METHODS: 2010-2015 incidence data for influenza A (IAV), influenza B (IBV), respiratory syncytial (RSV) and parainfluenza (PIV) virus infections were collected from 18 sites (14 countries), consisting of local (n = 6), regional (n = 9) and national (n = 3) laboratories using molecular diagnostic methods. Each site submitted monthly virus incidence data, together with details of their patient populations tested and diagnostic assays used.
RESULTS: For the Northern Hemisphere temperate countries, the IAV, IBV and RSV incidence peaks were 2-6 months out of phase with those in the Southern Hemisphere, with IAV having a sharp out-of-phase difference at 6 months, whereas IBV and RSV showed more variable out-of-phase differences of 2-6 months. The tropical sites Singapore and Kuala Lumpur showed fluctuating incidence of these viruses throughout the year, whereas subtropical sites such as Hong Kong, Brisbane and Sydney showed distinctive biannual peaks for IAV but not for RSV and PIV.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a notable pattern of synchrony of IAV, IBV and RSV incidence peaks globally, and within countries with multiple sampling sites (Canada, UK, Australia), despite significant distances between these sites.
METHODS: We performed a systematic search of four databases for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was done based on United Nations geoscheme regions, individual countries and study period. We used a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence and mortality estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), weighted by study size.
RESULTS: Among 6445 reports screened, we identified 126 relevant studies, comprising data from 29 countries. The overall prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP pooled from 114 studies was 79.9% (95% CI 73.9-85.4%). Central America (100%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (100%) had the highest prevalence, whereas Eastern Asia had the lowest (64.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-77.6%). The overall mortality estimate pooled from 27 studies was 42.6% (95% CI, 37.2-48.1%).
CONCLUSIONS: We observed large amounts of variation in the prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP and its mortality rate among regions and lack of data from many countries. Data from this review can be used in the development of customized strategies for infection control and antimicrobial stewardship.