Anatomical descriptions of the lateral retinaculum have been published, but the attachments, name or even existence of its tissue bands and layers are ill-defined. We have examined 35 specimens of the knee. The deep fascia is the most superficial layer and the joint capsule is the deepest. The intermediate layer is the most substantial and consists of derivatives of the iliotibial band and the quadriceps aponeurosis. The longitudinal fibres of the iliotibial band merge with those of the quadriceps aponeurosis adjacent to the patella. These longitudinal fibres are reinforced by superficial arciform fibres and on the deep aspect by transverse fibres of the iliotibial band. The latter are dense and provide attachment of the iliotibial band to the patella and the tendon of vastus lateralis obliquus. Our study identifies two important new findings which are a constant connection of the deep fascia to the quadriceps tendon superior and lateral to the patella, and, a connection of the deeper transverse fibres to the tendon of vastus lateralis obliquus.
Ovine articular chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsy and culture expanded in vitro. Approximately 30 million cells per ml of cultured chondrocytes were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form a three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in the lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted with either an autologous 'chondrocyte-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blanks (AF) as controls. Animals were killed after 12 weeks. The gross appearance of the treated defects was inspected and photographed. The repaired tissues were studied histologically and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. All defects were assessed using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. Those treated with ACFC, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly-normal appearance. On the basis of the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale, ACFC implantation significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF. Using scanning electron microscopy, ACFC and ACI showed characteristic organisation of chondrocytes and matrices, which were relatively similar to the surrounding adjacent cartilage. Implantation of ACFC resulted in superior hyaline-like cartilage regeneration when compared with ACI. If this result is applicable to humans, a better outcome would be obtained than by using conventional ACI.
We carried out a prospective study of 118 hydroxyapatite-coated, cementless total knee replacements in patients who were = 55 years of age and who had primary (92; 78%) or post-traumatic (26; 22%) osteoarthritis. The mean period of follow-up was 7.9 years (5 to 12.5). The Knee Society clinical scores improved from a pre-operative mean of 98 (0 to 137) to a mean of 185 (135 to 200) at five years, and 173 (137 to 200) at ten years. There were two revisions of the tibial component because of aseptic loosening, and one case of polyethylene wear requiring further surgery. There was no osteolysis or progressive radiological loosening of any other component. At 12 years, the overall rate of implant survival was 97.5% (excluding exchange of spacer) and 92.1% (including exchange of spacer). Cementless total knee replacement can achieve excellent long-term results in young, active patients with osteoarthritis. In contrast to total hip replacement, polyethylene wear, osteolysis and loosening of the prosthesis were not major problems for these patients, although it is possible that this observation could change with longer periods of follow-up.
We report a case of vertebral osteochondroma of C1 causing cord compression and myelopathy in a patient with hereditary multiple exostosis. We highlight the importance of early diagnosis and the appropriate surgery in order to obtain a satisfactory outcome.
Postoperative deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is believed to be rare in Asians. We studied 88 consecutive patients in Malaysia who had operations for fracture of the proximal femur or for total hip or knee replacement. No patient had prophylaxis against DVT; bilateral ascending venography was performed between six and ten days after operation. A total of 55 patients (62.5%) showed venographic evidence of DVT. The prevalence was greatest after total knee replacement (76.5%), less after total hip replacement (64.3%) and smallest in the fracture group (50%). One patient developed symptomatic pulmonary embolism. In contrast to other reports from Asia, we found an incidence of postoperative DVT which is similar to that reported in Western populations. This suggests that the present practice of withholding routine prophylaxis against thromboembolism in Asian patients undergoing high-risk orthopaedic procedures should be reconsidered.
Routine examination for spinal deformity as part of a school health screening programme was introduced in Singapore in 1981. The three different ethnic groups included in the study provided figures for the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis in an Asian population. A three-tier system of examination was used and a total of 110744 children in three age groups were studied. In those aged 6 to 7 years the prevalence was 0.12%. The prevalence in those aged 11 to 12 years was 1.7% for girls and 0.4% for boys, a ratio of 3.2 to 1. In girls aged 16 to 17 years the prevalence was 3.1%. In the latter two age groups there was a significantly higher prevalence in Chinese girls as compared with Malay and Indian girls. The optimal age for school screening seemed to be 11 to 12 years, but repeated examinations may be worthwhile.