Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

  1. Abdul Rashid SN, Mohamad Saini SB, Abdul Hamid S, Muhammad SJ, Mahmud R, Thali MJ, et al.
    Br J Radiol, 2014 Apr;87(1036):20130472.
    PMID: 24472728 DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20130472
    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of identifying methamphetamine (MA) internal payloads in "drug mules" by plain abdominal digital radiography (DR).
  2. Choo WS, Steeds RP
    Br J Radiol, 2011 Dec;84 Spec No 3:S245-57.
    PMID: 22723532 DOI: 10.1259/bjr/54030257
    The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on the relative importance and contribution of different imaging modalities in patients with valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease is increasing in prevalence across Europe, at a time when the clinical ability of physicians to diagnose and assess severity is declining. Increasing reliance is placed on echocardiography, which is the mainstay of cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease. This article outlines the techniques used in this context and their limitations, identifying areas in which dynamic imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and multislice CT are expanding.
  3. Maninderpal KG, Amir FH, Azad HA, Mun KS
    Br J Radiol, 2011 Sep;84(1005):e186-90.
    PMID: 21849361 DOI: 10.1259/bjr/66130737
    Secondary involvement of the urinary bladder in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is relatively common; however, primary malignant lymphoma of this organ is extremely rare. The most common type of primary bladder lymphoma is a low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We report here on the imaging findings of a primary bladder lymphoma with bone marrow infiltration.
  4. Teng HC, Kumar G, Ramli NM
    Br J Radiol, 2007 Jul;80(955):e134-6.
    PMID: 17704308
    Pre-natal diagnosis of intra-abdominal pregnancy is difficult. Ultrasound has been the frontline modality to date; however, it gives a diagnostic error of 50-90% and its use is disappointing. In recent years, MRI has emerged as an appealing imaging modality. With its good soft tissue contrast and non-ionizing property, it acts as a means of definitive non-invasive assessment before surgical intervention when ultrasound is inconclusive.
  5. Nawawi O, Sinnasamy M, Ramli N
    Br J Radiol, 2006 Jul;79(943):e12-5.
    PMID: 16823046
    A case of an intracerebral bleed in a young man with a rare combination of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and unilateral moyamoya disease is presented. The location of the bleed in the left basal ganglia corresponded to the area supplied by the basal moyamoya vessels. The AVM which received supply from collateral moyamoya vessels as well as normal cerebral arteries was located in the ipsilateral parieto-occipital region posterior to the basal ganglia bleed. This is the first reported cerebral AVM co-existing with a unilateral moyamoya disease in the English literature. Unusual features of the case such as the unilaterality of the angiographic abnormalities, their coexistence and hypotheses as to their development are discussed.
  6. Ranganathan S, Moosa F, Kamarulzaman A, Looi LM
    Br J Radiol, 2005 Apr;78(928):353-4.
    PMID: 15774599
    Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast like fungus, which is commonly found in bird droppings, especially pigeons. Most cases of cryptococcal infections occur in immunocompromised patients or in those who are on long term immunosuppressant therapies. Cryptococcal infection usually presents as a meningoencephalitis or a pulmonary infection. Skin, bone and genital infections are very rare. We report the second case of vaginal cryptococcossis to be reported in English literature and the first to be imaged with CT and MRI.
  7. Abdullah BJ, Mohammad N, Sangkar JV, Abd Aziz YF, Gan GG, Goh KY, et al.
    Br J Radiol, 2005 Jul;78(931):596-600.
    PMID: 15961840
    The objective of this study was to prospectively determine the incidence of venous thrombosis (VT) in the upper limbs in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We prospectively investigated the incidence of VT in the upper limbs of 26 patients who had PICC inserted. The inclusion criteria were all patients who had a PICC inserted, whilst the exclusion criterion was the inability to perform a venogram (allergies, previous contrast medium reaction and inability of gaining venous access). Both valved and non-valved catheters were evaluated. Prior to removal of the PICC, an upper limb venogram was performed. The number of segments involved with VT were determined. The duration of central venous catheterization was classified as; less than 6 days, between 6 days and 14 days and more than 14 days. VT was confirmed in 38.5% (10/26) of the patients. The majority 85.7% (12/14) were complete occlusive thrombi and the majority of VT only involved one segment. There was no statistical correlation between the site of insertion of the PICC and the location of VT. Neither was there any observed correlation between the occurrence of VT with the patient's history of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiac insufficiency, smoking or cancer. There was also no statistical correlation with the size of the catheter. In conclusion, PICCs are associated with a significant risk of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEVT).
  8. Jafari SM, Jordan TJ, Distefano G, Bradley DA, Spyrou NM, Nisbet A, et al.
    Br J Radiol, 2015;88(1055):20140804.
    PMID: 26258442 DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20140804
    To investigate the feasibility of using glass beads as novel thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) for radiotherapy treatment plan verification.
  9. Git KA, Fioravante LA, Fernandes JL
    Br J Radiol, 2015 Sep;88(1053):20150269.
    PMID: 26118302 DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20150269
    To assess whether an online open-source tool would provide accurate calculations of T2(*) values for iron concentrations in the liver and heart compared with a standard reference software.
  10. Samat SB, Evans CJ, Kadni T, Dolah MT
    Br J Radiol, 2000 Aug;73(872):867-77.
    PMID: 11026863
    A cylindrical gamma-ray 60Co source of activity alpha is predicted to produce an exposure rate X at a distance d in vacuum, given by X = gamma(T)(alpha/d2), where gamma(T) is the specific gamma-ray constant. It has been documented that this formula may be used to approximate X with an accuracy of 1% from a source of length l, provided that d/l > or = 5. It is shown that the formula is accurate to 0.1% under these conditions, provided that the distance is measured from the centre of the source. When absorption in the source and scattering in the collimator are considered, the position of the origin d = 0 can shift by a distance of the order of centimetres. Absorption in air between the source and the ionization chamber adds an exponential factor to the formula. It is shown that even when these modifications are included the discrepancy in the results, although generally less than 1%, is still large compared with the measurement errors. Some suggestions are made for the origin of this discrepancy.
  11. Abdullah BJ, Kaur H, Ng KH
    Br J Radiol, 1998 Sep;71(849):930-3.
    PMID: 10195007
    Dried fish bones from eight species of Malaysian fish were placed in an animal cadaver at four sites (tonsil, valleculae, larynx and oesophagus) and radiographed using a double and a single film-screen combination. The use of the single film-screen combination resulted in visibility of all fish bones placed in the larynx, two of which were not visible on the double film-screen combination. There was a 50% increase of the visibility of the fish bones in the oesophagus using the single film-screen combination. The difference in dose and cost between the two different film-screen combinations was not significant.
  12. Banjade DP, Ng BS, Zakir M, Tajuddin AA, Shukri A
    Br J Radiol, 2002 Oct;75(898):812-8.
    PMID: 12381690
    A study of dose mapping techniques to investigate the dose distribution throughout a planned target volume (PTV) in a humanoid breast phantom exposed to a 6 MV photon beam similar to that of treatment conditions is described. For tangential breast irradiation using a 6 MV accelerator beam, the dose is mapped at various locations within the PTV using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) and radiographic films. An average size perspex breast phantom with the ability to hold the dosemeters was made. TLDs were exposed after packing them in various locations in a particular slice, as planned by the treatment planning system (TPS). To map the dose relative to the isocenter, films were exposed after tightly packing them in between phantom slices, parallel to the central axis of the beam. The dose received at every location was compared with the given dose as generated by the TPS. The mapped dose in each location in the isocentric slice from superficial to deep region was found to be in close agreement with the TPS generated dose to within +/-2%. Doses at greater depths and distant medial and lateral ends, however, were found to be lower by as much as 9.4% at some points. The mapped dose towards the superior region and closest inferior region from the isocenter was found to agree with those for TPS. Conversely, results for the farthest inferior region were found to be significantly different with a variance as much as 17.4% at some points, which is believed to be owing to the variation in size and shape of the contour. Results obtained from films confirmed this, showing similar trends in dose mapping. Considering the importance of accurate doses in radiotherapy, evaluating dose distribution using this technique and tool was found to be useful. This provides the opportunity to choose a technique and plan to provide optimum dose delivery for radiotherapy to the breast.
  13. Jamal N, Ng KH, McLean D
    Br J Radiol, 2003 Apr;76(904):238-45.
    PMID: 12711643
    The primary objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography in Malaysia. The secondary objective was to evaluate some of the factors affecting MGD. A survey of standard MGD was performed, based upon quality control records for the period October 1999 to August 2001. This covered 30 mammography units from 9 manufacturers. MGD was also measured for a series of patients attending mammography examinations at three other mammography units. MGD per film was estimated from recorded radiographic factors, the compressed breast thickness (CBT) and X-ray unit calibration data. MGD per woman was calculated by summing the MGDs for all films, and averaging it over both breasts. 300 women drawn equally from three major ethnic groups, namely Malay, Chinese and Indian, took part in the study. The difference of MGD per woman between ethnic groups was tested for significance using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and median tests. The factors affecting MGD per woman were tested for significance using a multivariate analysis of variance. The MGD for the phantom was 1.23 mGy (range 0.22-2.39 mGy) while the mean patient based MGD per film was 1.54 mGy and 1.82 mGy for the craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views, respectively. The mean MGD per woman was 3.37 mGy. It was also found that there is no significant difference in MGD per woman among the ethnic groups (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). However, on the multivariate test two factors, namely half value layer of the X-ray beam and (CBT), had a significant effect on MGD per woman (p<0.05). No significant relationships were seen between MGD per woman with respect to ethnicity, body mass index or age.
  14. Sobri M, Lamont AC, Alias NA, Win MN
    Br J Radiol, 2003 Aug;76(908):532-5.
    PMID: 12893694
    Headache is a very common patient complaint but secondary causes for headache are unusual. Neuroimaging is both expensive and has a low yield in this group. Most patients with intracranial pathology have clinical features that would raise a "red flag". Appropriate selection of patients with headache for neuroimaging to look for secondary causes is very important. Red flags act as screening tools to help in identifying those patients presenting with headache who would benefit from prompt neuroimaging, and may increase the yield. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical features in patients with headache using neuroimaging as a screening tool for intracranial pathology. 20 red flags were defined. A retrospective study of 111 patients was performed and the outcomes were divided into positive and negative. Abnormal neuroimaging was present in 39 patients. Results were analysed using the Logistic Regression model. Sensitivity and specificity of red flags were analysed to establish the cut-off point to predict abnormal neuroimaging and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve plotted to show the sensitivity of the diagnostic test. Three red flag features proved to be statistically significant with the p-value of less than 0.05 on both univariate and multivariate analysis. These were: paralysis; papilloedema; and "drowsiness, confusion, memory impairment and loss of consciousness". In addition, if three or more red flags from the list were present, this showed strong indication of abnormal neuroimaging, from cut-off point of ROC curve (area under the curve =0.76).
  15. Ng KH, Rassiah P, Wang HB, Hambali AS, Muthuvellu P, Lee HP
    Br J Radiol, 1998 Jun;71(846):654-60.
    PMID: 9849390
    A collaborative national survey initiated by the University of Malaya and the Ministry of Health was conducted from 1993 to 1995 to establish baseline patient dose data for seven common types (12 projections) of X-ray examinations in Malaysia. A total of 12 randomly selected public hospitals and 867 patients were included in this survey. The entrance surface doses (ESD) received by the patients were measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) attached to the patient's skin. Histograms are presented showing wide, positively skewed distributions of measured entrance surface doses for each examination. Mean, median, first and third quartile values of ESD and median effective dose are reported. Survey results are generally comparable with those reported in the UK, USA and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results also provide information on dose level for a lower weight population (mean weight 60 kg) compared with the international reference dose values based on a 70 kg standard. The findings support the importance of the on-going national quality assurance programme to ensure doses are kept to a level consistent with optimum image quality. The data will also be useful for the formulation of national guidance levels as recommended by the IAEA. Furthermore, this study provides patient dosimetry information on healthcare level II countries.
  16. Ng KH, Looi LM, Bradley DA
    Br J Radiol, 1996 Apr;69(820):326-34.
    PMID: 8665132
    X-ray microradiography of surgically excised breast specimens offers the possibility of morphological characterization of calcifications. When combined with digital imaging techniques there exists added potential for obtaining valuable basic quantitative morphometric information regarding differences between microcalcifications in tissues exhibiting evidence of fibrocystic change, benign and malignant tumours. A total of 157 excised breast specimens from 84 patients were microradiographed using a Softex Super Soft X-ray unit and Kodak AA high resolution industrial film. A Quantimet 570C image analysis system was used to digitize and analyse the microradiographs. Of the 157 microradiographs, 51 (from 30 patients) revealed microcalcification clusters. The existence of significant differences between the three identified categories of tissue were indicated by clustering parameters. These included the number of particles per cluster, area of clusters, maximum distance to nearest neighbour, and geometric mean distance to nearest neighbour. The distribution pattern index (DPI), another of the clustering parameters used in this study, has been observed to be a particularly powerful discriminator. The value for fibrocystic change was found to be significantly smaller (0.514) than that for benign tumour (0.796) whilst that for benign tumour was observed to be significantly larger than that for malignant tumour (0.604) at a p-value of less than 0.05 (Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance).
  17. Abdullah BJ, Liam CK, Kaur H, Mathew KM
    Br J Radiol, 1997 Oct;70(838):1063-5.
    PMID: 9404213
    Lipoma of the parapharyngeal space is very rare, only three cases having been reported in the literature. A parapharyngeal space lipoma causing obstructive sleep apnoea has not been reported before. A 60-year-old man presented at the ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinic with a history of loud snoring associated with sleep apnoea secondary to a right parapharyngeal space lipoma. The causes of sleep apnoea and the radiological features of a parapharyngeal space lipoma are discussed.
    Study site: ENT clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  18. Skene-Smith H
    Br J Radiol, 1975 Aug;48(572):646-8.
    PMID: 810200
    Twenty-two cases of corrosive oesophageal strictures were reviewed and divided into annular, short segment and long segment lesions. The lower third of the oeseophagus was involved in all the long segment strictures, but with sparing of the extreme distal portion in most. Irregularity of the stricture walls with an appearance similar to reported cases of intramural diverticulosis is a common finding but smooth strictures can also occur.
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