Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Mostyn B
    Int J Drug Policy, 2021 Feb 21.
    PMID: 33627303 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103167
    BACKGROUND: Research into capital punishment has focussed on the length of time it will take to abolish. It will take decades or centuries. A key moment in the movement to abolish the death penalty was the 1980s when the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR was developed. This was also the decade that the last significant changes were made to the United Nations drug conventions. At the time, awareness of the issue of capital punishment for drug offences was increasing around the world as more people were getting executed. This article looks at how western countries and the United Nations responded to Malaysia which introduced the mandatory death penalty for drug offences in 1982.

    METHODS: Over 30,000 pages of documents have been accessed through the National Archives of Australia in Canberra. These have been photographed, scanned and converted to OCR. The most relevant folders have then been analysed through NVivo 12 to look for relevant mentions of the research question: capital punishment and Malaysia. All probative data is then presented in the article.

    RESULTS: The data from National Archives suggests that the UN, Australia, and other western countries were happy to continue supporting Malaysia's drug policy and to elect it to high positions at UN meetings despite their public proclamations that they were opposed to the death penalty.

    CONCLUSION: Applying a critical juncture approach, the article concludes that the 1980s was a critical juncture in the movement to abolish the death penalty but abolitionist countries allowed capital punishment to continue for drug offences. This may have set back the abolition movement by decades.

  2. Zelenev A, Long E, Bazazi AR, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J Drug Policy, 2016 11;37:98-106.
    PMID: 27639995 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.08.008
    BACKGROUND: HIV is primarily concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia, where currently HIV prevention and treatment coverage is inadequate. To improve the targeting of interventions, we examined HIV clustering and the role that social networks and geographical distance play in influencing HIV transmission among PWID.

    METHODS: Data were derived from a respondent-driven survey sample (RDS) collected during 2010 of 460 PWID in greater Kuala Lumpur. Analysis focused on socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural, and network information. Spatial probit models were developed based on a distinction between the influence of peers (individuals nominated through a recruitment network) and neighbours (residing a close distance to the individual). The models were expanded to account for the potential influence of the network formation.

    RESULTS: Recruitment patterns of HIV-infected PWID clustered both spatially and across the recruitment networks. In addition, HIV-infected PWID were more likely to have peers and neighbours who inject with clean needles were HIV-infected and lived nearby (<5km), more likely to have been previously incarcerated, less likely to use clean needles (26.8% vs 53.0% of the reported injections, p<0.01), and have fewer recent injection partners (2.4 vs 5.4, p<0.01). The association between the HIV status of peers and neighbours remained significantly correlated even after controlling for unobserved variation related to network formation and sero-sorting.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between HIV status across networks and space in Kuala Lumpur underscores the importance of these factors for surveillance and prevention strategies, and this needs to be more closely integrated. RDS can be applied to identify injection network structures, and this provides an important mechanism for improving public health surveillance, accessing high-risk populations, and implementing risk-reduction interventions to slow HIV transmission.

  3. Mukherjee TI, Pillai V, Ali SH, Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A, Wickersham JA
    Int J Drug Policy, 2017 09;47:144-152.
    PMID: 28652072 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.05.041
    BACKGROUND: Approximately 40%-90% of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia have hepatitis C (HCV). PWID continue to be disproportionately affected by HCV due to their lack of knowledge, perceived risk and interest in HCV treatment. Education interventions may be an effective strategy for increasing HCV knowledge in PWID, and harm reduction services are uniquely positioned to implement and deploy such interventions.

    METHODS: We recruited 176 clients from methadone maintenance treatment (MMT: N=110) and needle/syringe programs (NSP: N=66) between November 2015 and August 2016. After baseline knowledge assessments, clients participated in a standardized, 45-min HCV education program and completed post-intervention knowledge assessments to measure change in knowledge and treatment interest.

    RESULTS: Participants were mostly male (96.3%), Malay (94.9%), and in their early 40s (mean=42.6years). Following the intervention, overall knowledge scores and treatment interest in MMT clients increased by 68% and 16%, respectively (p<0.001). In contrast, NSP clients showed no significant improvement in overall knowledge or treatment interest, and perceived greater treatment barriers. Multivariate linear regression to assess correlates of HCV knowledge post-intervention revealed that optimal dosage of MMT and having had an HIV test in the past year significantly increased HCV knowledge. Having received a hepatitis B vaccine, however, was not associated with increased HCV knowledge after participating in an education session.

    CONCLUSION: Generally, HCV knowledge and screening is low among clients engaged in MMT and NSP services in Malaysia. Integrating a brief, but comprehensive HCV education session within harm reduction services may be a low-cost and effective strategy in improving overall HCV knowledge and risk behaviors in resource-limited settings. In order to be an effective public health approach, however, education interventions must be paired with strategies that improve social, economic and political outcomes for PWID. Doing so may reduce HCV disparities by increasing screening and treatment interest.

  4. Madden L, Bojko MJ, Farnum S, Mazhnaya A, Fomenko T, Marcus R, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2017 11;49:48-53.
    PMID: 28957756 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.025
    BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) like methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment remain markedly under-scaled in Ukraine despite adequate funding. Clinicians and administrators were assembled as part of an implementation science strategy to scale-up OAT using the Network for Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) approach.

    METHODS: Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a key ingredient of the NIATx toolkit, was directed by three trained coaches within a learning collaborative of 18 OAT clinicians and administrators to identify barriers to increase OAT capacity at the regional "oblast" level, develop solutions, and prioritize local change projects. NGT findings were supplemented from detailed notes collected during the NGT discussion.

    RESULTS: The top three identified barriers included: (1) Strict regulations and inflexible policies dictating distribution and dispensing of OAT; (2) No systematic approach to assessing OAT needs on regional or local level; and (3) Limited funding and financing mechanisms combined with a lack of local/regional control over funding for OAT treatment services.

    CONCLUSIONS: NGT provides a rapid strategy for individuals at multiple levels to work collaboratively to identify and address structural barriers to OAT scale-up. This technique creates a transparent process to address and prioritize complex issues. Targeting these priorities allowed leaders at the regional and national level to advocate collectively for approaches to minimize obstacles and create policies to improve OAT services.

  5. Lim SH, Akbar M, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J Drug Policy, 2018 05;55:256-262.
    PMID: 29605540 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.02.019
    BACKGROUND: The intentional use of illicit drugs for sexual purposes (also known as 'chemsex') is well known within the MSM communities in Malaysia although research in this population is scarce primarily because both drug use and homosexuality are illegal and stigmatised in Malaysia.

    METHODS: From April to December 2014, interviews were conducted with twenty men (age range 21-43) living in Greater Kuala Lumpur who had sexual intercourse with other men in the past 6 months and who used illicit drugs at least monthly in the past 3 months. Fourteen men were recruited via gay social networking smartphone applications or websites while six were referred by the participants. Data were analsed using thematic analytic approach.

    FINDINGS: The average duration of illicit drug use was 6.4 years (range 1-21) and all participants were using methamphetamine ("ice" or crystal meth) with frequency of use ranged from daily to once a month. Participants came from diverse ethnic, economic, and occupational backgrounds. Most participants used an inhalation apparatus ("bong") to consume methamphetamine and injection was rare in the sample. The primary motivation of methamphetamine use was to increase sexual capacity, heighten sexual pleasure and enhance sexual exploration and adventurism. Socializing with friends ("chilling"), and increased energy for work were secondary motivations. Participants emphasized the need to control the use of methamphetamine and some have established rules to control the amount and duration of use and a minority of men have maintained condom use during anal sex while under the influence of methamphetamine. Participants who professed to be in control of their drug use characterized themselves as functional users regardless of the health and social consequences from continuing use. Overall, participants perceived themselves differently from the traditional opioid users and reported limited access to sexual health and substance use treatment services.

    CONCLUSION: There is a need to increase access to HIV prevention services such as PrEP and PEP, professional support, and substance abuse treatment for drug-using MSM. A more open and friendly environment towards drug-using MSM may help them access and engage with the health services.

  6. Iakunchykova O, Meteliuk A, Zelenev A, Mazhnaya A, Tracy M, Altice FL
    Int J Drug Policy, 2018 07;57:11-17.
    PMID: 29655101 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.03.022
    BACKGROUND: Among the estimated 340,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine, HCV prevalence is approximately 70%. As HCV treatment availability increases, an assessment of the HCV treatment cascade is needed to guide HCV prevention and treatment strategies.

    METHODS: Opioid dependent PWID were interviewed and tested for HIV and HCV in five Ukrainian cities from January 2014 to March 2015. Logistic regression was used to examine the independent correlates of two cascade steps: a) anti-HCV positive status awareness; b) chronic HCV confirmation; and of c) annual HCV testing for PWID.

    RESULTS: Among 1613 PWID, 1002 (62.1%) had anti-HCV positive test result, of which 568 (56.7%) were aware of it before the study and 346 (34.5%) reported previous confirmatory testing for chronic HCV. Independent correlates of being aware they had anti-HCV positivity included: current [AOR: 3.08; 95%CI: 2.16-4.40] or prior [AOR: 1.85; 95%CI: 1.27-2.68] opioid agonistic treatment (OAT) experience, relative to no prior OAT, living in Lviv [AOR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.31-0.81] or Odesa [AOR: 2.73; 95%CI: 1.51-4.93] relative to Kyiv and being aware of having HIV [AOR: 4.10; 95%CI: 2.99-5.62]. Independent correlates of confirming HCV infection among those who were aware of their anti-HCV positive status included: current OAT [AOR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.24-3.23], relative to prior OAT, the middle income category [AOR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.15-2.63], relative to the lowest, and receiving ART [AOR: 4.54; 95%CI: 2.85-7.23]. Among 1613 PWID, 918 (56.9%) were either HCV negative or not aware of their HCV positive status, of which 198 (21.6%) reported recent anti-HCV test (during last 12 month). Recent anti-HCV test in this group was associated with current [AOR: 7.17; 95%CI: 4.63-11.13] or prior [AOR: 2.24; 95%CI: 1.32-3.81] OAT experience, relative to no prior OAT.

    CONCLUSION: Encouraging PWID to participate in OAT may be an effective strategy to diagnose and link PWID who are HCV positive to care. Among HIV negative participants, regular HCV testing may be ensured by participation in OAT. More studies are needed to assess HCV treatment utilization among PWID in Ukraine and OAT as a possible way to retain them in treatment.

  7. Lunze K, Lermet O, Andreeva V, Hariga F
    Int J Drug Policy, 2018 09;59:10-15.
    PMID: 29966803 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.06.009
    BACKGROUND: Several Southeast Asian countries have implemented compulsory drug detention centres in which people who use or are suspected of using drugs, mainly amphetamine-type stimulants, are confined without their consent and in most cases without due process and clinical evaluation of their substance use disorder. Given these facilities' lack of access to evidence-based drug dependence treatment, and the human rights implications of peoples' arbitrary detention under the pretext of "treatment", international organizations have called for their closure. The aim of this study was to estimate recent numbers of compulsory drug treatment centres and of people in these centres in the region.

    METHODS: We conducted an analysis of cross-sectional governmental data collected from seven countries in the region with compulsory drug detention centres, namely Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. We computed descriptive data provided by government representatives for the period between 2012 and 2014.

    RESULTS: The total number of people in compulsory detention centres overall decreased by only 4% between 2012 and 2014. In 2014, over 450,000 people were detained in 948 facilities in the seven countries. While only two countries decreased the number of compulsory detention centres, most countries increased the number of people detained.

    CONCLUSIONS: In spite of international calls for the closure of compulsory detention centres, the number of facilities and detained people remained high in the seven countries included in the analysis. These officially reported figures are concerning regarding access to effective drug dependence treatment and given the potential for additional human rights abuses within compulsory detention centers. Further concerted policy and advocacy efforts should support transition of treatment for people with drug dependence towards human rights-based and evidence-based drug dependence treatment. Expansion of existing drug and HIV services in the community rather than compulsory treatment modalities will effectively address the region's drug and HIV burden.

  8. Narayanan S, Vicknasingam B, Robson NM
    Int J Drug Policy, 2011 Jul;22(4):311-7.
    PMID: 21300533 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2011.01.002
    The transition of drug policy from prohibition to harm reduction has never been easy. The deeply entrenched belief in prohibition shared by policy makers and religious leaders provided little room for alternatives, and change came only slowly. The non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Malaysia played a pivotal role in effecting such a change. Understanding how they did so may be instructive for other similarly placed countries.
  9. Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S, Beng GT, Mansor SM
    Int J Drug Policy, 2010 Jul;21(4):283-8.
    PMID: 20092998 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.12.003
    BACKGROUND: Ketum (krathom) has been mentioned in the literature as a traditional alternative to manage drug withdrawal symptoms though there are no studies indicating its widespread use for this purpose. This study examines the reasons for ketum consumption in the northern areas of peninsular Malaysia where it is widely used.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 136 active users was conducted in the northern states of Kedah and Penang in Malaysia. On-site urine screening was done for other substance use.
    FINDINGS: Ketum users were relatively older (mean 38.7 years) than the larger substance using group. Nearly 77% (104 subjects) had previous drug use history, whilst urine screening confirmed 62 subjects were also using other substances. Longer-term users (use >2 years) had higher odds of being married, of consuming more than the average three glasses of ketum a day and reporting better appetite. Short-term users had higher odds of having ever used heroin, testing positive for heroin and of using ketum to reduce addiction to other drugs. Both groups used ketum to reduce their intake of more expensive opiates, to manage withdrawal symptoms and because it was cheaper than heroin. These findings differ from those in neighbouring Thailand where ketum was used primarily to increase physical endurance.
    CONCLUSIONS: No previous study has shown the use of ketum to manage opioid withdrawal symptoms except for a single case reported in the US. Ketum was described as affordable, easily available and having no serious side effects despite prolonged use. It also permitted self-treatment that avoids stigmatisation as a drug dependent. The claims of so many subjects on the benefits of ketum merits serious scientific investigation. If prolonged use is safe, the potential for widening the scope and reach of substitution therapy and lowering its cost are tremendous, particularly in developing countries.
  10. Kamarulzaman A, Saifuddeen SM
    Int J Drug Policy, 2010 Mar;21(2):115-8.
    PMID: 20006483 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.11.003
    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed.
  11. Vicknasingam B, Navaratnam V
    Int J Drug Policy, 2008 Feb;19(1):90-3.
    PMID: 18312823 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.004
    The study explores how data collated from rapid assessment can enhance those produced by national level surveillance systems, in this case the national drug information (NADI) system in Malaysia. Qualitative data were collected in keeping with internationally accepted guidance on rapid assessment methods in the field of substance use. An inductive research strategy was employed. The rapid assessment produced multiple data on local drug use practices and how these were influenced by the contexts of use. The assessment points to the importance of collecting data not only on patterns of drug use but also on the health and social consequences of drug use. We suggest that the current national drug information system places greater emphasis on behavioural and health-related variables in order to better understand the potential relationships between drug use and health-related risk, including HIV/AIDS.
  12. Reid G, Kamarulzaman A, Sran SK
    Int J Drug Policy, 2007 Mar;18(2):136-40.
    PMID: 17689356
    In Malaysia the response to illicit drug use has been largely punitive with the current goal of the Malaysian government being to achieve a drug-free society by 2015. This paper outlines the results of a desk-based situation assessment conducted over a 3-week period in 2004. Additional events, examined in 2005, were also included to describe more recent policy developments and examine how these came about. Despite punitive drug policy there has been a substantial rise in the number of drug users in the country. Over two-thirds of HIV/AIDS cases are among injecting drug users (IDUs) and there has been an exponential rise in the number of cases reported. Further, data suggest high risk drug use practices are widespread. Harm reduction initiatives have only recently been introduced in Malaysia. The successful piloting of substitution therapies, in particular methadone and buprenorphine, is cause for genuine hope for the rapid development of such interventions. In 2005 the government announced it will allow methadone maintenance programmes to operate beyond the pilot phase and needle and syringe exchange programmes will be established to serve the needs of IDUs.
  13. Azbel L, Polonsky M, Wegman M, Shumskaya N, Kurmanalieva A, Asanov A, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2016 11;37:9-20.
    PMID: 27455177 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.06.007
    BACKGROUND: Central Asia is afflicted with increasing HIV incidence, low antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage and increasing AIDS mortality, driven primarily by people who inject drugs (PWID). Reliable data about HIV, other infectious diseases, and substance use disorders in prisoners in this region is lacking and could provide important insights into how to improve HIV prevention and treatment efforts in the region.

    METHODS: A randomly sampled, nationwide biobehavioural health survey was conducted in 8 prisons in Kyrgyzstan among all soon-to-be-released prisoners; women were oversampled. Consented participants underwent computer-assisted, standardized behavioural health assessment surveys and testing for HIV, HCV, HBV, and syphilis. Prevalence and means were computed, and generalized linear modelling was conducted, with all analyses using weights to account for disproportionate sampling by strata.

    RESULTS: Among 381 prisoners who underwent consent procedures, 368 (96.6%) were enrolled in the study. Women were significantly older than men (40.6 vs. 36.5; p=0.004). Weighted prevalence (%), with confidence interval (CI), for each infection was high: HCV (49.7%; CI: 44.8-54.6%), syphilis (19.2%; CI: 15.1-23.5%), HIV (10.3%; CI: 6.9-13.8%), and HBV (6.2%; CI: 3.6-8.9%). Among the 31 people with HIV, 46.5% were aware of being HIV-infected. Men, compared to women, were significantly more likely to have injected drugs (38.3% vs.16.0%; p=0.001). Pre-incarceration and within-prison drug injection, primarily of opioids, was 35.4% and 30.8%, respectively. Independent correlates of HIV infection included lifetime drug injection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=38.75; p=0.001), mean number of years injecting (AOR=0.93; p=0.018), mean number of days experiencing drug problems (AOR=1.09; p=0.025), increasing duration of imprisonment (AOR=1.08; p=0.02 for each year) and having syphilis (AOR=3.51; p=0.003), while being female (AOR=3.06; p=0.004) and being a recidivist offender (AOR=2.67; p=0.008) were independently correlated with syphilis infection.

    CONCLUSION: Drug injection, syphilis co-infection, and exposure to increased risk during incarceration are likely to be important contributors to HIV transmission among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan. Compared to the community, HIV is concentrated 34-fold higher in prisoners. A high proportion of undiagnosed syphilis and HIV infections presents a significant gap in the HIV care continuum. Findings highlight the critical importance of evidence-based responses within prison, including enhanced testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections, to stem the evolving HIV epidemic in the region.

  14. Kamarulzaman A, McBrayer JL
    Int J Drug Policy, 2015 Feb;26 Suppl 1:S33-7.
    PMID: 25727259 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.11.011
    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries.
  15. Ghani MA, Brown SE, Khan F, Wickersham JA, Lim SH, Dhaliwal SK, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2015 Feb;26(2):175-82.
    PMID: 25577322 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.10.002
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) hold suspected drug users for two years without adjudication. Acute detoxification without healthcare access has been documented. CDDCs are criticized globally due to ineffectiveness in treating addiction and human rights violations. In response, the Malaysian government began transitioning these facilities into voluntary drug treatment centres known as "Cure and Care" (C&C) centres that embrace a holistic treatment-based approach to drug addiction rehabilitation.

    METHODS: An explorative qualitative study was undertaken to explore patient perspectives and satisfaction regarding treatment and services at the new Cure and Care centre in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. A convenience sample of 20 patients was recruited to participate in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Content analysis was used to identify the salient themes.

    RESULTS: Patients identified methadone treatment, psychosocial programs, religious instruction, and recreational activities as important factors contributing to treatment success for addressing both health and addiction needs. Though many had previously been in a CDDC, adherence to treatment in the C&C centre was perceived to be facilitated by the degree of social support, the voluntary nature and the array of new programs available for selection.

    CONCLUSION: C&Cs represents a dramatic shift in the Malaysian government's approach to drug addiction. Our findings demonstrate positive patient experiences associated with the holistic treatment-based approach of these centres. This exploratory study provides additional evidence to document this ongoing policy transition and may guide continued expansion of new holistic drug treatment programs across the country.

  16. Bazazi AR, Zelenev A, Fu JJ, Yee I, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J Drug Policy, 2015 Jul;26(7):675-81.
    PMID: 25532449 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.11.010
    Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia.
  17. Rashid RA, Kamali K, Habil MH, Shaharom MH, Seghatoleslam T, Looyeh MY
    Int J Drug Policy, 2014 Nov;25(6):1071-5.
    PMID: 25107831 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.07.003
    BACKGROUND: This paper describes the rationale, implementation and operation of a "world first" Islamic inspired methadone maintenance treatment project delivered in a mosque setting and presents the outcome for the first group of participants. The project explored the viability of expanding addiction recovery services through the network of mosques in Muslim communities.
    METHODS: The project combined methadone maintenance with peer and religious counseling. Participants consisted of 36 male Muslim heroin users who went through the project. Urine tests and self-reported measures on various dimensions relevant to drug use and quality of life were collected at baseline and 12 months.
    RESULTS: The project had a 12 month retention rate of 80%. At 12 months all but one participant tested negative for opioids and other substances. Self-report measures showed significant reductions in the degree and variety of drug use, improvements in general health, and psychological and social functioning of participants. Qualitative data showed that availability of methadone, convenient location and religion were the main reasons drawing participants to the program.
    CONCLUSIONS: Mosques are viable venues for offering medication assisted recovery services and offer an alternative approach for managing addiction in Muslim communities. The prospect of mobilizing community resources to offer community-oriented long-term recovery management programs in mosques and other places of worship deserves consideration.
    KEYWORDS: Islamic intervention; MMT in mosque; Malaysia; Methadone maintenance
  18. West BS, Choo M, El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Wu E, Kamarulzaman A
    Int J Drug Policy, 2014 May;25(3):575-82.
    PMID: 24332971 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.11.007
    HIV prevalence among Malaysian fishermen is ten times that of the general population. Fishing boats are a key place where drug use occurs, but we know little about how these environments shape HIV risk behaviour. Utilizing Rhodes' 'risk environment' framework, we assessed drug use contexts and how characteristics of place associated with fishing and fishermen's social networks served as key axes along which drug use and HIV risk behaviour occurred.
  19. Degenhardt L, Mathers BM, Wirtz AL, Wolfe D, Kamarulzaman A, Carrieri MP, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2014 Jan;25(1):53-60.
    PMID: 24113623 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.08.004
    In 2010 the international HIV/AIDS community called on countries to take action to prevent HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). To set a baseline we proposed an "accountability matrix", focusing upon six countries accounting for half of the global population of PWID: China, Malaysia, Russia, Ukraine, Vietnam and the USA. Two years on, we review progress.
  20. Tan RKJ, Wong CM, Chen MI, Chan YY, Bin Ibrahim MA, Lim OZ, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2018 11;61:31-37.
    PMID: 30388567 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.10.002
    BACKGROUND: Sexualised substance use, or 'chemsex' has been shown to be a major factor driving the syndemic of HIV/AIDS in communities of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) around the world. However, there is a paucity of research on chemsex among GBMSM in Singapore due to punitive drug laws and the criminalisation of sexual behaviour between men. This qualitative descriptive study is the first to explore perceptions towards, motivators to engaging in, and the barriers to addressing the harms associated with chemsex among GBMSM in Singapore.

    METHODS: We conducted 30 semi-structured in-depth interviews with self-identifying GBMSM between the ages of 18-39 in Singapore following a purposive sampling strategy. Interview topics included participants' perceptions of drug use among GBMSM in Singapore, perceptions towards chemsex, reasons for drug use and chemsex, and recommendations to address the harms associated with chemsex in Singapore. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analysed using thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Participants reported that it was common to encounter chemsex among GBMSM in Singapore as it could be easily accessed or initiated using social networking phone apps. Enhancement and prolongation of sexual experiences, fear of rejection from sexual partners and peers, and its use as a means of coping with societal rejection were three main reasons cited for engaging in chemsex. The impact of punitive drug laws on disclosure and stigmatisation of GBMSM who use drugs were reported to be key barriers towards addressing chemsex. Participants suggested using gay-specific commercial venues as avenues for awareness and educational campaigns, and social media to reach out to younger GBMSM.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the complexities behind chemsex use among GBMSM in Singapore, and the range of individual to institutional factors to be addressed. We recommend that community-based organisations and policy-makers find ways to destigmatise discussion of chemsex and provide safe spaces to seek help for drug use.

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