The structure of 3-iodobenzaldehyde (3IB) was characterized by FT-IR, Raman and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The conformational isomers, optimized geometric parameters, normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of 3IB were examined using density functional theory (DFT) method, with the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) functional and the 6-311+G(3df,p) basis set for all atoms except for iodine. The LANL2DZ effective core basis set was used for iodine. Potential energy distribution (PED) analysis of normal modes was performed to identify characteristic frequencies. 3IB crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/c with the O-trans form. There is a good agreement between the theoretically predicted structural parameters, and vibrational frequencies and those obtained experimentally. In order to understand halogen effect, 3-halogenobenzaldehyde [XC6H4CHO; X=F, Cl and Br] was also studied theoretically. The free energy difference between the isomers is small but the rotational barrier is about 8kcal/mol. An atypical behavior of fluorine affecting conformational preference is observed.
The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 1-[5-(4-bromophenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethanone have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. The title compound was optimized using the HF/6-31G(d) (6D, 7F), B3LYP/6-31G (6D, 7F) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) (5D, 7F) calculations. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) (5D, 7F) results and in agreement with experimental infrared bands. The geometrical parameters are in agreement with XRD data. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular electrostatic potential was also performed. From the MEP it is evident that the negative charge covers the C=O group and the positive region is over the rings. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in nonlinear optics. Molecular docking studies suggest that the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against TPII and may act as anti-neoplastic agent.
Nine solvents, namely, n-hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, ethyl-ether, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether, n-butyl alcohol, and methanol were used to extract natural dyes from Cordyline fruticosa, Pandannus amaryllifolius and Hylocereus polyrhizus. To improve the adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 particles, betalain and chlorophyll dyes were mixed with methanol or ethanol and water at various ratios. The adsorption of the dyes mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also observed. The highest adsorption of the C.fruticosa dye mixed with TiO2 was achieved at ratio 3:1 of methanol: water. The highest adsorption of P.amaryllifolius dye mixed with TiO2 was observed at 2:1 of ethanol: water. H.polyrhizus dye extracted by water and mixed with TiO2 demonstrated the highest adsorption among the solvents. All extracted dye was adsorbed onto the surface of TiO2 based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The inhibition of crystallinity of TiO2 was likewise investigated by X-ray analysis. The morphological properties and composition of dyes were analyzed via SEM and EDX.
The synthesis and spectral characterization of the 5-(2,6-dichlorobenzylidene)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione;3 was reported. The solid state molecular structure of 3 was studied using X-ray crystallography. The relative stabilities of the seven possible isomers of 3 were calculated by DFT/B3LYP method using 6-311 G(d,p) basis set. The calculated total energies and thermodynamic parameters were used to predict the relative stabilities of these isomers. The effect of solvent polarity on the relative stability of these isomers was studied at the same level of theory using PCM. It was found that the keto form, (T0), is the most stable isomer both in the gaseous state and solution. In solution, the calculated total energies of all isomers are decreased indicating that all isomers are stabilized by the solvent effect. The vibrational spectra of the most stable isomer, 3(T0) are calculated using the same level of theory and the results are compared with the experimentally measured FTIR spectra. Good correlation was obtained between the experimental and calculated vibrational frequencies (R(2)=0.9992). The electronic spectra of 3(T0) in gas phase as well as in solutions were calculated using the TD-DFT method. All the predicted electronic transitions showed very little spectral shifts and increase in the intensity of absorption due to solvent effect. Also the (1)H- and (13)C-NMR chemical shifts of the stable isomer were calculated and the results were correlated with the experimental data. Good correlations between the experimental and calculated chemical shifts were obtained.
The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbaldehyde have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The title compound was optimized using at HF and DFT levels of calculations. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) (5D,7F) results and in agreement with experimental infrared bands. The normal modes are assigned using potential energy distribution. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bonding orbital analysis. The frontier molecular orbital analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. From molecular electrostatic potential map, it is evident that the negative electrostatic potential regions are mainly localized over the carbonyl group and mono substituted phenyl ring and are possible sites for electrophilic attack and, positive regions are localized around all para substituted phenyl and pyrazole ring, indicating possible sites for nucleophilic attack. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in nonlinear optics. The geometrical parameters are in agreement with experimental data. From the molecular docking studies, it is evident that the fluorine atom attached to phenyl ring and the carbonyl group attached to pyrazole ring are crucial for binding and the results draw us to the conclusion that the compound might exhibit phosphodiesterase inhibitory activity.
Four dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were synthesized by reacting [MoO2(acac)2] with N-ethyl-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (1), N-ethyl-2-(5-allyl-3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (2), N-methyl-2-(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3), and N-ethyl-2-(3-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (4). The molecular structures of 1, 2, and all the synthesized complexes were determined using single crystal X-ray crystallography. The binding properties of the ligand and complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated via UV, fluorescence titrations, and viscosity measurement. Gel electrophoresis revealed that all the complexes cleave pBR 322 plasmid DNA. The cytotoxicity of the complexes were studied against the HCT 116 human colorectal cell line. All the complexes exhibited more pronounced activity than the standard reference drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50 7.3μM). These studies show that dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes could be potentially useful in chemotherapy.
Molecular structure and properties of 2-fluoro-4-bromobenzaldehyde (FBB, C7H4BrFO) was experimentally investigated by X-ray diffraction technique and vibrational spectroscopy. Experimental results on the molecular structure of FBB were supported with computational studies using the density functional theory, with the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr functional and the 6-311+G(3df,p) basis set. Molecular dimer formed by the intermolecular hydrogen bonding was investigated. Potential energy distribution analysis of normal modes was performed to identify characteristic frequencies. FBB crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with the O-trans conformation. In order to investigate halogen effect, the chloro- (CBB) and bromo- (BBB) analogs of FBB have also been studied theoretically. It is observed that all compounds prefer the stable O-trans conformation. Although the free energy difference between the O-cis and O-trans conformers is less than 2.5 kcal/mol, the free energy rotational barrier is at least 7.4 kcal/mol. There is a good agreement between the experimentally determined structural parameters, and vibrational frequencies of FBB and those predicted theoretically.
A new isomers of thiourea derivatives, namely N-(4-chlorobutanoyl)-N'-(2-methylphenyl)-thiourea (1a), N-(4-chlorobutanoyl)-N'-(3-methylphenyl)thiourea (1b) and N-(4-chlorobutanoyl)-N'-(4-methylphenyl)thiourea (1c) have been synthesized by refluxing mixture of equimolar amounts of 4-chlorobutanoylisothiocyanate with 2, 3 or 4-toluidine, respectively. The three isomers were characterized by spectroscopic (UV/vis, FT-IR and NMR) and X-ray crystallography techniques. To investigate the isomerization effect on spectroscopic data, DFT and TD-DFT calculations have been carried out using five hybrid functionals (B3LYP, B3P86, CAM-B3LYP, M06-2X and PBE0) to predict UV/vis absorption bands (n→π∗ and π→π∗), (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts, FT-IR vibration modes and X-ray parameters (bonds, bond angles and torsion angles) for 1a, 1b and 1c isomers. The results showed that the isomerization effect is significant on λ(MAX) absorption bands, while for IR and NMR the effect is negligible. In accordance with previous studies, B3LYP, B3P86 and PBE0 gave the most reliable to predict the excitation energies of thiourea derivatives.
A novel approach for the determination of Al(3+) from aqueous samples was developed using an optode membrane produced by physical inclusion of Al(3+) selective reagent, which is morin into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The inclusion of Triton X-100 was found to be valuable and useful for enhancing the sorption of Al(3+) ions from liquid phase into the membrane phase, thus increasing the intensity of optode's absorption. The optode showed a linear increase in the absorbance at λ(max)=425 nm over the concentration range of 1.85×10(-6)-1.1×10(-4) mol L(-1) (0.05-3 μg mL(-1)) of Al(3+) ions in aqueous solution after 5 min. The limit of detection was determined to be 1.04×10(-6) mol L(-1) (0.028 μg mL(-1)). The optode developed in the present work was easily prepared and found to be stable, has good mechanical strength, sensitive and reusable. In addition, the optode was tested for Al(3+) determination in lake water, river water and pharmaceutical samples, which the result was satisfactory.
The [Co(naphophen)(PPh3)(OH2)]ClO4 and [Co(naphophen)(PBu3)(OH2)]BF4 (where naphophen=bis(naphthaldehyde)1,2-phenylenediimine) complexes were synthesized and chracterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques. The coordination geometry of the synthesized complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography. Cobalt (III) complexes have six-coordinated pseudo-octahedral geometry in which the O(1), O(2), N(1) and N(2) atoms of the Schiff base forms the equatorial plane. These complexes showed a dimeric structure via hydrogen bonding between the phenolate oxygen and the hydrogens of the coordinated H2O molecule. The theoretical calculations were also performed to optimize the structure of the complexes in the gas phase to confirm the structures proposed by X-ray crystallography. In addition, UV-Visible and IR spectra of complexes were calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental spectra to complete the experimental structural identification. The synthesized complexes were incorporated onto the Montmorillonite-K10 nanoclay via simple ion-exchange reaction. The structure and morphology of the obtained nanohybrids were identified by FT-IR, XRD, TGA/DTA, SEM and TEM techniques. Based on the XRD results of the new nanohybrid materials, the Schiff base complexes were intercalated in the interlayer spaces of clay. SEM and TEM micrographs of the clay/complex shows that the resulting hybrid nanomaterials has layer structures.
The molecular structure of a new Schiff base, 2-[4-hydroxy benzylidene]-amino naphthalene (HBAN) has been examined by HF and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. The X-ray structure was determined in order to establish the conformation of the molecule. The compound, C17H13NO, crystallizes in the orthorhombic, P212121 space group with the cell dimension, a=6.2867(2), b=10.2108(3), c=19.2950(6) Å, α=β=γ=90° and z=4. The asymmetric unit contains a molecule of a Schiff base. A strong intermolecular O-H⋯N and a weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilized the crystal structure. The vibrational spectra of HBAN have been calculated using density functional theoretical computation and compared with the experimental. The study is extended to the HOMO-LUMO analysis to calculate the energy gap (Δ), Ionization potential (I), Electron Affinity (A), Global Hardness (η), Chemical Potential (μ) and Global Electrophilicity (w). The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy reveals that the charge transfer occurs within the molecule.
In this study, novel active nanolayers in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for zinc ion (Zn(2+)) detection has been developed. The gold surface used for the SPR system was modified with the novel developed active nanolayers, i.e. chitosan and chitosan-tetrabutyl thiuram disulfide (chitosan-TBTDS). Both chitosan and chitosan-TBTDS active layers were fabricated on the gold surface by spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for Zn(2+) in aqueous media with and without sensitivity enhancement by TBTDS. For both active nanolayers, the shift of resonance angle is directly proportional to the concentration of Zn(2+) in aqueous media. The higher shift of resonance angle was obtained for chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer due to a specific binding of TBTDS with Zn(2+). The chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer enhanced the sensitivity of detection down to 0.1 mg/l and also induced a selective detection towards Zn(2+).
The first example of non-symmetric isoflavone-based fast photo-switchable liquid crystals with different functional groups at the terminal position were synthesized and characterized. Polarizing optical microscopy study revealed that the compounds showed least ordered nematic phase. Optical photo switching study exhibited very fast photoisomerization effect in solution. The E-Z and Z-E conversion occurred around 3-5s and 40-700 s respectively. This is also the first example of para-substituted non-symmetric isoflavone liquid crystals exhibiting very fast photo switching property in solution. Argument based on non-symmetrical behaviour might be the reason for the observed behaviour.
This work describes a RP-HPLC method for the determination and interaction studies of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors (captopril, enalapril and lisinopril) in various buffers. The separation and interaction of cefpirome with ACE-inhibitors was achieved on a Purospher Star, C18 (5 μm, 250×4.6 mm) column. Mobile phase consisted of methanol: water (80:20, v/v, pH 3.3); however, for the separation of lisinopril, it was modified to methanol-water (40:60, v/v, pH 3.3) and pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). In all cases, UV detection was performed at 225 nm. Interactions were carried out in physiological pH i.e., pH 1 (simulated gastric juice), 4 (simulated full stomach), 7.4 (blood pH) and 9 (simulated GI), drug contents were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Method was found linear in the concentration range of 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) with correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.999. Precision (RSD%) was less than 2.0%, indicating good precision of the method and accuracy was 98.0-100.0%. Furthermore, cefpirome-ACE-inhibitors' complexes were also synthesized and results were elucidated on the basis of FT-IR, and (1)H NMR. The interaction results show that these interactions are pH dependent and for the co-administration of cefpirome and ACE-inhibitors, a proper interval should be given.
2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl 3-methylbenzoate is synthesized by reacting 4-chlorophenacyl bromide with 2-methylbenzoic acid using a slight excess of potassium or sodium carbonate in DMF medium at room temperature. The structure of the compound was confirmed by IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum of 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl-3-nitrobenzoate was recorded and analyzed. The crystal structure is also described. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using HF and DFT methods and are assigned with the help of potential energy distribution method. The first hyperpolarizability and infrared intensities are also reported. The geometrical parameters of the title compound obtained from XRD studies are in agreement with the calculated (DFT) values. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The HOMO and LUMO analysis are used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. MEP was performed by the DFT method.
The structure of 2-acetyl-5-chlorothiophene (ACT) has been characterized by FT-IR, Raman and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The isomers, optimized geometric parameters, normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of ACT (C6H5ClOS) have been examined by the density functional theory, with the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr functional and the 6-311+G(3df,p) basis set. Reliable vibrational assignments have been investigated by the potential energy distribution analysis. ACT crystallizes in monoclinic space group C2/c with the O,S-cis isomer. There is a good agreement between the theoretically predicted structural parameters and vibrational frequencies and those obtained experimentally.
A novel (2E)-1-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one [C17H11ClOS] compound has been synthesized and its structure has been characterized by FT-IR, Raman and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The isomers, optimized geometrical parameters, normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of the compound have been examined by means of the density functional theory method, employing, the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr functional and the 6-311+G(3df,p) basis set. Reliable vibrational assignments and molecular orbitals have been investigated by the potential energy distribution and natural bonding orbital analyses, respectively. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2₁/c with the unit cell parameters a=5.7827(8)Å, b=14.590(2)Å, c=16.138(2)Å and β=89.987 (°). The CC bond of the central enone group adopts an E configuration. There is a good agreement between the theoretically predicted structural parameters and vibrational frequencies and those obtained experimentally.
The [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PBu(3))(OH(2))]BF4 and [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(Solv)]BF(4), complexes were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques. The coordination geometry of [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(H(2)O)]BF(4) was determined by X-ray crystallography. It has been found that the complex is containing [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(H(2)O)]BF(4) and [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(EtOH)]BF(4) hexacoordinate species in the solid state. Cobalt atom exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry and the Me(2)Salen ligand has the N2O2 coordinated environment in the equatorial plane. The [Co(Me(2)Salen)(PPh(3))(H(2)O)]BF(4) complex shows a dimeric structure via hydrogen bonding between the phenolate oxygen and hydrogens of coordinated H2O molecule. These complexes were incorporated into Montmorillonite-K10 nanoclay. The modified clays were identified by FT-IR, XRD, EDX, TGA/DTA, SEM and TEM techniques. According to the XRD results of the new nanohybrid materials, the Schiff base complexes are intercalated in the interlayer spaces of the clay. SEM and TEM micrographs show that the resulting hybrid nanomaterials have layer structures. Also, TGA/DTG results show that the intercalation reaction was taken place successfully.
New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (k(b)=5.03-33.00×10(5) M(-1)) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47×10(4) M(-1)) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency.
2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl 3-nitrobenzoate is synthesized by reacting 4-chlorophenacyl bromide with 3-nitrobenzoic acid using a slight excess of potassium or sodium carbonate in DMF medium at room temperature. The structure of the compound was confirmed by IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum of 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl 3-nitrobenzoate was recorded and analyzed. The crystal structure is also described. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using HF and DFT methods and are assigned with the help of potential energy distribution method. The first hyperpolarizability and infrared intensities are also reported. The geometrical parameters of the title compound obtained from XRD studies are in agreement with the calculated (DFT) values. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The HOMO and LUMO analysis are used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. MEP was performed by the DFT method.