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  1. Mahmud MR, Khan AM, Nadol JB
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 2003 Nov;112(11):979-86.
    PMID: 14653368
    Although hearing loss is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acoustic neuroma, the pathophysiology of hearing loss associated with acoustic neuroma is unknown. Although primary dysfunction of the auditory nerve is intuitively logical, available histopathologic and clinical data suggest that although neural degeneration is common, it alone does not adequately account for hearing loss in many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 11 cases of unoperated unilateral acoustic neuromas. Temporal bones were identified by means of a search mechanism provided by the National Temporal Bone, Hearing, and Balance Pathology Resource Registry and were prepared for light microscopy by standard techniques. Quantification of spiral ganglion cells, hair cells, stria vascularis, and spiral ligament was accomplished for each specimen. In addition, the maximum diameter and volume of each tumor were calculated from histopathologic sections. Increasing tumor size did predict a reduced spiral ganglion count. However, although there was a tendency for decreasing spiral ganglion cell count and for increasing tumor size to predict a higher pure tone average and lower speech discrimination score, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. In tumor ears in which the speech discrimination score was 50% or less, there was always significant degeneration of other structures of the inner ear in addition to neurons, including hair cells, the stria vascularis, and the spiral ligament. Endolymphatic hydrops and eosinophilic precipitate in the perilymphatic spaces were found in 2 of 3 such cases. It is concluded that acoustic neuromas appear to cause hearing loss, not only by causing degeneration of the auditory nerve, but also by inducing degenerative changes in the inner ear. It is hypothesized that the proteinaceous material seen histologically may represent the products of up-regulated genes in acoustic neuroma, some of which may interfere with normal cochlear function.
  2. Indudharan R, Haq JA, Aiyar S
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 1999 May;108(5):440-5.
    PMID: 10335703
    Conservative medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important step in achieving a dry ear. Topical antibiotic ear drops and aural toilet form the mainstay of medical management of noncholesteatomatous CSOM. This study analyzes the causal organisms and their sensitivity to various antibiotics. Out of 382 swabs examined, the major organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.6%). The sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was 100% to ceftazidime, 98.9% to ciprofloxacin, 96.3% to gentamicin, and 95.4% to polymyxin B, whereas the sensitivity of S. aureus was 98.6% to ciprofloxacin, 97.4% to cloxacillin sodium, 96.5% to cotrimoxazole, and 90.7% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (97.6%) and chloramphenicol (96.6%), whereas S. aureus was almost completely resistant to ampicillin (73.8%) and polymyxin B (98.3%). Among the available topical antibiotic preparations for use in the ear, we found that ciprofloxacin and gentamicin are the best choices.
  3. Hamzah AR, Jalaluddin MA, Raman R
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 1999 Mar;108(3):253-4.
    PMID: 10086617
    A patient with Turner's syndrome presented with a rare anomaly of absent oval window, inferiorly placed facial nerve, and abnormal stapes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this combination of malformations.
  4. Jalaei B, Zakaria MN, Mohd Azmi MH, Nik Othman NA, Sidek D
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 2017 Apr;126(4):290-295.
    PMID: 28177264 DOI: 10.1177/0003489417690169
    OBJECTIVES: Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) outcomes have been reported, but the literature is limited. The present study was performed to further verify this issue and determine the influence of head size on speech-ABR results between genders.

    METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy Malaysian subjects (14 males and 15 females) aged 19 to 30 years participated in this study. After measuring the head circumference, speech-ABR was recorded by using synthesized syllable /da/ from the right ear of each participant. Speech-ABR peaks amplitudes, peaks latencies, and composite onset measures were computed and analyzed.

    RESULTS: Significant gender disparities were noted in the transient component but not in the sustained component of speech-ABR. Statistically higher V/A amplitudes and less steeper V/A slopes were found in females. These gender differences were partially affected after controlling for the head size.

    CONCLUSIONS: Head size is not the main contributing factor for gender disparities in speech-ABR outcomes. Gender-specific normative data can be useful when recording speech-ABR for clinical purposes.

  5. Mukari SZS, Ishak WS, Maamor N, Wan Hashim WF
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 2017 Oct;126(10):697-705.
    PMID: 28845678 DOI: 10.1177/0003489417727547
    OBJECTIVES: Studies in cognitive aging demonstrated inconsistent association between hearing and cognition in older adults. Furthermore, it is still unclear if hearing loss at high frequencies, which is the earliest to be affected, is associated with cognitive functioning. This study aimed to determine the association between global cognitive status and pure tone average (PTA) at 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA low) and PTA at 4 and 8 kHz (PTA high).

    METHODS: This study involved 307 adults aged 60 years and older. Participants had their hearing and cognition measured using pure tone audiometry and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively.

    RESULTS: Pure tone average (low) accounted for significant but minimal amount of variance in measure of MMSE. Multiple regression analyses were also performed on normal and impaired hearing cohorts and cohorts with younger (60-69 years) and older (≥70 years) groups. The results revealed a significant relationship between PTA (low) and MMSE only in the younger age group. In contrast, no significant relationship was found between PTA (high) and cognition in any of the cohorts.

    CONCLUSION: Pure tone average (low) is significantly but minimally related to measure of general cognitive status. Similar relationship is not observed between high-frequency hearing and cognition. Further research using a more comprehensive cognitive test battery is needed to confirm the lack of association between high-frequency hearing and cognition.

  6. Mukari SZMS, Wan Hashim WF
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 2018 Nov;127(11):798-805.
    PMID: 30139270 DOI: 10.1177/0003489418795982
    INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to examine the validity of self-perceived hearing loss in detecting hearing loss and factors associated with self-perceived hearing loss and hearing-help seeking and to report hearing aid adoption among a group of community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 301 older adults (⩾60 years of age) participating in a study on aging had their hearing tested using pure-tone audiometry. Self-perceived hearing loss was assessed using a single question. Sociodemographic profile, otologic history, and general cognitive status were also obtained.

    RESULTS: A single question had low sensitivity in detecting actual hearing loss: 31.3% for 4-frequency average > 25 dBHL and 48.8% for 4-frequency average > 40 dBHL. Besides hearing level, history of otorrhea and tinnitus were factors that were associated with self-perceived hearing loss among older adults with at least mild hearing loss. Hearing-help-seeking behavior was not associated with any of the tested variables. The hearing aid adoption rate was 2.7% and 7.3% among participants with 4-frequency averages > 25 dBHL and > 40 dBHL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The underestimation of hearing loss in the majority of older adults in this study poses a potential barrier to hearing loss intervention.

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