Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Othman FB, Latiff AA, Suhaimi FH, Das S
    Saudi Med J, 2008 Sep;29(9):1247-9.
    PMID: 18813405
    To study the presence of accessory sulcus (AS) in the embalmed cadaveric livers, and compare it with the normal liver.
  2. Farouk AE, Benafri A
    Saudi Med J, 2007 Sep;28(9):1422-4.
    PMID: 17768473
    Objective: To evaluate methanolic, ethanolic, acetone and aqueous extracts from different parts of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) (leave, stem, and root) for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to utilize the leaves and stem parts rather than the root, which is already used for male sexual enhancement in Malaysia.

    Methods: The study took place in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Biotechnology Engineering Department, Malaysia between January 2005 and June 2006. Methanolic, ethanolic, acetone and aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and roots of E. longifolia were investigated for their antibacterial properties using Agar-well diffusion method.

    Results: The alcoholic and acetone extracts of the leaves and stem extracts were active on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria except against 2 strains of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi). The root extracts had no antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. Aqueous leaves extract showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marscesens.

    Conclusion: The alcoholic and acetone extracts from leaves and stems of E. longifolia contain potent antibacterial agent(s). This plant can serve as a potential source of antibacterial compounds.
  3. Nayak S
    Saudi Med J, 2006 Dec;27(12):1894-6.
    PMID: 17143371
    The knowledge of vascular variations like other anatomical variations, is important during the operative, diagnostic, and endovascular procedures in abdomen. This report describes multiple variations in the upper abdominal vessels as found during the routine dissection in a 60-year-old male cadaver. The variations found were; presence of a celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk, a common inferior phrenic trunk, 2 right renal arteries originating from abdominal aorta, 2 suprarenal arteries originating from the lower right renal artery, 3 right renal veins opening separately into inferior vena cava, and termination of right testicular vein into the lowest vein among the 3 right renal veins. The existence of a celiaco-mesenterico-phrenic trunk has not been reported yet. Although, other variations reported in this case exist as individual variations, a concomitant variation of them has not been reported yet. The knowledge of such variations is quite useful in planning any upper abdominal surgery.
  4. Farouk AE, Batcha MF, Greiner R, Salleh HM, Salleh MR, Sirajudin AR
    Saudi Med J, 2006 Sep;27(9):1397-400.
    PMID: 16951781
    To develop a molecular technique that is fast and reliable in detecting porcine contamination or ingredients in foods.
  5. Hajjaj AA, Senok AC, Al-Mahmeed AE, Issa AA, Arzese AR, Botta GA
    Saudi Med J, 2006 Apr;27(4):487-91.
    PMID: 16598325
    To investigate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the associated risk factors in Bahrain's female population.
  6. Hassan F, El-Hiti GA, Abd-Allateef M, Yousif E
    Saudi Med J, 2017 Apr;38(4):359-365.
    PMID: 28397941 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2017.4.17061
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cytotoxic effect of anastrozole on breast (MCF7), liver hepatocellular (HepG2), and prostate (PC3) cancer cells. Methods: This is a prospective study. Anastrozole's mechanism of apoptosis in living cells was also determined by high content screening (HCS) assay. Methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was carried out at the Centre of Biotechnology Research's, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq between July 2015 and October 2015. The HCS assay was performed at the Centre for Natural Product Research  and Drug Discovery, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between November 2015 and February 2016. Results: The most significant cytotoxic effect of anastrozole towards 3 cancer cell lines was obtained when its concentration was 400 µg/mL. The MCF7 cells were more sensitive to anastrozole compared with the HepG2 and PC-3 cells. There was a significant increase in membrane permeability, cytochrome c and nuclear intensity when anastrozole (200 µg/mL) was used compared with doxorubicin (20 µg/mL) as a standard. Also, there was a significant decrease in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane permeability when anastrozole (200 µg/mL) was used compared with positive control. Conclusion: Anastrozole showed cytotoxic effects against the MCF7, HepG2, and PC3 cell lines as determined in-vitro by the MTT assay. The HCS technique also showed toxic effect towards MCF7. It is evident that anastrozole inhibits the aromatase enzyme preventing the aromatization mechanism; however, it has a toxic effect.
  7. Othman MA, Ghazali WSW, Hamid WZWA, Wong KK, Yahya NK
    Saudi Med J, 2017 Sep;38(9):934-941.
    PMID: 28889152 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2017.9.20841
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate levels of anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to determine their association with serological parameters and disease activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 105 multiethnic RA patients (48 rheumatoid factor [RF]-positive and 57 RF-negative patients) was conducted at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, from January 2015 to February 2016. Fifty healthy controls (HCs) were included. C-reactive protein (CRP), RF, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) and anti-CarP antibodies were measured. A health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) was administered to the study participants and 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) were obtained. Results: The level of anti-CarP antibodies was significantly increased in the RA patients compared with HCs (p=0.042). The presence of anti-CarP antibodies was significantly associated with RF (p=0.019) and the HAQ (p=0.010). A significant association between the presence of anti-CarP antibodies and the DAS28 was not found (p=0.632). Conclusion: Our study provides further evidence that the level of anti-CarP antibodies is significantly elevated in RA patients.

    Study site: Rheumatology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
  8. Nazri SKSM, Wong KK, Hamid WZWA
    Saudi Med J, 2018 Jun;39(6):627-631.
    PMID: 29915860 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2018.6.22112
    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the clinico-laboratory characteristics associated with pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) patients with higher Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score in a retrospective cohort of pSLE patients.

    METHODS: A retrospective study involving 32 pSLE patients was conducted at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2006 and 2017.

    RESULTS: Within the group of 32 pSLE patients, 23 were girls and 9 were boys (3:1 ratio). The most common symptom was renal disorder (n=21; 65.6%) followed by malar rash (n=9; 28.1%), oral ulcers (n=7; 21.9%), prolonged fever (n=5; 15.6%) and arthritis (n=4; 12.5%). Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were detected in all patients and 25 patients (78.1%) were positive for anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies. Eighteen (56.3%) patients had active SLE (SLEDAI ≥6), and these patients were significantly associated with heavy pyuria (p=0.004), a high ANA concentration (1:160; p=0.040, 1:320; p=0.006), elevated ESR (p=0.006), low C3 levels (p=0.008), oral ulcers (p=0.010), heavy hematuria (p=0.017) and heavy proteinuria (p=0.017), lupus erythematosus (LE)-nonspecific lesion manifestations (p=0.019) and malar rash (p=0.044).

    CONCLUSION: Pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients with higher SLEDAI score were most significantly associated with pyuria, high ANA titers, and elevated ESR.
  9. Jawad AS, Hamid WZWA
    Saudi Med J, 2018 08;39(8):846-847.
    PMID: 30106426 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2018.8.23368
    [No abstract available].
  10. Ishaqui AA, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Alsultan M, Khan I
    Saudi Med J, 2020 Sep;41(9):1015-1021.
    PMID: 32893285 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2020.9.25249
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative efficacy of oseltamivir alone and oseltamivir-antibiotic therapy for early relief of symptoms associated with severe influenza-A (non-H1N1) and influenza-B infection hospitalized patients.

    METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study conducted from 2016-2019, enrolled patients were divided into 2 treatment groups. Group 1 patients were started on Antiviral drug (oseltamivir) alone therapy. Group 2 patients were initiated on Antiviral drug (oseltamivir) in combination with Antibiotic therapy. Using acute respiratory illness scoring, symptom severity score was assessed daily for 8 symptoms namely, fever, fatigue, headache, cough, sore throat, wheezing, muscle ache and nasal congestion. For each symptom the severity was scored from scale 0-3. Results: Overall mean ARI severity score was statistically significantly lower (p less than 0.05) on day 2 (14.65-vs-13.68), day 3 (12.95-vs-11.67) and day 4 (10.31-vs-9.12 ) for influenza-A (non-H1N1) while day 3 (12.52-vs-11.87) and day 4 (11.21-vs-10.18) for influenza-B patients for patients who were initiated on oseltamivir-antibiotic combination therapy. Fever, cough and nasal congestion showed statistically significant improvement within 4 days of initiation of combination treatment. Fatigue, sore throat and muscle ache improvement pattern was same for both treatment protocols.

    CONCLUSION: Oseltamivir-antibiotic combination treatment showed early resolution of some symptoms with cumulatively reduced mean symptom severity score in severe influenza infection hospitalized patients.

  11. Husain S, Hamid IA, Zahedi FD, Hamizan AKW
    Saudi Med J, 2021 Nov;42(11):1209-1216.
    PMID: 34732553 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2021.42.11.20210529
    OBJECTIVES: To assess olfactory abilities using a culturally adapted Sniffin' Sticks smell test in different age groups.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted at Otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Secondary Science School, and Children Learning Centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from August 2019 until December 2021.

    RESULTS: In 450 healthy participants, the cut-off points of the threshold discrimination identification (TDI) scores at the 10th percentile for olfactory abilities were 19 in children, 30.1 in adolescents, 32.1 in young adults, 31.1 in middle-aged adults, and 28.6 in older adults. The children had significantly lower olfactory abilities, with the Bonferroni post-hoc tests of p<0.001. The young adults had higher olfactory abilities than older adults (p<0.05). The results showed that the identification score was highest in middle-aged adults (p<0.001). The discrimination score was the highest in young adults (p<0.001). The best odor threshold performance was observed in adolescents (p<0.001). The TDI score showed a significant difference in olfactory abilities between men and women (p=0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Using a culturally adapted smell test, our population was able to identify, discriminate, and perceive odorants better than the European population. This data will help clinicians and researchers with a tool to reliably establish the correct results of olfactory function in our population. Women had better olfactory abilities than men.

  12. Dinglasan JL, Tang LY, Chong MC, Al Raimi AM
    Saudi Med J, 2022 Jan;43(1):113-116.
    PMID: 35022293 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2022.43.1.20210211
    OBJECTIVES: To examine asthma prevalence and the relationship between the level of knowledge and quality of life (QoL) among asthmatic secondary school children aged 13-14 years old in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, asthma symptoms, knowledge on asthma, and QoL.

    RESULTS: Data from 2891 asthmatic schoolchildren aged 13-14 years old from secondary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, were analyzed. According to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) scoring for asthma prevalence, the number of children who exhibited signs and symptoms of asthma was 9% (n=260). The mean score for total knowledge indicated a low knowledge level (82.7%). No significant relationship was found between knowledge level and QoL. Only the race factor was associated with asthma knowledge.

    CONCLUSION: This study has provided valuable information on asthma prevalence among Malaysian adolescents and their knowledge on asthma condition. Further research should explore the correlation factors of asthma knowledge and QoL.

  13. Al-Othrubi SM, Hanafiah A, Radu S, Neoh H, Jamal R
    Saudi Med J, 2011 Apr;32(4):400-6.
    PMID: 21484001
    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources.
  14. Haflah NH, Jaarin K, Abdullah S, Omar M
    Saudi Med J, 2009 Nov;30(11):1432-8.
    PMID: 19882056
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of oral palm vitamin E in reducing symptoms of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee compared to oral glucosamine sulphate.
    METHODS: This open study was carried out at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between March 2006 and November 2007. Seventy-nine patients were recruited to receive either 1.5 g oral glucosamine sulphate or 400 mg oral palm vitamin E for 6 months. Symptoms were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index and visual analogue scale (VAS).
    RESULTS: Sixty-four patients completed the trial (vitamin E n=33, glucosamine sulfate n=31). After 6 months of treatment, both groups showed a significant improvement in WOMAC scale and significant reduction in the VAS score during standing and walking. There was no significant difference in WOMAC scale and VAS score between the 2 groups. Except for mild allergic reaction and abdominal discomfort in one patient, there were no other serious adverse effects reported. Serum malondialdehyde was significantly higher in the glucosamine group compared to palm vitamin E treated group at the end of the study. Serum of vitamin E was significantly higher in the palm vitamin E group compared to glucosamine.
    CONCLUSION: The finding of this study suggests that oral palm vitamin E in a dose of 400 mg taken daily has a potential role in reducing symptoms of patients with OA of the knee. It may be just as effective as glucosamine sulphate in reducing the symptoms and free from serious side effects. Further study is required to ascertain the mechanism of action beside its antioxidant effect.
  15. Deris ZZ, Hasan H, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Naing NN, Othman NH
    Saudi Med J, 2009 Aug;30(8):1103-4.
    PMID: 19668898
  16. Saiboon IM, Qamruddin RM, Jaafar JM, Bakar AA, Hamzah FA, Eng HS, et al.
    Saudi Med J, 2016 Apr;37(4):429-35.
    PMID: 27052286 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2016.4.14833
    To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN).
  17. Sakthiswary R, Das S
    Saudi Med J, 2015 May;36(5):525-9.
    PMID: 25935171 DOI: 10.15537/smj.2015.5.10751
    The main objective was to determine the predictors of diastolic dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Articles pertaining to diastolic dysfunction in RA were retrieved from Scopus, EBSCO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Keywords such as: diastolic, cardiac, left ventricular function, heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiac failure were used. Studies, which examined factors, or predictors of diastolic dysfunction in RA, and those with echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic dysfunction, were included. A total of 8 studies met the eligibility criteria. Most studies (6 out of 7 studies) demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between the E (early)/A (late) ratio and disease duration. The pooled analysis using the random effects model revealed a significant but weak inverse relationship between the ratio of the E to A ventricular filling velocities (E/A) ratio and the disease duration (p less than 0.05, r=-0.385). There was a significant relationship between E/A ratio and disease duration in RA.

    Study site: Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL)
  18. Hafis MS, Johar MJ, Mahathar AW, Saiboon IM
    Saudi Med J, 2014 Aug;35(8):855-60.
    PMID: 25129186
    To assess the acceptance among the developing country urban paramedics towards pre-hospital continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilation.
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