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  1. Jiang L, Bin Abd Razak HR, Chong HC, Tan A
    J Arthroplasty, 2014 Feb;29(2):304-7.
    PMID: 23891052 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2013.06.002
    We aim to compare the patient profile and outcomes after TKA between the different racial groups in Singapore. Prospective data were collected from 364 patients who underwent TKA in Singapore General Hospital from January 2006 to May 2010. Patients were stratified according to ethnicity and we compared their preoperative demographic data, Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Oxford Knee (OKS) as well as Knee Society Scores (KSS). Malays were younger (62.0 ± 5.3) at time of surgery (p=0.05) and the body mass index of Chinese (27.9 ± 4.7) was lower than Malay (30.4 ± 5.0) and Indian (31.5 ± 4.5) patients (P<0.005). Malay (40.3 ± 11.0) and Indian (39.2 ± 9.3) patients had less favourable preoperative OKS than Chinese (35.9 ± 7.8) patients (P<0.05). All 3 ethnic groups achieved statistically significant improvements in outcome measures but did not differ significantly between the ethnicities.
  2. Deshmukh RG, Thevarajan K, Kok CS, Sivapathasundaram N, George SV
    J Arthroplasty, 1998 Feb;13(2):197-9.
    PMID: 9526214
    Revision arthroplasty of the hip is often complicated by infection, bone loss, and perioperative fracture of the femur. A simple, inexpensive spacer that keeps tissue planes intact and prevents soft tissue contracture during the interoperative period of a 2-stage revision is described. This can provide intramedullary support to a fractured or weak femur and enable local antibiotic delivery, as well as permit limited mobilization of the patient. It can be easily fabricated during surgery using universally available materials and can be tailored for specific requirements. Such a spacer was used in 5 cases. The experience is presented, and the technique and pitfalls are discussed.
  3. Abbas AA, Kim YJ, Song EK, Yoon TR
    J Arthroplasty, 2009 Oct;24(7):1144.e5-8.
    PMID: 18848418 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2008.09.008
    The causes of groin pain after total hip arthroplasty are numerous, and the condition itself is disabling. Therefore, it is imperative that the cause of the pain is identified and managed appropriately. We report a case where the patient had groin pain after total hip arthroplasty as a result of an oversized cementless acetabular component, which caused a breach in the anterior wall of the acetabulum. The anterior wall of the acetabulum was reconstructed with femoral head allograft, and the patient has been symptom free since.
  4. Tai CC, Nam HY, Abbas AA, Merican AM, Choon SK
    J Arthroplasty, 2009 Dec;24(8):1200-4.
    PMID: 19682839 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2009.07.001
    We carried out a prospective study of 47 Exeter (Stryker Inc, Warsaw, Ind) small stem total hip arthroplasty in 42 patients with an average age of 58 years and a mean follow-up of 8.5 years. The Oxford hip score improved from a preoperative mean of 47 to 17 at last follow-up. More than 87% patients had excellent or good Harris hip scores, and 90% were able to walk with little or no pain. Stem subsidence within the cement mantle was observed in 26% of cases, and none showed evidence of aseptic loosening or implant failure. Two stems were removed due to infection. The survival rate of this implant was 95.7% at 10 years. This first series of Exeter small stem showed excellent medium-term results, comparable to its larger counterparts.
  5. Merican AM, Randle R
    J Arthroplasty, 2006 Sep;21(6):846-51.
    PMID: 16950037
    The Fitmore titanium mesh cementless acetabular component in 115 hip arthroplasties was reviewed at an average of 33 months of follow-up. None were revised nor had infection. One hip dislocated 4 years postoperatively. Two femoral components were revised. The average Harris Hip Score at the last follow-up was 90 points. In the 96 sets of radiographs available, there was no loosening or new radiolucency. One hip had nonprogressive osteolysis adjacent to a screw. This press-fit cup has its polar region flattened and is rim loading. Noncontact (gaps) at the acetabular floor is expected and is not critical for fixation. In all but 6 hips, these gaps filled. In 5 hips, a minimal gap (
  6. Park KS, Seon JK, Lee KB, Kim SK, Chan CK, Yoon TR
    J Arthroplasty, 2017 02;32(2):503-509.
    PMID: 27546473 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2016.07.010
    BACKGROUND: This study aims at determining the average long-term result of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) using the acetabular reinforcement ring with a hook (ARRH) and bone grafting in severe acetabular bony defect. Expected 15-year survival of ARRH in revision THA is included in the study.

    METHODS: Retrospective review of 48 patients (48 hips) with follow-up duration of average 11.4 years (range, 6.1-21.4 years) was conducted. At each follow-up, Harris hip score was used to assess functional outcome, and radiographic acetabular component osteolysis was measured by DeLee and Charnley classification. Bone defects were assessed preoperatively and intraoperatively using American academy of orthopedic surgeons and Paprosky classification. The common modes of ARRH failures were evaluated. Bone consolidation, presence of heterotopic ossification, and complications such as infection and dislocation were recorded.

    RESULTS: The bone defects were varied and included cavitary, segmental, and combined defects without any pelvic discontinuity. Mean Harris hip score improved from 52.6 points preoperatively to 82.0 points postoperatively. Nine acetabular revisions and 3 stem revisions (2 concurrent with acetabular revisions and 1 isolated stem revision) were performed. There were 5 infected cases and 1 patient with recurrent dislocation. The 11.4-year survival of revision THA with ARRH was 71% as the end point for acetabular revision surgery for any reason. The expected 15-year survival of revision THA with ARRH was 60%. The most common failure mode of ARRH was superomedial migration followed by lateral migration.

    CONCLUSION: ARRH combined with bone grafting produces relatively good average long-term clinical results.

  7. Siong FT, Kim TW, Kim SC, Lee ES, Jaffar MSA, Lee YS
    J Arthroplasty, 2020 02;35(2):380-387.
    PMID: 31587980 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.09.005
    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) describe our functional stepwise multiple needle puncturing (MNP) technique as the final step in medial ligament balancing during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and (2) evaluate whether this technique can provide sufficient medial release with safety.

    METHODS: A total of 137 patients with 212 consecutive knees who underwent TKAs with or without functional stepwise MNP of superficial medial collateral ligament was recruited in this prospective cohort. Eighty-one patients with 129 knees who performed serial stress radiographs were enrolled in the final assessment. Superficial medial collateral ligament was punctured selectively (anteriorly or posteriorly or both) and sequentially depending on the site and degree of tightness. Mediolateral stability was assessed using serial stress radiographs and comparison was performed between the MNP and the non-MNP groups at postoperative 6 months and 1 year. Clinical outcomes were also evaluated between 2 groups.

    RESULTS: Fifty-five TKAs required additional stepwise MNP (anterior needling 19, posterior needling 3, both anterior and posterior needling 33). Preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle and the difference in varus-valgus stress angle showed significant difference between the MNP and the non-MNP groups, respectively (P = .009, P = .037). However, there was no significant difference when comparing the varus-valgus stress angle between the MNP and the non-MNP groups during serial assessment. Clinical outcomes including range of motion also showed no significant differences between the 2 groups.

    CONCLUSION: Functional medial ligament balancing with stepwise MNP can provide sufficient medial release with safety in TKA with varus aligned knee without clinical deterioration or complication such as instability.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prospective cohort study.

  8. Ho JPY, Merican AM, Hashim MS, Abbas AA, Chan CK, Mohamad JA
    J Arthroplasty, 2017 10;32(10):3176-3183.
    PMID: 28579444 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2017.04.060
    BACKGROUND: The posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important consideration in knee arthroplasty. However, there is still no consensus for the optimal slope. The objectives of this study were (1) to reliably determine the native PTS in this population using 3-dimensional computed tomography scans and (2) to determine the normal reference range for PTS in this population.

    METHODS: One hundred computed tomography scans of disease-free knees were analyzed. A 3-dimensional reconstructed image of the tibia was generated and aligned to its anatomic axis in the coronal and sagittal planes. The tibia was then rotationally aligned to the tibial plateau (tibial centroid axis) and PTS was measured from best-fit planes on the surface of the proximal tibia and individually for the medial and lateral plateaus. This was then repeated with the tibia rotationally aligned to the ankle (transmalleolar axis).

    RESULTS: When rotationally aligned to the tibial plateau, the mean PTS, medial PTS, and lateral PTS were 11.2° ± 3.0 (range, 4.7°-17.7°), 11.3° ± 3.2 (range, 2.7°-19.7°), and 10.9° ± 3.7 (range, 3.5°-19.4°), respectively. When rotationally aligned to the ankle, the mean PTS, medial PTS, and lateral PTS were 11.4° ± 3.0 (range, 5.3°-19.3°), 13.9° ± 3.7 (range, 3.1°-24.4°), and 9.7° ± 3.6 (range, 0.8°-17.7°), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The PTS in the normal Asian knee is on average 11° (mean) with a reference range of 5°-17° (mean ± 2 standard deviation). This has implications to surgery and implant design.

  9. Ng CK, Chen JY, Yeh JZY, Ho JPY, Merican AM, Yeo SJ
    J Arthroplasty, 2018 06;33(6):1936-1944.
    PMID: 29395720 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2017.12.025
    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that there is a correlation between the distal femoral rotation and proximal tibial joint line obliquity in nonarthritic knees. This has significance for kinematic knee arthroplasty, in which the target knee alignment desired approximates the knee before disease.

    METHODS: Fifty computed tomography scans of nonarthritic knees were evaluated using three-dimensional image processing software. Four distal femoral rotational axes were determined in the axial plane: the transepicondylar axis (TEA), transcondylar axis (TCA), posterior condylar axis (PCA), and a line perpendicular to Whiteside's anterior-posterior axis. Then, angles were measured relative to the TEA. Tibial joint line obliquity was measured as the angle between the proximal tibial plane and a line perpendicular to the axis of the tibia.

    RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between PCA-TEA and tibial joint line obliquity (r = 0.68, P < .001) as well as TCA-TEA and tibial joint line obliquity (r = 0.69, P < .001). In addition, the tibial joint line obliquity and TCA-TEA angles were similar, 3.7° ± 2.2° (mean ± standard deviation) and 3.5° ± 1.7°, respectively (mean difference, 0.2° ± 0.2°; P = .369).

    CONCLUSION: Both PCA-TEA and TCA-TEA strongly correlated with proximal tibial joint line obliquity indicating a relationship between distal femoral rotational geometry and proximal tibial inclination. These findings could imply that the native knee in flexion attempts to balance the collateral ligaments toward a rectangular flexion space. A higher tibial varus inclination is matched with a more internally rotated distal femur relative to the TEA.

  10. Fong TS, Kim SC, Kim JE, Lee ES, Kim TW, Lee YS
    J Arthroplasty, 2019 09;34(9):1929-1937.
    PMID: 31138501 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.04.061
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the morphometry of resected femurs in Korean patients during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and comparing these measurements with current Western-designed femoral component dimensions.

    METHODS: This single-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled trial involved intraoperative measurements for 271 femoral component implantations from 3 contemporary TKA systems, with 2 systems offering narrow sizing options. The difference between femoral component dimensions and the resected surface of distal femur was measured in millimeters at 5 distinct zones.

    RESULTS: Overhang of standard femoral component was common in the anterior-medial condyle and anterior-lateral condyle ranging from 50.8% to 99.0% and 21.5% to 88.0%, respectively. With narrow femoral components, the rate of overhang reduced to 21.5%-30.2% and 9.2%-32.1%. Conversely, underhang rates were higher over the anterior flange width, middle medial-lateral and posterior medial-lateral zones. Standard components displayed higher underhang rates at these zones compared to narrow components. The good fit rate for femoral component was low among the 3 systems ranging from 1.0% to 56.0%. System with narrow option sizing increases the underhang rates in males, while improving the component fit among females at similar zones with rate ranging from 5.2% to 52.9%.

    CONCLUSION: Currently available TKA implant designs may not provide a perfect match for the distal femoral shape of the Korean population. The availability of implants with standard and narrow options can substantially improve the optimal fitting of femoral components in the Korean population.

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