was subsequently diagnosed as late-presentation CDH. This case highlights the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of late-presenting CDH. The role of CT imaging as an invaluable tool to further evaluate equivocal radiographic findings in CDH is discussed.
  7. Wan Chek WAF, Teh YG, Eddy Suryono DN, Ng CY, Ahmed S
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Sep;16(9):2706-2709.
    PMID: 34345334 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.06.061
    Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are non-neoplastic malformations that occur in the region of the hypothalamus. HH is the leading cause of gelastic seizures in children and adolescents, where laughing is characteristically manifested. However, these patients can also experience different forms of complex or generalized tonic-clonic seizures that can obscure the diagnosis of HHs. We present a case of a 10 year-old boy that experienced several seizure types, but was subsequently diagnosed with HH after MR imaging was performed. This case highlights the complementary role of MR imaging in ascertaining seizure etiololgy when the clinical history and EEG findings are non-specific. The importance of early diagnosis with MR imaging is further underscored by the fact that patients diagnosed with HH usually develop drug resistance towards antiepileptic drugs, mandating neurosurgical assessment and intervention.
  8. Aimanan K, Mohd Nor MR, Ling W, Che Ghazali K, Ahmad Hamidi AJ, Hayati F, et al.
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Nov;16(11):3457-3460.
    PMID: 34527123 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.08.031
    Trocar site incisional hernia (TSIH) is an unpleasant complication of laparoscopic surgery. A 70-year-old male with low rectal carcinoma underwent a laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection after completion of neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The postoperative recovery was smooth; however, he developed abdominal distension and pain over the previous drain site after removal on day 3. In view of diagnostic ambiguity, an imaging tool was requested as an adjunct to further management. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed small bowel obstruction secondary to herniated ileal loops passing through the right iliac fossa anterior abdominal wall defect at the previous drainage site. An exploration was made and the rectus defect was closed using a non-absorbable suture.
  9. Asif MK, Nambiar P, Khan IM, Aziz ZABCA, Noor NSBM, Shanmuhasuntharam P, et al.
    Radiol Case Rep, 2019 Dec;14(12):1545-1549.
    PMID: 31719943 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2019.10.001
    A patient was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging Division and the attending dental specialist suspected a foreign object at the anterior region of the maxilla. The region was scanned using Kodak 9000 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) extraoral imaging system (Carestream Health, Inc.) to determine the type and morphometric characteristic of foreign object. The CBCT images failed to determine the identity and nature of the foreign object. CBCT images were then exported to the Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System (Mimics) software to evaluate whether this software can help in enhancing the visualization of the foreign object in the maxillofacial region. The findings showed that there was an improved visualization of the foreign body and the type of the object could be determined with certainty. The object was identified as an endodontic file and was clearly visible when visualized as a reconstructed 3D model in Mimics software. Although the identification of abnormalities has been dramatically improved using 3D scans, the visualization can be further enhanced using image processing software like Mimics.
  10. Rashid A, Singh MK, Feng SS, Yatim NM, Sahak MY, Mahmud R
    Radiol Case Rep, 2020 Aug;15(8):1280-1284.
    PMID: 32577147 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2020.04.054
    Morel Lavallée lesion or closed degloving injury is normally associated with severe trauma and occurs when the skin and subcutaneous fatty tissue traumatically and abruptly separated from the underlying fascia thus creating a potential space filled with fluid. MVA is the commonest etiology but large or lethal Morel Lavallée is extremely rare. A 35 years old, female pillion rider was involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustained injuries to the left pelvis and thigh. Emergency laparotomy and intra-op abdominal and bilateral lower limb arteriogram revealed no significant finding. Her general condition and vital signs continued to deteriorate despite aggressive resuscitation and eventually died. Post-Mortem Computed Tomography and Post-Mortem Computed Tomography Angiogram was performed and revealed a large cavity in the left thigh suggestive of a lethal Morel Lavallée lesion. Findings were confirmed by conventional autopsy.
  11. Ahmed S, Saifuddin MS, Ng CY, Salwati NF, Hayati F, Ismail S
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Nov;16(11):3289-3294.
    PMID: 34484533 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.07.081
    Enteric duplications (EDs) are rare congenital anomalies that result from defect during embryonic development of the gut. Although EDs can literally occur at any part of the gastrointestinal tract, ileocecal duplication is the commonest type followed by colorectal type. Morphologically, EDs are mostly cystic in nature; tubular duplications are uncommon. We report radiological diagnostic challenges encountered in dealing with a 10 month-old infant who presented with chronic constipation, progressive abdominal distension, and voiding difficulty for several weeks followed by colicky abdominal pain for three days. After a series of radiological procedures, a diagnosis of tubular colorectal duplication was made. The duplicated segment was loaded with impacted feces which exerted pressure effect on the rectum and urinary bladder. The case was treated surgically through laparoscopic procedure that included fenestration and stapling of the duplicated bowel followed by irrigation. Postoperatively, the child was followed up half-yearly for three years and was found to remain symptom-free. This case exemplifies the challenges a radiologist may experience while dealing with a case presenting with features of as acute-on-chronic intestinal obstruction and voiding difficulty.
  12. Pg Mohammad Hussein PMN, Kew ST, Nang KM, Kadir F, Teh YG
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Dec;16(12):3635-3637.
    PMID: 34630789 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.09.004
    Congenital syphilis occurs as a result of maternal transmission of treponema pallidum in utero. This condition is mainly diagnosed by treponemal and non-treponemal serologic tests. However, both maternal nontreponemal and treponemal IgG antibodies can be transferred through the placenta to the fetus, thus complicating its interpretation soon after birth. We report a case of a neonate with congenital syphilis whose mother became infected after the first trimester of pregnancy. We report how skeletal radiographs expedite the clinical decision-making process and direct further management of neonates. This case also highlights the need for repeated syphilis screening in the latter part of pregnancy.
  13. Hanapiah FM, Jamali AAM, Aziz ME, Mohktar MS, Ismail ZKA, Husin MH, et al.
    Radiol Case Rep, 2023 Aug;18(8):2673-2676.
    PMID: 37287721 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.04.058
    Sonic pressure wave should be taken into consideration in all ballistic injury. We review a young gentleman with ballistic injury of his lateral chest wall. The bullet trajectory passed through the lateral chest wall. Chest radiograph shows a wedge-shaped consolidation adjacent to the wound with blunted right costophrenic angle. Subsequent CT scan confirms the consolidation adjacent to the bullet trajectory. This case report emphasizes on value of CT in ballistic chest trauma and indirect injury caused by the sonic pressure wave of the bullet.
  14. Senik NISA, Zon EM, Rahim RA, Sapiai NA
    Radiol Case Rep, 2023 Sep;18(9):3101-3104.
    PMID: 37404223 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.06.016
    Acute abdomen is an emergent condition that requires immediate evaluation and prompt treatment. Pneumoperitoneum is defined as the presence of air or gas in the peritoneal cavity. There are various potential causes of pneumoperitoneum, as well as conditions that can mimic or pseudo pneumoperitoneum. We encountered a case of a 26-year-old woman who had a history of postexploratory laparotomy, left ovarian cystectomy, left ovarian reconstruction, right salpingooophorectomy, and infracolic omentectomy for bilateral mucinous cystadenoma and mature cystic teratoma. On the eighth day following her operation, she developed progressive abdominal distension.
  15. Hayati F, Mohd Zuki A, Lim MC, Chandran PC, Azizan N, Hameed Sultan MA, et al.
    Radiol Case Rep, 2023 Aug;18(8):2836-2839.
    PMID: 37388266 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.05.048
    Adult intussusception presents a diagnostic challenge given its non-specific symptoms. It is not as common as in infants and young children. Traditionally, diagnostic steps are invariably fit for normal adults, but not in pregnancy which faces certain limitations. A 40-year-old pregnant mother, gravida 9 para 8 at 34-week gestation, complained of intermittent epigastric pain for 2 days, requiring hospitalization. She soon developed minimal per rectal bleeding that was ruled out as hemorrhoid. Imaging was limited due to her pregnancy status. She later developed spontaneous delivery to a premature baby. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an ileocolic intussusception, which was confirmed via exploratory laparotomy. Histology was consistent with inflammatory fibroid polyp. Acute abdomen in pregnancy can be due to various causes, thus a high index of suspicion and early CT abdomen might help in early diagnosis and treatment. The benefit of doing CT on the mother and the risk of CT on the fetus is to be weighed as the timely diagnosis can prevent bowel ischemia and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the definite management in adult intussusception and an exact diagnosis can be made during the operation.
  16. Nurrachman AS, Rahman FUA, Sarifah N, Ghazali AB, Epsilawati L
    Radiol Case Rep, 2024 Jan;19(1):268-276.
    PMID: 38028316 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.10.035
    A 28-year-old female patient was referred for panoramic radiography during a regular dental check-up. The dentist pointed out an additional suspicion of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis as she had complained of nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, postnasal drip, and frontal headache at the time. In this present case, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging modality was utilized to evaluate the paranasal sinuses and detect any pathologic signs. This study aims to highlight the potential value of the modality for the identification of paranasal sinus diseases by presenting a rare finding of an ethmoid sinolith associated with a persistent ostiomeatal complex inflammation. The insufficient data currently available on the incidence of ethmoid sinoliths emphasize the significance of reports intended to inform practitioners about the imaging properties of these calcifications. To the author's knowledge, this is the first case report that demonstrated the primary utilization of dental CBCT in detecting ethmoid sinolith in a straightforward manner.
  17. Mohd Jamil AA, Chua WC, Valayudham VR, Hassan HA, Jalal HA
    Radiol Case Rep, 2024 Jan;19(1):374-377.
    PMID: 38033668 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.10.036
    We report a case of acalvaria diagnosed prenatally via ultrasound and MRI. Acalvaria is a rare, fatal congenital condition characterized by the absence of flat bones of the cranial vault, dura mater, and its associated muscles with an intact central nervous system. A 41-year-old gravida 5, para 2 + 2A, presented to us at 26 weeks gestation age (GA) with ultrasound findings of a fragile and hypomineralized skull in the fetus. The patient was not keen on whole-axon sequencing. Fetus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed large cutaneous/skull nonvisualization of the fetus skull, possibly acrania without anencephaly. She delivered via cesarean section at 37 weeks because of two previous cesarean sections. A female infant weighing 2650 g was born with an intact sac to minimize excessive external pressure to the brain tissue. A diagnosis of acalvaria with bilateral lateral cleft lip and palate was made postdelivery. The infant was managed conservatively per multidisciplinary discussion and expired 3 weeks later.
  18. Jamil AAM, Chua WC, Valayudham VR, Hassan HA, Jalal HA
    Radiol Case Rep, 2024 Mar;19(3):1232.
    PMID: 38259716 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.11.061
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.10.036.].
  19. Moses Wong YK, Teng WW, Sharon Chong ZC, Tan CS, Wong YY, Thangavelu D, et al.
    Radiol Case Rep, 2024 Apr;19(4):1309-1312.
    PMID: 38292799 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.12.067
    A 57-year-old lady presented with symptoms of intestinal obstruction preceded by a 2-day history of lower abdomen pain. Clinically, she had a distended abdomen with tenderness in her lower abdomen. Laboratory investigations were unremarkable. An abdominal radiograph showed a dilated small bowel with no extensive bowel gas. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed suspected intestinal obstruction secondary to herniation into the right broad ligament. The decision was made to proceed with surgery, and the intraoperative results confirmed the CT results. The literature review is outlined here, and this instance illustrates a surprising discovery.
  20. Shamsuddin Perisamy R, Rusli RZ, Kamis MF, Tharek A, Soo TH
    Radiol Case Rep, 2024 Mar;19(3):906-909.
    PMID: 38188955 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2023.11.074
    Thoracic or abdominal chylous leakage, a rare complication of lymph node removal procedures, can lead to the accumulation of lymph fluid within the abdominal cavity, resulting in chylous ascites, abdominal distension, discomfort, and an increased risk of infection. Lipiodol lymphangiography, a diagnostic procedure utilizing a unique contrast agent, serves to identify the site and cause of chylous leaks. Furthermore, it functions as a therapeutic tool by injecting Lipiodol into the affected lymphatic vessel. By employing this diagnostic procedure, successful closure of the leak can be achieved. We present a case where a chylous leak was effectively treated with Lipiodol injection following the robotic-assisted removal of metastatic lymph nodes surgery.
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