Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Gaydos CA, Ngeow YF, Lee HH, Canavaggio M, Welsh LE, Johanson J, et al.
    Sex Transm Dis, 1996 9 1;23(5):402-6.
    PMID: 8885072
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive urine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections offers a valuable public health tool, which could be of vast importance in chlamydial control programs. The authors evaluated a new DNA amplification method, ligase chain reaction (LCR).

    GOALS: The goal was to ascertain whether urine testing could be used as screening method to detect C. trachomatis infections in commercial sex workers, patients at sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and asymptomatic patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: First-void urine specimens from 300 men and 300 women were tested by LCR, as well as by a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. The LCR assay amplifies specific sequences within the chlamydial plasmid with ligand-labeled probes, and the resultant amplicons are detected by an automated immunoassay. Specimens with discrepant results were confirmed by another LCR of the specimen that targeted the gene for the major outer membrane protein (OMP1).

    RESULTS: There were 31 LCR-positive male urine and 37 LCR-positive female urine specimens. The resolved sensitivity and specificity for the LCR of the male urine specimens were 100% and 99.6%, respectively, whereas for female urine specimens, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 98.5%, respectively. After resolution of discrepant test results by OMP1 LCR, the prevalence was 10% for men and 11% for women. The urine enzyme immunoassay was not useful in diagnosing C. trachomatis infections in either men or women, as the resolved sensitivities were 10% and 15.2%, respectively. The specificities were 99.6% for men and 98.9% for women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Testing first-void urine specimens by LCR is a highly sensitive and specific method to diagnose C. trachomatis infections in men and women, providing health care workers and public health officials with a new molecular amplification assay that uses noninvasive urine specimens for population-based screening purposes.

  2. Yasin RM, Suan KA, Meng CY
    Sex Transm Dis, 1997 May;24(5):257-60.
    PMID: 9153733
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae varies from one country to another and may also change with time. To monitor these variations and changes, it is desirable to have a method that is simple and reproducible. This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to azithromycin and to assess the reliability of results obtained using E-test methodology for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin.

    STUDY DESIGN: The MICs for 135 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were determined by a modified Kirby-Bauer method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards against penicillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, norfloxacin, tetracycline, kanamycin, spectinomycin, and azithromycin. The MIC of azithromycin was determined by both the E-test and agar dilution method. All tests were done simultaneously.

    RESULTS: The MIC of azithromycin to all 135 isolates ranged from 0.078 to 0.25 microgram/ml with the agar dilution method and from 0.016 to 0.50 microgram/ml with the E-test. The MIC50 and MIC90 of azithromycin were 0.064 microgram/ml and 0.125 microgram/ml, respectively, by the agar dilution method, whereas they are slightly higher by the E-test method. Seventy-six of the isolates were beta-lactamase producers and 69 were high-level tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. There was no difference in the MIC50 and MIC90 of azithromycin in these groups of isolates. The percentage agreement within the acceptable +/-1 log2 dilution difference between MICs obtained by E-test and those obtained by the agar dilution method was 97.8%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Azithromycin has a very good in vitro antigonococcal activity, and the E-test is a reliable method to determine the MIC of azithromycin against N. gonorrhoeae.

  3. Ngeow YF, Ramachandran S, Cheong YM
    Sex Transm Dis, 1991 7 1;18(3):192-4.
    PMID: 1948519
    Between January and August, 1989, 36 men and 28 women with uncomplicated lower genital tract infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae were given single intramuscular injections of sulbactam (500 mg)/ampicillin (1000 mg) together with 1 g oral probenecid. Cure rates that were obtained were 100% for women, 97.2% for men, 100% for patients with penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG), and 98.4% for patients with non-PPNG. No serious side effects were encountered, and patient acceptance of the drug was good. A high proportion of patients had concurrent chlamydial infection. Sulbactam/ampicillin was found to be effective against gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis by both PPNG and non-PPNG but have little effect on concomitant chlamydial infections, especially in women.
  4. Gan CY, Yap SF, Ngeow YF, Wong HC
    Sex Transm Dis, 1991 4 1;18(2):84-8.
    PMID: 1862464
    This study documents the prevalence of Hepatitis B serological markers among STD patients who have had multiple sexual partners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and compares the rates with those of a sample of the population with single or no sexual partners. A total of 336 Chinese STD patients (multiple partners group) and 234 Chinese control subjects (non-multiple partner group) were screened. Those with a history of blood transfusion or parenteral drug abuse had been excluded from the study, and all study subjects were heterosexuals. The overall carrier rate was 9.2% for the multiple partner group (MP group) and 6.8% for the non-multiple partner group (NMP group). Infection rates were 64.3% for the MP-group and 38.9% for the NMP group. After adjustments for age and sex, there was no significant difference in carrier rates between the two groups, but infection rates were significantly different with the MP group, being 3.2 times more likely to acquire infection than the NMP group. The study concludes that in heterosexuals, those with multiple sexual partners have increased chances of acquiring HBV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexually Transmitted Diseases/complications*
  5. Rajakumar MK, Ngeow YF, Khor BS, Lim KF
    Sex Transm Dis, 1988 1 1;15(1):25-6.
    PMID: 3162781
    Forty-three patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were treated with 400 mg of ofloxacin. All had cultures negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae at follow-up within two weeks of treatment. Minimal side effects were reported. Ofloxacin appears to be satisfactory as a single-dose oral drug for the treatment of gonococcal urethritis, including those cases caused by penicillinase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae.
  6. Ismail R
    Sex Transm Dis, 1987 4 1;14(2):113-5.
    PMID: 3112967
    The incidence of infections due to beta-lactamase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing in many parts of the world. An epidemiologic survey of infections caused by beta-lactamase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from February 1977 to December 1985 (106 months) showed that the incidence rose from 4.8% (two cases) in 1977 to 49.4% (39 cases) by the end of 1985. The highest incidence of gonococcal infections was found to be in the group aged 20-39 years; the male-to-female ratio was 1.55:1. The mean inhibitory concentrations of benzylpenicillin were 0.12 microgram/ml for non-beta-lactamase-producing strains and 16 micrograms/ml for isolates of N. gonorrhoeae that produce beta-lactamase.
  7. Ismail R, Toh CK, Ngeow YF
    Sex Transm Dis, 1985 7 1;12(3):114-6.
    PMID: 4035521
    In this retrospective review of 16 children with vulvovaginitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the authors attempt to estimate the incidence of this infection and to ascertain the routes of transmission. From January 1977 to December 1982, 422 cases of gonococcal vulvovaginitis in women of all age groups were encountered at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Of these, 406 cases (96.2%) occurred in adults, and 16 cases (3.8%) occurred in children younger than 12 years of age. Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains were isolated from five (31%) of the 16 girls; all five cases were subsequently treated with cefuroxime and probenecid. The rest responded to intramuscular procaine penicillin. Although all patients appeared to be cured, only ten of 11 (two with PPNG) had test-of-cure cultures performed after treatment. Although interviewing the parents revealed no history of sexual contact in these children, nine of the girls were linked to culture-positive adult(s).
  8. Goh TH, Ngeow YF, Teoh SK
    Sex Transm Dis, 1981 4 1;8(2):67-9.
    PMID: 7256495
    Screening by culture of endocervical specimens revealed four cases of gonorrhea among 744 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic at the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The observed prevalence of gonorrhea (0.54%) in pregnant women is similar to that in Great Britain (0.2-0.7%), but lower than the prevalences reported for North America (2.5-7.5%) and Thailand (11.9%). The results indicate that routine screening of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Malaysia would aid in the control of gonorrhea in that country.
  9. Wickersham JA, Gibson BA, Bazazi AR, Pillai V, Pedersen CJ, Meyer JP, et al.
    Sex Transm Dis, 2017 11;44(11):663-670.
    PMID: 28708696 DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000662
    BACKGROUND: Sex workers face a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. For cisgender women sex workers (CWSW), global HIV prevalence is over 10%, whereas transgender women sex workers (TWSW) face an HIV burden of 19% to 27%.

    METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 492 sex workers, including CWSW (n = 299) and TWSW (n = 193) in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants completed an in-depth survey and were screened for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sample characteristics stratified by gender identity and interview site are presented. Bivariate analyses comparing CWSW and TWSW were conducted using independent samples t tests for continuous variables and χ tests for categorical variables.

    RESULTS: Pooled HIV prevalence was high (11.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8-14.5), and was similar for CWSW (11.1%) and TWSW (12.4%). Rates of syphilis 25.5% (95% CI, 21.6-29.5), C. trachomatis (14.8%; 95% CI, 11.6-18.0) and N. gonorrhoeae (5.8%; 95% CI, 3.7-7.9) were also concerning. Both groups reported lifetime HIV testing (62.4%), but CWSW were less likely to have ever been HIV tested (54.5%) than TWSW (74.6%). Median time since last HIV test was 24 months. Previous screening for STI was low. Inconsistent condom use and drug use during sex work were not uncommon.

    CONCLUSIONS: High HIV and STI prevalence, coupled with infrequent HIV and STI screening, inconsistent condom use, and occupational drug use, underscore the need for expanded HIV and STI prevention, screening, and treatment efforts among CWSW and TWSW in Malaysia.
  10. Pannir Selvam SB, Khoo EM, Chow SY, Wong PF, Mohsin SS, Abdullah A, et al.
    Sex Transm Dis, 2019 02;46(2):143-145.
    PMID: 30278029 DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000918
    Management of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus is challenging due to the social stigma attached. We describe the development of a client-friendly sexually transmitted disease service in a primary care clinic in Malaysia with a special focus on key populations. Challenges and key lessons learnt from its development and implementation are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control*; Sexually Transmitted Diseases/psychology
  11. Wong LP, Alias H, Yusoff RNARM, Sam IC, Zimet GD
    Sex Transm Dis, 2019 09;46(9):617-624.
    PMID: 31181035 DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001024
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the willingness of boys to accept the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey among Secondary One male students in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Among 2823 respondents, knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was extremely poor. The mean total knowledge score was only 3.17 (SD ± 2.14), out of a possible score of 10. The majority of respondents were unaware that vaccinating boys can help protect girls against HPV infection (81.6%), and HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (70.1%). Many had the misconception that only females get HPV (78.9%). In multivariable analysis, the factors associated with the intention to receive the HPV vaccination were: agreeing boys need to be vaccinated against HPV infection (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.68), perceiving their parents might allow them to get the HPV vaccine (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18-2.34), perceived susceptibility to HPV infection (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06-2.52), and attending a rural school (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.14-1.95).

    CONCLUSIONS: Public health educational programs that are focused and tailored on parents consenting to HPV vaccination for boys at a young age can be useful in improving HPV vaccination rates among boys. There is also a pressing need to educate boys about the benefits of HPV vaccination in males and about HPV disease susceptibility to facilitate adoption of the HPV vaccine by young adults in the future.

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