An effective electrode was developed based on electromembrane extraction (EME) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) for simultaneous separation, pre-concentration and determination of lead (II) (Pb(II)) ions in complex aqueous samples. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-graphite reinforced carbon (ErGO-GRC) was utilized in conjunction with the SWV. Pb(II) ions were extracted from an aqueous sample solution into an acidic acceptor phase (1M HCl) in the lumen of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane bag by the application of voltage of maximum 6 V across the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisting of organic solvent and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA). The parameters affecting the EME were optimized for Pb(II) ions. The optimum EME conditions were found to be 20% D2EHPA in 1-octanol impregnated in the wall of PVDF membrane (PVDF17) as the SLM, extraction time of 20 min, pH of sample solution of 8 and a voltage of 5 V. The PVDF-ErGO-GRC electrode system attained enrichment factors of 40 times and 80% of extraction with relative standard deviations (n=5) of 8.3%. Good linearity ranging from 0.25 to 2 nM with coefficients correlation of 0.999 was obtained. The Pb(II) ions detection limit of PVDF-ErGO-GRC electrode was found to be 0.09 nM. The newly developed single setup electrochemical system was applied to complex aqueous samples such as tap, river and sea water to evaluate the feasibility of the method for applications.
This study describes the synthesis, characterization and application of a new chrysin-based silica core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-N-chrysin) as an adsorbent for the preconcentration of Cu(II) from aqueous environment. The morphology, thermal stability and magnetic property of Fe3O4@SiO2-N-chrysin were analyzed using FTIR, FESEM, TEM, XRD, thermal analysis and VSM. The extraction efficiency of Fe3O4@SiO2-N-chrysin was analyzed using the batch wise method with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Parameters such as the pH, the sample volume, the adsorption-desorption time, the concentration of the desorption solvent, the desorption volume, the interference effects and the regeneration of the adsorbent were optimized. It was determined that Cu(II) adsorption is highly pH-dependent, and a high recovery (98%) was achieved at a pH 6. The limit of detection (S/N=3), the limit of quantification (S/N=10), the preconcentration factor and the relative standard deviation for Cu(II) extraction were 0.3 ng mL(-1), 1 ng mL(-1), 100 and 1.9% (concentration=30 ng mL(-1), n=7), respectively. Excellent relative recoveries of 97-104% (%RSD<3.12) were achieved from samples from a spiked river, a lake and tap water. The MSPE method was also validated using certified reference materials SLRS-5 with good recovery (92.53%).
The behaviour of protonated ractopamine (RacH(+)) at an array of micro-interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (micro-ITIES) was investigated via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep stripping voltammetry (LSSV). The micro-ITIES array was formed at silicon membranes containing 30 pores of radius 11.09±0.12 µm and pore centre-to-centre separation of 18.4±2.1 times the pore radius. CV shows that RacH(+) transferred across the water |1,6-dichlorohexane µITIES array at a very positive applied potential, close to the upper limit of the potential window. Nevertheless, CV was used in the estimation of some of the drug's thermodynamic parameters, such as the formal transfer potential and the Gibbs transfer energy. LSSV was implemented by pre-concentration of the drug, into the organic phase, followed by voltammetric detection, based on the back-transfer of RacH(+) from the organic to aqueous phase. Under optimised pre-concentration and detection conditions, a limit of detection of 0.1 µM was achieved. In addition, the impact of substances such as sugar, ascorbic acid, metal ions, amino acid and urea on RacH(+) detection was assessed. The detection of RacH(+) in artificial serum indicated that the presence of serum protein interferes in the detection signal, so that sample deproteinisation is required for feasible bioanalytical applications.
Vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) can be determined by using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry technique (DPCSV). Cupferron (ammonium N-nitrosophenylhydroxylamine) was used as ligand to form complex compounds with vanadium ions in Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB) solution. At concentration lower than 1.0×10(-6) M, both V(IV) and V(V) cupferron complexes showed a single cathodic peak at -0.576 V in BRB of pH 4; thus V(IV) and V(V) ions cannot be differentiated at low concentration. However, the ionic species of vanadium can be differentiated at high concentration in the presence of cupferron. Parameters including pH of BRB solution, initial potential and accumulation potential were optimized. Under the optimized parameters, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.09 nM, and the peak current was linear in the concentration range 0.01-0.9 µM total vanadium ions. The determination of V(IV) and V(V) ions was carried out at higher concentration in the sample using calibration plot method. At higher concentration range of 10-60 µM V(IV) and V(V) ions were determined with LOD of 1.2 and 1.1 µM, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to 10,00,000 fold diluted Benfield sample and 0.6227 M total vanadium ions were determined. The determination of V(IV) and V(V) ions were also successfully carried out in artificial sample as well as Benfield sample (dilution factor, 10,000). The concentration of V(IV) and V(V) ions was 22.52 µM and 38.91 µM, respectively, giving total vanadium concentration of 0.6143 M in Benfield sample.
A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the antidiabetic drugs rosiglitazone (ROS) and metformin hydrochloride (MH) with marked differences in their affinity towards organic solvents (log P of 2.4 and -1.43, respectively) was developed. Prior to the HPLC separation, the drugs were subjected to a sequential hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) procedure. Two sequential HF-LPME approaches were considered, the preferred one involves the use of two vials containing solution mixtures for the extraction of ROS (vial 1) and MH (vial 2), respectively, but using the same fiber and acceptor phase. Important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency such as extracting solvent, donor phase conditions, HCl concentration, agitation, extraction time, addition of salt, etc. were studied. Under the optimum conditions, good enrichment factors (EF, 471 and 86.6 for ROS and MH, respectively) were achieved. Calibration curves were linear over the range 1-500 (r(2)=0.998) and 5-2500 ng mL(-1) (r(2)=0.999) for ROS and MH, respectively. The relative standard deviation values (RSD%) for six replicates were below 8.4%. Detection and quantitation limits based on S/N ratio of 3 and 10 were 0.12, 1.0 and 0.36, 3.0 ng mL(-1) for ROS and MH, respectively. The proposed method is simple, sensitive and opens up new opportunities for the microextraction of analytes with contrasting properties.
A sensitive and rapid reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, δ-), tocotrienols (α-, β-, γ-, δ-), α-tocopherol acetate and α-tocopherol nicotinate is described. The separation was achieved using a Kinetex pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column (150 × 2.1mm, 2.6 µm) with both photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence (FL) detectors that were connected in series. Column was thermostated at 42°C. Under a gradient system consisting of methanol and water at a constant flow rate of 0.38 mL min(-1), all the ten analytes were well separated in less than 9.5 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, precision and recoveries. Calibration curves of the ten compounds were well correlated (r(2)>0.999) within the range of 100 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for α-tocopherol acetate and α-tocopherol nicotinate, 10 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for α-tocotrienol and 5 to 25,000 μg L(-1) for the other components. The method is simple and sensitive with detection limits (S/N, 3) of 1.0 to 3.0 μg L(-1) (FL detection) and 30 to 74 μg L(-1) (PDA detection). Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day retention times (<1%) and peak areas (≤ 4%) were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin E in vegetable oils (extra virgin olive, virgin olive, pomace olive, blended virgin and refined olive, sunflower, soybean, palm olein, carotino, crude palm, walnut, rice bran and grape seed), margarines and supplements.
Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI) is a new class of macroporous material and has great potential to be used as an SPE adsorbent material for extraction of phenols in river water samples. Six phenols, as model analytes, were extracted on a βCD-BIMOTs-TDI SPE cartridge, and then, eluted with 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid. The optimum experimental condition was 15 mL of sample volume (sample at pH 6) and 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid as an eluent solvent. The eluent concentration was determined by using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Under optimized condition, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.23-0.35 µg/L) and good recoveries (87-116%) were achieved with satisfactory relative standard deviation (RSD) (0.1-1.7%). The developed βCD-BIMOTs-TDI-SPE was then compared with other adsorbents, and the obtained results showed that the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI exhibited higher extraction recovery due to the unique structure and properties. Finally, the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI was applied as a solid phase extraction sorbent for phenols determination under optimized condition, in river and tap waters, prior to the GC-FID separation.
The performance of gas chromatography (GC) combined with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) system for the determination of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in honey samples is evaluated. After headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of samples, the accurate mass capabilities of the above system were evaluated for compounds identification. Accurate scan electron impact (EI) MS spectra allowed discriminating compounds displaying the same nominal masses, but having different empirical formulae. Moreover, the use of a mass window with a width of 0.005 Da provided highly specific chromatograms for selected ions, avoiding the contribution of interferences to their peak areas. Additional information derived from positive chemical ionization (PCI) MS spectra and ion product scan MS/MS spectra permitted confirming the identity of novel compounds. The above possibilities are illustrated with examples of honey aroma compounds, belonging to different chemical classes and containing different elements in their molecules. Examples of compounds whose structures could not be described are also provided. Overall, 84 compounds, from a total of 89 species, could be identified in 19 honey samples from 3 different geographic areas in the world. The suitability of responses measured for selected ions, corresponding to above species, for authentication purposes is assessed through principal components analysis.
The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO₂ extraction in optimum conditions were β-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), β-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and α-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were β-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), β-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and α-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO₂ and hydro-distillation showed an EC₅₀ of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively.
Label-free-based detection is pivotal for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions and to eliminate the need for labeling with tags that can occupy important binding sites of biomolecules. One simplest form of label-free-based detection is ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, which measure changes in reflectivity as a means to monitor immobilization and interaction of biomolecules with their corresponding partners. In biosensor development, the platform used for the biomolecular interaction should be suitable for different molecular recognition elements. In this study, gold (Au)-coated polycarbonate was used as a platform and as a proof-of-concept, erythropoietin (EPO), a doping substance widely abused by the athletes was used as the target. The interaction of EPO with its corresponding molecular recognition elements (anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer) is monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Prior to this, to show that UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable method for measuring biomolecular interaction, the interaction between biotin and streptavidin was demonstrated via this strategy and reflectivity of this interaction decreased by 25%. Subsequent to this, interaction of the EPO with anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer resulted in the decrease of reflectivity by 5% and 10%, respectively. The results indicated that Au-coated polycarbonate could be an ideal biosensor platform for monitoring biomolecular interactions using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A smaller version of the Au-coated polycarbonate substrates can be derived from the recent set-up, to be applied towards detecting EPO abuse among atheletes.
A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.
A fast and simple solvent microextraction technique using salting out-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (salting out-VALLME) was developed for the extraction of furfurals (2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) and patulin (PAT) in fruit juice samples. The optimum extraction conditions for 5 mL sample were: extraction solvent, 1-hexanol; volume of extractant, 200 µL; vortex time, 45 s; salt addition, 20%. The simultaneous determination of the furfurals and PAT were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed using ODS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d × 250 mm, 5 μm) under gradient elution. The detection wavelengths used for all compounds were 280 nm except for 3-F (210 nm). The furfurals and PAT were successfully separated in less than 9 min. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) were obtained within the range 1-5000 μg L(-1) for all compounds except for 3-F (10-5000 µg L(-1)) and PAT (0.5-100 μg L(-1)). The limits of detection (0.28-3.2 µg L(-1)) were estimated at S/N ratio of 3. The validated salting out-VALLME-HPLC method was applied for the analysis of furfurals and PAT in fruit juice samples (apple, mango and grape).
Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) is a devastating fish disease caused by the fungus, Aphanomyces invadans. Rapid diagnosis of EUS is needed to control and treat this highly invasive disease. The current diagnostic methods for EUS are labor intensive. We have developed a highly sensitive and specific electrochemical genosensor towards the 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer regions of A. invadans. Multiple layers of latex were synthesized with the help of polyelectrolytes, and labeled with gold nanoparticles to enhance sensitivity. The gold-latex spheres were functionalized with specific DNA probes. We describe here the novel application of this improved platform for detection of PCR product from real sample of A. invadans using a premix sandwich hybridization assay. The premix assay was easier, more specific and gave higher sensitivity of one log unit when compared to the conventional method of step-by-step hybridization. The limit of detection was 0.5 fM (4.99 zmol) of linear target DNA and 1 fM (10 amol) of PCR product. The binding positions of the probes to the PCR amplicons were optimized for efficient hybridization. Probes that hybridized close to the 5' or 3' terminus of the PCR amplicons gave the highest signal due to minimal steric hindrance for hybridization. The genosensor is highly suitable as a surveillance and diagnostic tool for EUS in the aquaculture industry.
Carbon dots have great potential to be utilised as an optical sensing probe due to its unique photoluminescence and less toxic properties. This work reports a simple and novel synthesis method of carbon dots via direct acid hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin protein in a one-pot approach. Optimisation of the important synthetic parameters has been performed which consists of temperature effect, acid to protein ratio and kinetics of reaction. Higher temperature has promoted better yield with shorter reaction time. The carbon dots obtained shows a strong emission at the wavelength of 400 nm with an optimum excitation of 305 nm. The potential of the carbon dots as optical sensing probe has been investigated on with different cations that are of environmental and health concern. The fluorescence of the carbon dots was significantly quenched particularly by lead (II) ions in a selective manner. Further analytical study has been performed to leverage the performance of the carbon dots for lead (II) ions sensing using the standard Stern-Volmer relationship. The sensing probe has a dynamic linear range up to 6.0 mM with a Stern-Volmer constant of 605.99 M(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.05 μM. The probe performance was highly repeatable with a standard deviation below 3.0%. The probe suggested in this study demonstrates the potential of a more economical and greener approach that uses protein based carbon dots for sensing of heavy metal ions.
The characteristics of a potentiometric biosensor for the determination of permethrin in treated wood based on immobilised cells of the fungus Lentinus sajor-caju on a potentiometric transducer are reported this paper. The potentiometric biosensor was prepared by immobilisation of the fungus in alginate gel deposited on a pH-sensitive transducer employing a photocurable acrylic matrix. The biosensor gave a good response in detecting permethrin over the range of 1.0-100.0 µM. The slope of the calibration curve was 56.10 mV/decade with detection limit of 1.00 µM. The relative standard deviation for the sensor reproducibility was 4.86%. The response time of the sensor was 5 min at optimum pH 8.0 with 1.00 mg/electrode of fungus L. sajor-caju. The permethrin biosensor performance was compared with the conventional method for permethrin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analytical results agreed well with the HPLC method (at 95% confidence limit). There was no interference from commonly used organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, parathion, paraoxon, and methyl parathion.
Quantum dots are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles that can be utilised for sensing applications. This paper evaluates the ability to leverage their analytical potential using an integrated fluorescent sensing probe that is portable, cost effective and simple to handle. ZnO quantum dots were prepared using the simple sol-gel hydrolysis method at ambient conditions and found to be significantly and specifically quenched by copper (II) ions. This ZnO quantum dots system has been incorporated into an in-house developed miniature fluorescent probe for the detection of copper (II) ions in aqueous medium. The probe was developed using a low power handheld black light as excitation source and three photo-detectors as sensor. The sensing chamber placed between the light source and detectors was made of 4-sided clear quartz windows. The chamber was housed within a dark compartment to avoid stray light interference. The probe was operated using a microcontroller (Arduino Uno Revision 3) that has been programmed with the analytical response and the working algorithm of the electronics. The probe was sourced with a 12 V rechargeable battery pack and the analytical readouts were given directly using a LCD display panel. Analytical optimisations of the ZnO quantum dots system and the probe have been performed and further described. The probe was found to have a linear response range up to 0.45 mM (R(2)=0.9930) towards copper (II) ion with a limit of detection of 7.68×10(-7) M. The probe has high repeatable and reliable performance.
A new microextraction procedure termed multi-walled carbon nanotube-impregnated agarose film microextraction (MWCNT-AFME) has been developed. The method utilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized in agarose film to serve as adsorbent in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The film was prepared by mixing the MWCNTs in agarose solution and drying the mixture in oven. Extraction of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was performed by inserting a needle through circular MWCNT-impregnated agarose films (5 mm diameter) and the assembly was dipped into an agitated sample solution prior to micro high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis. Back extraction was then performed using ultrasonication of the films in 100 μL of solvent. The film was discarded after single use, thus avoiding any analyte carry-over effect. Due to the mesoporous nature of the agarose film, the MWCNTs were immobilized easily within the film and thus allowing for close contact between adsorbent and analytes. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the technique achieved trace LODs in the range of 0.1 to 50 ng L(-1) for the targeted analytes, namely fluoranthene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked green tea beverage samples with good relative recoveries in the range of 91.1 to 107.2%. The results supported the feasibility of agarose to serve as adsorbent holder in SPME which then minimizes the consumption of chemicals and disposal cost of organic wastes.
A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of 2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furoic acid (2-FA) and 3-furoic acid (3-FA) in honey and vegetable oils is described. Parameters affecting the separation such as pH, buffer and surfactant concentrations, applied voltage, capillary temperature, injection time and capillary length were studied and optimized. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 22 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (17 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (46 cm × 50 μm i.d.) with a background electrolyte of 75 mM phosphoric acid (pH 7.3), containing 200 mM of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The detection wavelengths were at 200 nm (2-FA and 3-FA) and 280 nm (2-F, 3-F, 5-MF, 5-HMF). The furfurals were well separated in less than 20 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection and quantitation, precision and recoveries. Calibration curves of the six furfurals were well correlated (r(2)>0.991) within the range 1-25 μg mL(-1). Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day migration times and corrected peak areas ≤9.96% were achieved. The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 0.33-0.70 μg mL(-1) whereas the limit of quantitation (signal:noise, 10) was 1.00-2.12 μg mL(-1). The method was applied to the determination of furanic compounds in honeys and vegetable oils (palm, walnut, grape seed and rapeseed). The effects of thermal treatment and gamma irradiation on the formation of the furanic compounds in honey were also investigated.
A new cobalt(II) ion selective electrode based on palladium(II) dichloro acetylthiophene fenchone azine(I) has been developed. The best membrane composition is found to be 10:60:10:21.1 (I)/PVC/NaTPB/DOP (w/w). The electrode exhibits a Nerstian response in the range of 1.0 × 10(-1)-1.0 × 10(-6)M with a detection limit and slope of 8.0 × 10(-7)M and 29.6 ± 0.2 mV per decade respectively. The response time is within the range of 20-25s and can be used for a period of up to 4 months. The electrode developed reveals good selectivity for cobalt(II) and could be used in pH range of 3-7. The electrode has been successfully used in the determination of cobalt(II) in water samples.
A simple, environmental friendly and selective sample preparation technique employing porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) loaded with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) is described. After the extraction, the analyte was desorbed using ultrasonication and was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee, grape juice and urine were 0.06 ng g(-1), 0.02 and 0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively while the quantification limits were 0.19 ng g(-1), 0.06 and 0.08 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA from coffee spiked at 1, 25 and 50 ng g(-1), grape juice and urine samples at 1, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1) ranged from 90.6 to 101.5%. The proposed method was applied to thirty-eight samples of coffee, grape juice and urine and the presence of OTA was found in eighteen samples. The levels found, however, were all below the legal limits.