OBJECTIVE: We evaluated distribution and interactive association of RTI and STI with survival outcomes of OHCA in four Asian metropolitan cities.
METHODS: An OHCA cohort from Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) conducted between January 2009 and December 2011 was analyzed. Adult EMS-treated cardiac arrests with presumed cardiac origin were included. A multivariable logistic regression model with an interaction term was used to evaluate the effect of STI according to different RTI categories on survival outcomes. Risk-adjusted predicted rates of survival outcomes were calculated and compared with observed rate.
RESULTS: A total of 16,974 OHCA cases were analyzed after serial exclusion. Median RTI was 6.0 min (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-8.0 min) and median STI was 12.0 min (IQR 8.0-16.1). The prolonged STI in the longest RTI group was associated with a lower rate of survival to discharge or of survival 30 days after arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.81), as well as a poorer neurologic outcome (aOR 0.63; 95% CI 0.41-0.97) without an increasing chance of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (aOR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88-1.45).
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged STI in OHCA with a delayed response time had a negative association with survival outcomes in four Asian metropolitan cities using the scoop-and-run EMS model. Establishing an optimal STI based on the response time could be considered.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to create and describe a homemade, high-fidelity ultrasound phantom model for demonstrating pneumonia with pleural effusions for teaching purposes.
DISCUSSION: An ultrasound phantom was constructed using a water-filled latex glove with a sliver of meat in it, covered over by a palm-sized piece of meat (skin and ribs are optional to increase ultrasonographic details and realism). This would appear like parapneumonic effusions with organized pneumonia under ultrasound examination. Creamer (or talc) can be added to the water in the glove to simulate empyema. The model can also be used to teach simple effusions and for ultrasound-guided thoracentesis and in clinical decision making.
CONCLUSIONS: Easily prepared, homemade high-fidelity ultrasound phantom models for instructions on identification of pleural effusions and ultrasound-guided pleural tap of parapneumonic effusion were made.