Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

  1. Seleena P, Lee HL
    Indian J Med Res, 1993 Mar;97:83-4.
    PMID: 8505080
    Mosquitocidal strains of B. sphaericus serotype H-5a5b were shown for the first time to exhibit antagonistic activities against several human pathogens especially Salmonella. These strains of B. sphaericus also exhibited high larval toxicity against several mosquitoes.
  2. Bashiru G, Bahaman AR
    Indian J Med Res, 2018 Jan;147(1):15-22.
    PMID: 29749356 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1022_16
    Considerable progress has been made in the field of leptospiral vaccines development since its first use as a killed vaccine in guinea pigs. Despite the fact that the immunity conferred is restricted to serovars with closely related lipopolysaccharide antigen, certain vaccines have remained useful, especially in endemic regions, for the protection of high-risk individuals. Other conventional vaccines such as the live-attenuated vaccine and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccine have not gained popularity due to the reactive response that follows their administration and the lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. With the recent breakthrough and availability of complete genome sequences of Leptospira, development of novel vaccine including recombinant protein vaccine using reverse vaccinology approaches has yielded encouraging results. However, factors hindering the development of effective leptospiral vaccines include variation in serovar distribution from region to region, establishment of renal carrier status following vaccination and determination of the dose and endpoint titres acceptable as definitive indicators of protective immunity. In this review, advancements and progress made in LPS-based vaccines, killed- and live-attenuated vaccines, recombinant peptide vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are highlighted.
  3. Subramaniam P, Jabar KA, Kee BP, Chong CW, Nathan AM, de Bruyne J, et al.
    Indian J Med Res, 2018 Aug;148(2):225-231.
    PMID: 30381546 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1987_16
    Background & objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae: (pneumococcus) is a highly invasive extracellular pathogen that causes diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media and meningitis. This study was undertaken to determine the serotype diversity and penicillin susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolated from paediatric patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    Methods: A total of 125 clinical isolates collected from January 2013 to May 2015 were serotyped using seven sequential multiplex polymerase chain reactions. The susceptibility of these isolates to penicillin was also investigated.

    Results: Serotypes detected among the isolates were serotypes 3, 6A/B, 6C, 11/A/D/F, 15A/F, 19A, 19F, 23A, 23F, 34. Serotypes 19F and 6A/B were the most prevalent serotypes detected. Most of the S. pneumoniae were isolated from nasopharyngeal samples of children below five years of age. Majority of the isolates were penicillin susceptible. Only 5.6 per cent of the isolates were non-susceptible to penicillin, mostly of serotype 19F.

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our study revealed the distribution of various serotypes in S. pneumoniae isolates obtained from children in a teaching hospital at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and decreasing rates of penicillin resistance among them. The shifts in serotypes and susceptibility to penicillin from time to time have been observed. Continuous monitoring and surveillance are pivotal for better infection control and management of pneumococcal infections among children.

  4. Dieng H, Satho T, Abang F, Miake F, Azman FAB, Latip NA, et al.
    Indian J Med Res, 2018 Sep;148(3):334-340.
    PMID: 30425225 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1604_16
    Background & objectives: In sterile insect technology (SIT), mating competitiveness is a pre-condition for the reduction of target pest populations and a crucial parameter for judging efficacy. Still, current SIT trials are being hindered by decreased effectiveness due to reduced sexual performance of released males. Here, we explored the possible role of a herbal aphrodisiac in boosting the mating activity of Aedes aegypti.

    Methods: Males were fed one of two diets in this study: experimental extract of Eurycoma longifolia (MSAs) and sugar only (MSOs). Differences in life span, courtship latency, copulation activity and mating success were examined between the two groups.

    Results: No deaths occurred among MSA and MSO males. Life span of MSOs was similar to that of MSAs. The courtship latency of MSAs was shorter than that of MSOs (P<0.01). MSAs had greater copulation success than MSOs (P<0.001). In all female treatments, MSAs mated more than MSOs, but the differences in rate were significant only in the highest female density (P<0.05). In MSAs, mating success varied significantly with female density (P<0.01), with the 20-female group (P<0.01) having the lowest rate. Single MSA had better mating success at the two lowest female densities. In MSOs, there were no significant differences in mating success rate between the different female densities.

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggested that the herbal aphrodisiac, E. longifolia, stimulated the sexual activity of Ae. aegypti and may be useful for improving the mating competitiveness of sterile males, thus improving SIT programmes.

  5. Shamsul BS, Chowdhury SR, Hamdan MY, Ruszymah BHI
    Indian J Med Res, 2019 05;149(5):641-649.
    PMID: 31417032 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_45_17
    Background & objectives: Seeding density is one of the major parameters affecting the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate different seeding densities of osteoarthritis chondrocytes (OACs) to obtain the highest quality cartilage.

    Methods: The OACs were expanded from passage 0 (P0) to P3, and cells in each passage were analyzed for gross morphology, growth rate, RNA expression and immunochemistry (IHC). The harvested OACs were assigned into two groups: low (1×10[7] cells/ml) and high (3×10[7] cells/ml) cell density. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs for each group were created using polymerised fibrin and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using chondrocyte growth medium. OAC constructs were analyzed with gross assessments and microscopic evaluation using standard histology, IHC and immunofluorescence staining, in addition to gene expression and biochemical analyses to evaluate tissue development.

    Results: Constructs with a high seeding density of 3×10[7] cells/ml were associated with better quality cartilage-like tissue than those seeded with 1×10[7] cells/ml based on overall tissue formation, cell association and extracellular matrix distribution. The chondrogenic properties of the constructs were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding aggrecan core protein and collagen type II.

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results confirmed that cell density was a significant factor affecting cell behaviour and aggregate production, and this was important for establishing good quality cartilage.

  6. Yadav PD, Sudeep AB, Mishra AC, Mourya DT
    Indian J Med Res, 2012 Nov;136(5):792-8.
    PMID: 23287126
    Chittoor virus (CHITV) belongs to genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. It has been isolated from various species of mosquitoes and pig from different parts of India. Five isolates of CHITV were characterized at the molecular level and compared with other Batai viruses (BATV) to find out any kind of reassortment in their genome.
  7. Teh LK, Hashim H, Zakaria ZA, Salleh MZ
    Indian J Med Res, 2012 Aug;136(2):249-59.
    PMID: 22960892
    Genetic polymorphisms of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) have been associated with a wide variation of responses among patients prescribed with irinotecan. Lack of this enzyme is known to be associated with a high incidence of severe toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of three different variants of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28), which are associated with reduced enzyme activity and increased irinotecan toxicity, in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians).
  8. Marini M, Sasongko TH, Watihayati MS, Atif AB, Hayati F, Gunadi, et al.
    Indian J Med Res, 2012;135:31-5.
    PMID: 22382180
    Genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is complicated by the presence of SMN2 gene as majority of SMA patients show absence or deletion of SMN1 gene. PCR may amplify both the genes non selectively in presence of high amount of DNA. We evaluated whether allele-specific PCR for diagnostic screening of SMA is reliable in the presence of high amount of genomic DNA, which is commonly used when performing diagnostic screening using restriction enzymes.
  9. Nissapatorn V, Sawangjaroen N
    Indian J Med Res, 2011 Dec;134(6):878-97.
    PMID: 22310820 DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.92633
    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leishmaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection.
  10. Bandyopadhyay A
    Indian J Med Res, 2011 Nov;134(5):653-7.
    PMID: 22199104 DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.90990
    Pulmonary function tests have been evolved as clinical tools in diagnosis, management and follow up of respiratory diseases as it provides objective information about the status of an individual's respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among the male and female young Kelantanese Malaysians of Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and to compare the data with other populations.
  11. Kaur G, Masoud A, Raihan N, Radzi M, Khamizar W, Kam LS
    Indian J Med Res, 2011 Aug;134:186-92.
    PMID: 21911971
    DNA mismatch repair gene (MMR) abnormalities are seen in 95 per cent of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and 10-15 per cent of sporadic colorectal cancers. There are no data on MMR abnormalities in Malaysian colorectal cancer patients. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of abnormal MMR gene protein expression in colorectal carcinoma in Northern Peninsular Malaysia using immunohistochemistry.
  12. Rozilawati H, Faudzi AY, Rahidah AA, Azlina AH, Abdullah AG, Amal NM, et al.
    Indian J Med Res, 2011 Jun;133:670-3.
    PMID: 21727669
    Chikungunya infection has become a public health threat in Malaysia since the 2008 nationwide outbreaks. Aedes albopictus Skuse has been identified as the chikungunya vector in Johor State during the outbreaks. In 2009, several outbreaks had been reported in the State of Kelantan. Entomological studies were conducted in Kelantan in four districts, namely Jeli, Tumpat, Pasir Mas and Tanah Merah to identify the vector responsible for the virus transmission.
  13. Ping FW, Keong CC, Bandyopadhyay A
    Indian J Med Res, 2011 Jan;133:96-102.
    PMID: 21321426
    Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. Chronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up.
  14. Noor Afizah A, Roziah A, Nazni WA, Lee HL
    Indian J Med Res, 2015 Aug;142(2):205-10.
    PMID: 26354218 DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.164259
    Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a mean to augment the existing measures for controlling dengue vector. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia in novel vector control strategies, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. Many studies have only focused on the prevalence of Wolbachia in female Aedes albopictus with lack of attention on Wolbachia infection on the male Ae. albopictus which also affects the effective expression of Wolbachia induced- cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in female and male Ae. albopictus from various habitats including housing areas, islands and seashore.
  15. Ramzi NH, Chahil JK, Lye SH, Munretnam K, Sahadevappa KI, Velapasamy S, et al.
    Indian J Med Res, 2014 Jun;139(6):873-82.
    PMID: 25109722
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is second only to breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. In the Asia-Pacific area, it is the highest emerging gastrointestinal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and environmental factors associated with CRC risk in Malaysia from a panel of cancer associated SNPs.
  16. Eslami S, Esa NM, Marandi SM, Ghasemi G, Eslami S
    Indian J Med Res, 2014 Jun;139(6):857-63.
    PMID: 25109720
    Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males.
  17. Al Joudi FS
    Indian J Med Res, 2014 May;139(5):675-85.
    PMID: 25027076
    Human mammaglobin is a member of the uteroglobin proteins family that has recently been tested as a specific marker for breast cancer. While low levels may be seen in normal breast tissue, expression is increased dramatically in breast cancer and is correlated with higher grade. Detection in blood and body fluids is also correlated with cancer metastasis, and its levels with prognosis. This promises to be a useful screen for early detection of breast cancer, especially in high risk individuals. Mammoglobin has also been used for immunotherapeutic targeting of breast cancer cells. However, there are some controversies regarding its diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value, which warrant further study.
  18. Riazi M, Zainul FZ, Bahaman AR, Amran F, Khalilpour A
    Indian J Med Res, 2014 Feb;139(2):308-13.
    PMID: 24718408
    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease and a public health problem, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. Varied clinical manifestations of the disease frequently lead to misdiagnosis resulting in life-threatening multi-organ complications. Therefore, early laboratory investigation using an appropriate diagnostic approach is crucial. In the present study, a potential protein marker was identified and evaluated for its usefulness in the serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis.
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