Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Engkasan JP, Ng CJ, Low WY
    Spinal Cord, 2014 Feb;52(2):157-62.
    PMID: 24276416 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2013.145
    STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews.
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing the choice of bladder management for male patients with spinal cord injury (SCI).
    SETTING: Public hospitals in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Semistructured (one-on-one) interviews of 17 patients with SCI; 7 were in-patients with a recent injury and 10 lived in the community. All had a neurogenic bladder and were on various methods of bladder drainage. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analyses.
    RESULTS: The choice of bladder management was influenced by treatment attributes, patients' physical and psychological attributes, health practitioners' influences and social attributes. Participants were more likely to choose a treatment option that was perceived to be convenient to execute and helped maintain continence. The influence of potential treatment complications on decision making was more variable. Health professionals' and peers' opinions on treatment options had a significant influence on participants' decision. In addition, patients' choices depended on their physical ability to carry out the task, the level of family support received and the anticipated level of social activities. Psychological factors such as embarrassment with using urine bags, confidence in self-catheterization and satisfaction with the current method also influenced the choice of bladder management method.
    CONCLUSION: The choice of bladder management in people with SCI is influenced by a variety of factors and must be individualized. Health professionals should consider these factors when supporting patients in making decisions about their treatment options.
    Study design: Qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews.
  2. Ramakrishnan K, Loh SY, Omar Z
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Sep;49(9):986-9.
    PMID: 21556013 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2011.47
    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data.
  3. Ramakrishnan K, Mazlan M, Julia PE, Abdul Latif L
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Aug;49(8):924-7.
    PMID: 21383761 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2011.16
    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors related to length of time between spinal cord injury (SCI) onset and start of first post-injury employment.
    SETTING: Persons living with SCI in the community who are members of a disability support organization.
    METHODS: Participants were randomly selected from the membership list of a non-governmental voluntary organization. They met the following four criteria: traumatic SCI, minimum of 15 years of age at the time of survey, a minimum of 2 years after SCI and had been employed for some time since SCI. The main outcome measure was time (in years) from injury onset to beginning first post-injury job.
    RESULTS: Participants averaged 4.9 years (s.d. 5.1) from the time of SCI to their first post-injury job, with a range of 3 months to 20 years. Fifty percent of the participants who eventually returned to work had done so by 4 years. Return to pre-injury employer and employment were associated with early return, whereas having less years in education and being older at the time of injury were associated with longer time to return to work.
    CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation team need to consider return to employment as a realistic goal even many years after SCI. Perhaps a focus on returning more people to their pre-injury employer and employment with added focus and input from rehabilitation team for those with lower education status and older age at time of injury might expedite the process of reintegration.
  4. Julia PE, Sa'ari MY, Hasnan N
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Nov;49(11):1138-42.
    PMID: 21577218 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2011.53
    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional experimental study.
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the benefit of elastic abdominal binders on voluntary cough in persons with spinal cord injury.
    SETTING: Spinal rehabilitation unit in a teaching hospital.
    METHODS: We measured voluntary cough peak expiratory flow rate (in 21 subjects with spinal cord injury, (18 tetraplegia, 3 paraplegia) under three conditions: without abdominal binder as the baseline, with single-strap abdominal binder and triple-strap abdominal binder.
    RESULTS: The results showed that the mean cough peak expiratory flow rate in all subjects without abdominal binder was 277.1 l per min. There was a significant increase in flow rate with the use of abdominal binders: 325.7 l per min with single-strap abdominal binder and 345.2 l per min with triple-strap abdominal binder (P<0.05, paired t-test). The mean cough peak expiratory flow rate in tetraplegic subjects using triple-strap abdominal binders was significantly higher compared with those using single-strap abdomina
    l binders (322.1 l per min and 299.4 l per min, respectively).
    CONCLUSION: Abdominal binders can be used as an effective method to improve cough ability in spinal cord injured patients, with triple-strap abdominal binder achieving greater cough peak expiratory flows.

    Comment in: Frisbie JH. Question of stamina for the diaphragm. Spinal Cord. 2012 Jun;50(6):480. doi: 10.1038/sc.2011.164. Epub 2012 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 22249332.
  5. Julia PE, Othman AS
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Jul;49(7):791-4.
    PMID: 21321578 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2011.4
    This study is a cross-sectional, face-to-face interview.
  6. Ramakrishnan K, Chung TY, Hasnan N, Abdullah SJ
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Jul;49(7):812-6.
    PMID: 21221119 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2010.186
    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the employment outcomes of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to investigate the impact of various demographic, injury-related and work-related variables on these outcomes.
    SETTING: People living with SCI in Malaysia who are members of a disability support organization.
    METHODS: A total of 84 members of the Malaysian Spinal Injury Association, who have had traumatic SCI for at least 2 years and were between 15 and 64 years of age at the time of study, were interviewed through phone using a questionnaire to identify the association between demographic, injury-related and work-related variables and employment outcomes.
    RESULTS: The return to work rate in this study was 57.1% (employed at the time of study). The overall employment rate after SCI was 76.2% (worked at some point after injury). Those who were younger at time of injury (<20 years of age), able to drive a modified vehicle, independent in personal care and mobility were positively related to being employed. On the other hand, being hospitalized in the preceding 1 year and receiving financial incentives were negatively related to employment.
    CONCLUSION: Functional independence, especially ability to drive, was strongly associated with return to work and should be one of the priority goals of comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with SCI. The negative impact of recent hospitalization as well as financial compensation needs to be probed further.
  7. Kanaheswari Y, Razak NN, Chandran V, Ong LC
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Mar;49(3):376-80.
    PMID: 20838404 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2010.125
    Prospective cross-sectional multidimensional study using clinical assessment and standard measures.
  8. Julia PE, Mazlina M, Nazirah H
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Oct;49(10):1082-3.
    PMID: 20877330 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2010.137
    Case report.
  9. Julia PE, Nazirah H
    Spinal Cord, 2007 Dec;45(12):804-5.
    PMID: 17710102
    Case report.
  10. Engkasan JP, Ng CJ, Low WY
    Spinal Cord, 2015 Feb;53(2):130-4.
    PMID: 25403504 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2014.199
    STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the roles of patients, their caregivers and doctors when making decisions on the method of bladder drainage after spinal cord injury (SCI).

    SETTING: Five public hospitals in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Semistructured (one-to-one) interviews with 17 male patients with SCI, 4 caregivers and 10 rehabilitation professionals.

    RESULTS: Eight themes describing the respective decisional roles of patients, their caregivers and doctors emerged from the analysis: patient's right and responsibilities, patient as an informed decision maker, forced to accept decision; surrogate decision maker, silent partner; doctor knows best, over-ride patient's decision, or reluctant decision maker. Both patients and doctors acknowledged the importance of patient autonomy but not all patients had the chance to practice it. Some felt that they were forced to accept the doctor's decision and even alleged that the doctor refused to accept their decision. Doctors considered the caregiver as the decision maker in cases that involved minors, elderly and those with tetraplegia. Some patients considered bladder problems an embarrassing subject to discuss with their caregivers and did not want their involvement. Doctors were described as knowledgeable and were trusted by patients and their caregivers to make the most appropriate option. Some doctors were happy to assume this role whereas some others saw themselves only as information providers.

    CONCLUSIONS: A paternalistic model is prevalent in this decision-making process and there is a discrepancy between patients' preferred and actual decisional roles.
  11. Hamzaid NA, Tean LT, Davis GM, Suhaimi A, Hasnan N
    Spinal Cord, 2015 May;53(5):375-9.
    PMID: 25366533 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2014.187
    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of two cases.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) therapy in the 4-week management of two sub-acute spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals (C7 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) B and T9 AIS (B)).

    SETTING: University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A diagnostic tilt-table test was conducted to confirm the presence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) based on the current clinical definitions. Following initial assessment, subjects underwent 4 weeks of ES therapy 4 times weekly for 1 h per day. Post-tests tilt table challenge, both with and without ES on their rectus abdominis, quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles, was conducted at the end of the study (week 5). Subjects' blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) were recorded every minute during pre-test and post-tests. Orthostatic symptoms, as well as the maximum tolerance time that the subjects could withstand head up tilt at 60°, were recorded.

    RESULTS: Subject A improved his orthostatic symptoms, but did not recover from clinically defined OH based on the 20-min duration requirement. With concurrent ES therapy, 60° head up tilt BP was 89/62 mm Hg compared with baseline BP of 115/71 mm Hg. Subject B fully recovered from OH demonstrated by BP of 105/71 mm Hg during the 60° head up tilt compared with baseline BP of 124/77 mm Hg. Both patients demonstrated longer tolerance time during head up tilt with concomitant ES (subject A: pre-test 4 min, post-test without ES 6 min, post-test with ES 12 min; subject B: pre-test 4 min, post-test without ES 28 min, post-test with ES 60 min).

    CONCLUSIONS: Weekly ES therapy had positive effect on OH management in sub-acute SCI individuals.

  12. Kanaheswari Y, Kavitha R, Rizal AMM
    Spinal Cord, 2015 Mar;53(3):209-212.
    PMID: 25420498 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2014.210
    STUDY DESIGN: This study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional cross-over trial on children performing clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) with reused catheters for 1 or 3 weeks.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) and bacteriuria (defined as colony count of ⩾105 colony forming units per ml of a single strain of organism) in these two different frequencies of catheter change.

    SETTING: Multidisciplinary children's neurogenic bladder clinics at two tertiary care hospitals in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

    METHODS: Forty children aged between 2 and 16 years performing CIC for at last 3 years were recruited. Medical and social data were obtained from case files. Baseline urine cultures were taken. All children changed CIC catheters once in 3 week for the first 9 weeks followed by once a week for the next 9 weeks. Three-weekly urine cultures were obtained throughout the study. Standardization of specimen collection, retrieval and culture was ensured between the two centers.

    RESULTS: At baseline, 65% of children had bacteriuria. This prevalence rose to 74% during the 3-weekly catheter change and dropped to 34% during the weekly catheter change (Z-score 6.218; P<0.001). Persistence of bacteriuria (all three specimens in each 9-week period) changed significantly from 60 to 12.5%, respectively (P<0.005). There was no episode of UTI during the 18-week study period.

    CONCLUSION: Reuse of CIC catheters for up to 3 weeks in children with neurogenic bladders appears to increase the prevalence of bacteriuria but does not increase the incidence of symptomatic UTI.

  13. Lee RCH, Hasnan N, Engkasan JP
    Spinal Cord, 2018 04;56(4):341-346.
    PMID: 29288252 DOI: 10.1038/s41393-017-0034-2
    STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, characteristics of and barriers to driving among persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI).

    SETTING: SCI Rehabilitation Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).

    METHODS: This is a questionnaire-based study on persons with SCI who attended the UMMC SCI Rehabilitation Clinic between June 2015 and November 2016. The questionnaire comprised demographic data, clinical characteristics, driving variables, Spinal Cord Independence Measure III, WHOQOL-BREF, and Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique Short Form. Malaysians aged greater than 18 years old with any etiology and levels of SCI, had no other physical disabilities and not suffering from progressive illness were recruited. A single investigator administered the questionnaire via face-to-face interviews.

    RESULTS: A total of 160 participants were included in this study. Overall, 37% of persons with SCI drove and owned a modified vehicle. Almost half of persons with paraplegia (47%) drove, but only 12% of tetraplegia did. A majority (93%) of those who drove aged below 60 years, and had higher level of independence in activity of daily living. More drivers (81%) compared to non-drivers (24%) were employed; drivers also reported better community reintegration and quality of life. Three commonest barriers to driving included medical reasons (38%), fear and lack of confidence (17%), and inability to afford vehicle modifications (13%).

    CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of persons with SCI driving post injury is low. Based on the findings of this study, more efforts are needed to motivate and facilitate persons with SCI to drive.

    Study site: SCI Rehabilitation Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  14. Fong CY, Ong FN, Ong LC, Khoo TB, Lee ML
    Spinal Cord, 2020 Feb 14.
    PMID: 32060410 DOI: 10.1038/s41393-020-0441-7
    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among Malaysian children with spina bifida.

    SETTING: Four Malaysian tertiary hospitals.

    METHODS: Children with spina bifida were assessed for potential demographic, disease severity and lifestyle risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Blood for 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was taken. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels ≤ 37.5 nmol/L and insufficiency as 37.6-50 nmol/L.

    RESULTS: Eighty children aged 2-18 years (42 males) participated in the study. Vitamin D levels ranged from 14 to 105 nmol/L (mean 52.8, SD 19.1). Vitamin D deficiency was identified in 18 (22.5%) and insufficiency in 26 (32.5%) children. Logistic regression analysis showed that skin exposure to sunlight ≤ 21% body surface area (OR: 6.2, CI 1.7-22.9) and duration of sun exposure ≤ 35 min/day (OR: 4.0, CI 1.2-14.1) were significant risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Over half (55%) of Malaysian children with spina bifida seen in urban tertiary hospitals have vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency. Lifestyle sun exposure behaviours were risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency.

  15. Mat Rosly M, Halaki M, Hasnan N, Mat Rosly H, Davis GM, Husain R
    Spinal Cord, 2018 08;56(8):806-818.
    PMID: 29410495 DOI: 10.1038/s41393-018-0068-0
    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional.
    OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological study describing leisure time physical activities (LTPA) and the associations of barriers, sociodemographic and injury characteristics to moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise participation among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) in a developing Southeast Asian country.
    SETTING: SCI community in Malaysia.
    METHODS: The study sample consisted of 70 participants with SCI. Questionnaires were distributed containing an abbreviated Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (items 2-6) and the Barriers to Exercise Scale using a 5-tier Likert format. Statistical analyses were χ2 tests, odds ratios, and binary forward stepwise logistic regression to assess the association and to predict factors related to participation in moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (items 4 and 5).
    RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of the study sample did not participate in any form of moderate or vigorous LTPA. The top three barriers to undertaking LTPA (strongly agree and agree descriptors) were expensive exercise equipment (54%), pain (37%) and inaccessible facilities (36%). Participants over the age of 35 years, ethnicity, health concerns, perceiving exercise as difficult and indicating lack of transport were significantly different (p 
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