Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Hamzah AR, Jalaluddin MA, Raman R
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 1999 Mar;108(3):253-4.
    PMID: 10086617
    A patient with Turner's syndrome presented with a rare anomaly of absent oval window, inferiorly placed facial nerve, and abnormal stapes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this combination of malformations.
  2. Indudharan R, Haq JA, Aiyar S
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 1999 May;108(5):440-5.
    PMID: 10335703
    Conservative medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important step in achieving a dry ear. Topical antibiotic ear drops and aural toilet form the mainstay of medical management of noncholesteatomatous CSOM. This study analyzes the causal organisms and their sensitivity to various antibiotics. Out of 382 swabs examined, the major organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.6%). The sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was 100% to ceftazidime, 98.9% to ciprofloxacin, 96.3% to gentamicin, and 95.4% to polymyxin B, whereas the sensitivity of S. aureus was 98.6% to ciprofloxacin, 97.4% to cloxacillin sodium, 96.5% to cotrimoxazole, and 90.7% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (97.6%) and chloramphenicol (96.6%), whereas S. aureus was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (73.8%) and polymyxin B (98.3%). Among the available topical antibiotic preparations for use in the ear, we found that ciprofloxacin and gentamicin are the best choices.
  3. Mahmud MR, Khan AM, Nadol JB
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2003 Nov;112(11):979-86.
    PMID: 14653368
    Although hearing loss is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acoustic neuroma, the pathophysiology of hearing loss associated with acoustic neuroma is unknown. Although primary dysfunction of the auditory nerve is intuitively logical, available histopathologic and clinical data suggest that although neural degeneration is common, it alone does not adequately account for hearing loss in many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 11 cases of unoperated unilateral acoustic neuromas. Temporal bones were identified by means of a search mechanism provided by the National Temporal Bone, Hearing, and Balance Pathology Resource Registry and were prepared for light microscopy by standard techniques. Quantification of spiral ganglion cells, hair cells, stria vascularis, and spiral ligament was accomplished for each specimen. In addition, the maximum diameter and volume of each tumor were calculated from histopathologic sections. Increasing tumor size did predict a reduced spiral ganglion count. However, although there was a tendency for decreasing spiral ganglion cell count and for increasing tumor size to predict a higher pure tone average and lower speech discrimination score, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. In tumor ears in which the speech discrimination score was 50% or less, there was always significant degeneration of other structures of the inner ear in addition to neurons, including hair cells, the stria vascularis, and the spiral ligament. Endolymphatic hydrops and eosinophilic precipitate in the perilymphatic spaces were found in 2 of 3 such cases. It is concluded that acoustic neuromas appear to cause hearing loss, not only by causing degeneration of the auditory nerve, but also by inducing degenerative changes in the inner ear. It is hypothesized that the proteinaceous material seen histologically may represent the products of up-regulated genes in acoustic neuroma, some of which may interfere with normal cochlear function.
  4. Ramasamy K, Saniasiaya J, Abdul Gani N
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2021 May;130(5):513-519.
    PMID: 33025798 DOI: 10.1177/0003489420963165
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction among patients with COVID-19 infection and the recovery rate.

    METHODS: Adult patients (≥18 years) tested positive for COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and admitted in Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban, Malaysia, were recruited in this study. Patients completed a questionnaire via telephone interview comprising the following details: age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, general and otorhinolaryngological symptoms, onset and duration of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Patients with persistent olfactory and gustatory dysfunction at the time of the initial interview were followed-up every 3 to 5 days till resolution.

    RESULTS: A total of 145 patients were included in our study. The mean age of patients was 43.0 ± 17.7 (range: 18-86). Fever (44.1%) and cough (39.3%) were the most prevalent general symptoms. Thirty-one patients (21.4%) reported olfactory dysfunction and 34 (23.4%) reported dysgeusia. There was a significant association between both olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (P 

  5. Saniasiaya J, Kulasegarah J, Narayanan P
    PMID: 34423675 DOI: 10.1177/00034894211041340
    OBJECTIVE: Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a chronic entity that has been historically managed with adenoidectomy and ventilation tube insertion. Recently, balloon dilation of the eustachian tube has shown promising results in recalcitrant eustachian tube dysfunction. We reviewed the literature to determine the outcome of eustachian tube balloon dilation in children.

    METHODS: A literature search was conducted for the period from 1990 to 2020 by searching several databases over a 1-month period (January 2021) according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews for Interventions. Primary outcome was defined as the success of the intervention determined by the resolution of symptoms, and secondary outcome was determined by revisions surgery and presence of complications.

    RESULTS: Only 7 articles were identified based on our objectives and selection criteria. All studies included are retrospective cohort case series (Level IV) and 1 cohort of matched controls (Level III). A total of 284 patients were included in this review, with a mean age of 7.8 years. A total of 463 balloon dilation were performed either bilaterally or unilaterally. The most common finding of ETD is middle ear effusion in 5 studies. Balloon dilation of eustachian tube was second-line treatment in 6 studies and first-line treatment in 1 study. Improvement of symptoms was identified in all studies through various assessments performed. Revision surgery was performed in 1 study with no major complications reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Balloon dilation of the eustachian tube may be considered as an alternative procedure following failed standard treatment in children. The quality of evidence is inadequate to recommend widespread use of the technique until a better-quality study has been completed. Future randomized controlled studies with a large sample size are warranted to determine the efficacy of this procedure amongst children.

  6. Teh CS, Noordiana SH, Shamini S, Prepageran N
    PMID: 34353133 DOI: 10.1177/00034894211037211
    INTRODUCTION: Vestibular paroxysmia (VP) is a condition with recurrent short bouts of vertigo and is thought to be part of a neurovascular compression syndrome caused by the vascular loop. However, this is still being debated as vascular loops are considered as normal variants with limited studies involving vertiginous patients.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to study the association between audiovestibular symptoms and the presence of vascular loops and to study the association between vestibular paroxysmia and vascular loops.

    DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of clinical, audiological and MRI findings of patients with and without vascular loops and vestibular paroxysmia from 2000 to 2020.

    RESULTS: A total of 470 MRI Internal Auditory Meatus scans were performed during the study period of which, 71 (15.1%) had vascular loops and 162 (34.5%) had normal MRI which were used as controls. From the 233 subjects recruited, there were 37 subjects with VP and 196 non VP subjects were used as controls. There was no association between the vascular loop and control groups in terms of co-morbidity and audiovestibular symptoms. The VP group had a significantly older mean age of 51.8 (SD ± 10.3) as compared to the non VP group with the mean age of 45.6 (SD ± 15.5). The VP group had higher number of patients presenting with hearing loss at 97.3% when compared with those without VP (80.1%) (P = .01). The odds of having a vascular loop giving rise to VP was not statistically significant at 0.82 (95% CI 0.3735-1.7989) P = .62.

    CONCLUSION: The vascular loop is a normal variant which may or may not give rise to audiovestibular symptoms or vestibular paroxysmia. Clinical assessment is still most important tool in deriving a diagnosis of VP and MRI may be useful to rule out other central causes.

  7. Jalaei B, Zakaria MN, Mohd Azmi MH, Nik Othman NA, Sidek D
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2017 Apr;126(4):290-295.
    PMID: 28177264 DOI: 10.1177/0003489417690169
    OBJECTIVES: Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) outcomes have been reported, but the literature is limited. The present study was performed to further verify this issue and determine the influence of head size on speech-ABR results between genders.

    METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy Malaysian subjects (14 males and 15 females) aged 19 to 30 years participated in this study. After measuring the head circumference, speech-ABR was recorded by using synthesized syllable /da/ from the right ear of each participant. Speech-ABR peaks amplitudes, peaks latencies, and composite onset measures were computed and analyzed.

    RESULTS: Significant gender disparities were noted in the transient component but not in the sustained component of speech-ABR. Statistically higher V/A amplitudes and less steeper V/A slopes were found in females. These gender differences were partially affected after controlling for the head size.

    CONCLUSIONS: Head size is not the main contributing factor for gender disparities in speech-ABR outcomes. Gender-specific normative data can be useful when recording speech-ABR for clinical purposes.

  8. Mukari SZMS, Wan Hashim WF
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2018 Nov;127(11):798-805.
    PMID: 30139270 DOI: 10.1177/0003489418795982
    INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to examine the validity of self-perceived hearing loss in detecting hearing loss and factors associated with self-perceived hearing loss and hearing-help seeking and to report hearing aid adoption among a group of community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 301 older adults (⩾60 years of age) participating in a study on aging had their hearing tested using pure-tone audiometry. Self-perceived hearing loss was assessed using a single question. Sociodemographic profile, otologic history, and general cognitive status were also obtained.

    RESULTS: A single question had low sensitivity in detecting actual hearing loss: 31.3% for 4-frequency average > 25 dBHL and 48.8% for 4-frequency average > 40 dBHL. Besides hearing level, history of otorrhea and tinnitus were factors that were associated with self-perceived hearing loss among older adults with at least mild hearing loss. Hearing-help-seeking behavior was not associated with any of the tested variables. The hearing aid adoption rate was 2.7% and 7.3% among participants with 4-frequency averages > 25 dBHL and > 40 dBHL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The underestimation of hearing loss in the majority of older adults in this study poses a potential barrier to hearing loss intervention.

  9. Wong EHC, Liew YT, Loong SP, Prepageran N
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2020 Mar;129(3):287-293.
    PMID: 31701754 DOI: 10.1177/0003489419887410
    AIM: Endoscopic endonasal nasopharyngectomy (EEN) for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) is being increasingly used due to the added high magnification, reduced morbidities associated with open procedures and good survival outcomes. Most studies looked at usage of EEN in patients with lower recurrent staging (rT1 and rT2) although more and more surgeons are studying the outcome of EEN in advanced rNPC (rT3 and rT4). The aims of this study were to report the long-term 5-year survival outcome of EEN performed in patients with advanced rNPC, and to determine any prognostic factors for patients' survival.

    METHODS: All patients who underwent EEN for advanced rNPC between January 2003 and December 2015 inclusive were analyzed. All surgeries were performed in University Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur and Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Sabah. We reported the 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) and any related complications and significant prognostic factors.

    RESULTS: Twelve patients with rNPC (2 rT3 and 10 rT4) were followed-up over a mean duration of 44.8 months (range, 40-440 weeks). The 5-year OS was 50.0% (mean 44.75 months), DFS was 25.0% (mean 35.25 months) and the DSS was 58.3% (mean 43.33 months). No severe operative complications were encountered and no independent prognostic factors for survival outcome were identified.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first report in English that exclusively described the long-term 5-year survival data in patients with both rT3 and rT4 recurrent NPC after EEN. The data suggest that EEN is a feasible treatment to improve survival with minimal morbidities in patients with rT3 and rT4 recurrent NPC. However, more studies with larger patient size is recommended.

  10. Mukari SZS, Ishak WS, Maamor N, Wan Hashim WF
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2017 Oct;126(10):697-705.
    PMID: 28845678 DOI: 10.1177/0003489417727547
    OBJECTIVES: Studies in cognitive aging demonstrated inconsistent association between hearing and cognition in older adults. Furthermore, it is still unclear if hearing loss at high frequencies, which is the earliest to be affected, is associated with cognitive functioning. This study aimed to determine the association between global cognitive status and pure tone average (PTA) at 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA low) and PTA at 4 and 8 kHz (PTA high).

    METHODS: This study involved 307 adults aged 60 years and older. Participants had their hearing and cognition measured using pure tone audiometry and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively.

    RESULTS: Pure tone average (low) accounted for significant but minimal amount of variance in measure of MMSE. Multiple regression analyses were also performed on normal and impaired hearing cohorts and cohorts with younger (60-69 years) and older (≥70 years) groups. The results revealed a significant relationship between PTA (low) and MMSE only in the younger age group. In contrast, no significant relationship was found between PTA (high) and cognition in any of the cohorts.

    CONCLUSION: Pure tone average (low) is significantly but minimally related to measure of general cognitive status. Similar relationship is not observed between high-frequency hearing and cognition. Further research using a more comprehensive cognitive test battery is needed to confirm the lack of association between high-frequency hearing and cognition.

  11. D'Oliveiro JJ, Chong AW
    PMID: 36941748 DOI: 10.1177/00034894231159325
    OBJECTIVES: To highlight a case of nasopharyngeal Respiratory Epithelial Adenomatoid Hamartoma (REAH) in a female patient with chronic nasal block.

    METHODS: A single case report of a female patient with the diagnosis of REAH, detailing her presenting symptoms, clinical findings, management and follow up.

    RESULTS: Histopathological assessment of the excised nasopharyngeal polyp was consistent with a diagnosis of REAH with a discussion on the disease and its current literature reviews.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of REAH within the nasopharynx remain rare with only few cases described in literature, especially in females.

  12. Teh CS, Abdullah NA, Kamaruddin NR, Mohd Judi KB, Fadzilah I, Zainun Z, et al.
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2023 May;132(5):566-577.
    PMID: 35794811 DOI: 10.1177/00034894221111408
    INTRODUCTION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a chronic functional vestibular disorder where there is persistent dizziness or unsteadiness occurring on most days for more than 3 months duration. Treatment recommendations for PPPD include vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) with or without medications and/or cognitive behavioral therapy.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper is a pilot study designed to compare the effects of Bal Ex as a home-based VRT on the quality of life (EQ-5D), dizziness handicap (DHI) and mental health (DASS-21) against hospital-based VRT.

    DESIGN: This was an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled pilot study where PPPD patients were randomly selected to undergo Bal Ex, the home-based VRT (intervention group) or hospital-based (control group) VRT. The participants were reviewed at 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the start of therapy to assess the primary endpoints using the subjective improvement in symptoms as reported by patients, changes in DHI scores, DASS-21 scores and EQ5D VAS scores.

    RESULTS: Thirty PPPD patients successfully completed the study with 15 in each study group. Within 4 weeks, there were significant improvements in the total DHI scores as well as anxiety levels. By the end of 12 weeks, there were significant improvements in the DHI, DASS-21 and EQ5D. The degree of improvement between Bal Ex and the control was comparable.

    CONCLUSION: VRT is an effective modality in significantly improving quality of life, dizziness handicap, depression, and anxiety levels within 3 months in PPPD. Preliminary results show Bal Ex is as effective as hospital-based VRT and should be considered as a treatment option for PPPD.

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