OBJECTIVES: To describe the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) therapy in the 4-week management of two sub-acute spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals (C7 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) B and T9 AIS (B)).
SETTING: University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
METHODS: A diagnostic tilt-table test was conducted to confirm the presence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) based on the current clinical definitions. Following initial assessment, subjects underwent 4 weeks of ES therapy 4 times weekly for 1 h per day. Post-tests tilt table challenge, both with and without ES on their rectus abdominis, quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles, was conducted at the end of the study (week 5). Subjects' blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) were recorded every minute during pre-test and post-tests. Orthostatic symptoms, as well as the maximum tolerance time that the subjects could withstand head up tilt at 60°, were recorded.
RESULTS: Subject A improved his orthostatic symptoms, but did not recover from clinically defined OH based on the 20-min duration requirement. With concurrent ES therapy, 60° head up tilt BP was 89/62 mm Hg compared with baseline BP of 115/71 mm Hg. Subject B fully recovered from OH demonstrated by BP of 105/71 mm Hg during the 60° head up tilt compared with baseline BP of 124/77 mm Hg. Both patients demonstrated longer tolerance time during head up tilt with concomitant ES (subject A: pre-test 4 min, post-test without ES 6 min, post-test with ES 12 min; subject B: pre-test 4 min, post-test without ES 28 min, post-test with ES 60 min).
CONCLUSIONS: Weekly ES therapy had positive effect on OH management in sub-acute SCI individuals.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) and bacteriuria (defined as colony count of ⩾105 colony forming units per ml of a single strain of organism) in these two different frequencies of catheter change.
SETTING: Multidisciplinary children's neurogenic bladder clinics at two tertiary care hospitals in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.
METHODS: Forty children aged between 2 and 16 years performing CIC for at last 3 years were recruited. Medical and social data were obtained from case files. Baseline urine cultures were taken. All children changed CIC catheters once in 3 week for the first 9 weeks followed by once a week for the next 9 weeks. Three-weekly urine cultures were obtained throughout the study. Standardization of specimen collection, retrieval and culture was ensured between the two centers.
RESULTS: At baseline, 65% of children had bacteriuria. This prevalence rose to 74% during the 3-weekly catheter change and dropped to 34% during the weekly catheter change (Z-score 6.218; P<0.001). Persistence of bacteriuria (all three specimens in each 9-week period) changed significantly from 60 to 12.5%, respectively (P<0.005). There was no episode of UTI during the 18-week study period.
CONCLUSION: Reuse of CIC catheters for up to 3 weeks in children with neurogenic bladders appears to increase the prevalence of bacteriuria but does not increase the incidence of symptomatic UTI.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among Malaysian children with spina bifida.
SETTING: Four Malaysian tertiary hospitals.
METHODS: Children with spina bifida were assessed for potential demographic, disease severity and lifestyle risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Blood for 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was taken. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels ≤ 37.5 nmol/L and insufficiency as 37.6-50 nmol/L.
RESULTS: Eighty children aged 2-18 years (42 males) participated in the study. Vitamin D levels ranged from 14 to 105 nmol/L (mean 52.8, SD 19.1). Vitamin D deficiency was identified in 18 (22.5%) and insufficiency in 26 (32.5%) children. Logistic regression analysis showed that skin exposure to sunlight ≤ 21% body surface area (OR: 6.2, CI 1.7-22.9) and duration of sun exposure ≤ 35 min/day (OR: 4.0, CI 1.2-14.1) were significant risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Over half (55%) of Malaysian children with spina bifida seen in urban tertiary hospitals have vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency. Lifestyle sun exposure behaviours were risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency.