STUDY DESIGN: The MICs for 135 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were determined by a modified Kirby-Bauer method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards against penicillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, norfloxacin, tetracycline, kanamycin, spectinomycin, and azithromycin. The MIC of azithromycin was determined by both the E-test and agar dilution method. All tests were done simultaneously.
RESULTS: The MIC of azithromycin to all 135 isolates ranged from 0.078 to 0.25 microgram/ml with the agar dilution method and from 0.016 to 0.50 microgram/ml with the E-test. The MIC50 and MIC90 of azithromycin were 0.064 microgram/ml and 0.125 microgram/ml, respectively, by the agar dilution method, whereas they are slightly higher by the E-test method. Seventy-six of the isolates were beta-lactamase producers and 69 were high-level tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. There was no difference in the MIC50 and MIC90 of azithromycin in these groups of isolates. The percentage agreement within the acceptable +/-1 log2 dilution difference between MICs obtained by E-test and those obtained by the agar dilution method was 97.8%.
CONCLUSIONS: Azithromycin has a very good in vitro antigonococcal activity, and the E-test is a reliable method to determine the MIC of azithromycin against N. gonorrhoeae.
GOALS: The goal was to ascertain whether urine testing could be used as screening method to detect C. trachomatis infections in commercial sex workers, patients at sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and asymptomatic patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
METHODS: First-void urine specimens from 300 men and 300 women were tested by LCR, as well as by a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. The LCR assay amplifies specific sequences within the chlamydial plasmid with ligand-labeled probes, and the resultant amplicons are detected by an automated immunoassay. Specimens with discrepant results were confirmed by another LCR of the specimen that targeted the gene for the major outer membrane protein (OMP1).
RESULTS: There were 31 LCR-positive male urine and 37 LCR-positive female urine specimens. The resolved sensitivity and specificity for the LCR of the male urine specimens were 100% and 99.6%, respectively, whereas for female urine specimens, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.5%, respectively. After resolution of discrepant test results by OMP1 LCR, the prevalence was 10% for men and 11% for women. The urine enzyme immunoassay was not useful in diagnosing C. trachomatis infections in either men or women, as the resolved sensitivities were 10% and 15.2%, respectively. The specificities were 99.6% for men and 98.9% for women.
CONCLUSIONS: Testing first-void urine specimens by LCR is a highly sensitive and specific method to diagnose C. trachomatis infections in men and women, providing health care workers and public health officials with a new molecular amplification assay that uses noninvasive urine specimens for population-based screening purposes.
METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 492 sex workers, including CWSW (n = 299) and TWSW (n = 193) in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants completed an in-depth survey and were screened for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sample characteristics stratified by gender identity and interview site are presented. Bivariate analyses comparing CWSW and TWSW were conducted using independent samples t tests for continuous variables and χ tests for categorical variables.
RESULTS: Pooled HIV prevalence was high (11.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8-14.5), and was similar for CWSW (11.1%) and TWSW (12.4%). Rates of syphilis 25.5% (95% CI, 21.6-29.5), C. trachomatis (14.8%; 95% CI, 11.6-18.0) and N. gonorrhoeae (5.8%; 95% CI, 3.7-7.9) were also concerning. Both groups reported lifetime HIV testing (62.4%), but CWSW were less likely to have ever been HIV tested (54.5%) than TWSW (74.6%). Median time since last HIV test was 24 months. Previous screening for STI was low. Inconsistent condom use and drug use during sex work were not uncommon.
CONCLUSIONS: High HIV and STI prevalence, coupled with infrequent HIV and STI screening, inconsistent condom use, and occupational drug use, underscore the need for expanded HIV and STI prevention, screening, and treatment efforts among CWSW and TWSW in Malaysia.
METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey among Secondary One male students in Malaysia.
RESULTS: Among 2823 respondents, knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was extremely poor. The mean total knowledge score was only 3.17 (SD ± 2.14), out of a possible score of 10. The majority of respondents were unaware that vaccinating boys can help protect girls against HPV infection (81.6%), and HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (70.1%). Many had the misconception that only females get HPV (78.9%). In multivariable analysis, the factors associated with the intention to receive the HPV vaccination were: agreeing boys need to be vaccinated against HPV infection (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.68), perceiving their parents might allow them to get the HPV vaccine (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18-2.34), perceived susceptibility to HPV infection (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06-2.52), and attending a rural school (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.14-1.95).
CONCLUSIONS: Public health educational programs that are focused and tailored on parents consenting to HPV vaccination for boys at a young age can be useful in improving HPV vaccination rates among boys. There is also a pressing need to educate boys about the benefits of HPV vaccination in males and about HPV disease susceptibility to facilitate adoption of the HPV vaccine by young adults in the future.