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  1. Tey NP, Siraj SB, Kamaruzzaman SB, Chin AV, Tan MP, Sinnappan GS, et al.
    Gerontologist, 2016 08;56(4):603-9.
    PMID: 26553738 DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnv153
    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.
  2. Wu ZH, Rudkin L
    Gerontologist, 2000 Apr;40(2):228-34.
    PMID: 10820926
    We tested the applicability of the stress buffering hypothesis in a developing country setting with data from the Senior Sample of the Malaysian Family Life Survey-2. Using ordered logistic regression methods, we examined whether having daily contact with adult children moderates the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES; conceptualized as a chronic stressor) on self-assessed health status. We found that low SES is associated with poorer health for all three ethnic groups--Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Further, for Malays and Chinese, we found that the negative effects of low SES on health tend to be stronger for older people with less frequent contact with adult children than for those who have daily contact. These results provide general support for the buffering model and suggest that, as found in developed countries, active intergenerational relationships in developing country settings may have protective effects on the health of older people experiencing chronic stressors.
  3. Rahman O, Strauss J, Gertler P, Ashley D, Fox K
    Gerontologist, 1994 Aug;34(4):463-9.
    PMID: 7959102
    This article uses data from the United States, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Bangladesh to explore gender differences in adult health. The results show that women fare worse than men across a variety of self-reported health measures in all four countries studies. These health status disparities between men and women persist even after appropriate corrections are made for the impact of (a) differential mortality selection by gender and (b) sociodemographic factors. Data from Jamaica indicate that gender disparities in adult health arise early and persist throughout the life cycle, with different age profiles for different measures.
  4. Malhotra R, Bautista MAC, Müller AM, Aw S, Koh GCH, Theng YL, et al.
    Gerontologist, 2019 05 17;59(3):401-410.
    PMID: 30517628 DOI: 10.1093/geront/gny160
    The juxtaposition of a young city-state showing relative maturity as a rapidly aging society suffuses the population aging narrative in Singapore and places the "little red dot" on the spotlight of international aging. We first describe population aging in Singapore, including the characteristic events that shaped this demographic transition. We then detail the health care and socioeconomic ramifications of the rapid and significant shift to an aging society, followed by an overview of the main aging research areas in Singapore, including selected population-based data sets and the main thrust of leading aging research centers/institutes. After presenting established aging policies and programs, we also discuss current and emerging policy issues surrounding population aging in Singapore. We aim to contribute to the international aging literature by describing Singapore's position and extensive experience in managing the challenges and maximizing the potential of an aging population. We hope that similar graying populations in the region will find the material as a rich source of information and learning opportunities. Ultimately, we aspire to encourage transformative collaborations-locally, regionally, and internationally-and provide valuable insights for policy and practice.
  5. Amer Nordin A, Mohd Hairi F, Choo WY, Hairi NN
    Gerontologist, 2018 Jul 05.
    PMID: 29982539 DOI: 10.1093/geront/gny072
    Background and Objectives: Caregiving outcomes have often been reported in terms of care recipients of single disease, rather than multiple health conditions. A systematic review was conducted to outline caregiving health outcomes and its association with care recipient multimorbidity for informal caregivers of older adults.

    Research Design and Methods: A search strategy was applied in six databases and grey literature. Inclusion criteria were primary observational studies on informal caregiving for care recipients aged 60 years and above, in the English language. Informal caregivers were those not formally hired and multimorbidity referred to presence of at least two health conditions. From a total of 2,101 titles, 230 abstracts were screened, and 19 articles were included. Quality assessment was conducted with application of the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale.

    Results: Health-related and caregiving-related outcomes have been assessed for informal caregivers of older adults with multimorbidity. Caregiver subjective burden was most commonly evaluated and often reported to be low to moderate. In association with care recipient multimorbidity, caregiver burden, quality of life, and perceived difficulty in assisting the older adults were examined in 14 of the studies with mixed results. Studies were heterogeneous, with nonuniform definitions of informal caregivers and multimorbidity as well as measurement tools.

    Discussion and Implications: This narrative review found that caring for older adults with multimorbidity impacts caregivers, although overall evidence is not conclusive. Despite caregiving-related outcomes being most commonly assessed among the caregivers, particularly subjective burden, findings suggest that it is worthwhile to examine other outcomes to enrich the evidence base.

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