BACKGROUND: The mainstay of treatment for carbuncles involves the early administration of antibiotics in combination with surgical intervention. The conventional saucerisation, or incision and drainage, under normal circumstances results in moderate to large wounds, which may need secondary surgery such as skin grafting, resulting in a longer duration of wound healing and jeopardising cosmetic outcome.
CASE REPORTS: The reported three cases presented with extensive carbuncles over the chin, face and lips region. In addition to early commencement of intravenous antibiotics, the pus was drained, with minimal incision and conservative wound debridement, with the aim of maximal skin conservation. This was followed by thrice-daily irrigation with antibiotic-containing solution for a minimum of 2 consecutive days. The wounds healed within two to four weeks, without major cosmetic compromise.
CONCLUSION: The new method showed superior cosmetic outcomes, with a shorter duration of wound healing. Conservative surgical management can be performed under regional anaesthesia, which may reduce morbidity and mortality; patients with facial carbuncles often have higher risks with general anaesthesia.
METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted of children and adults diagnosed with house dust mite allergic rhinitis who were treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2008 to 2012. Total Nasal Symptom Scores, Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores and medication usage scores were assessed prospectively.
RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients, comprising 24 children and 15 adults, were studied. Total Nasal Symptom Scores and Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores dropped significantly at three months into therapy, and continued to improve. Medication usage scores improved at one year into immunotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite extracts, including B tropicalis, is efficacious as a treatment for patients with house dust mite allergic rhinitis.
METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted in compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses ('PRISMA') checklist. The primary clinical characteristics of patients, and hazard ratios with 95 per cent confidence intervals of overall survival data, were tabulated from eligible studies. The relationship of cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression with survival outcome (expressed as hazard ratio) and treatment response (expressed as odds ratio) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients was analysed, and explained with the aid of forest plot charts.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The pooled hazard ratio for overall survival was 2.02 (95 per cent confidence interval = 1.65-2.47). This indicates that the over-expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 is significantly associated with the poor survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. The pooled odds ratio of 0.98 (95 per cent confidence interval = 0.27-3.49) reveals that over-expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 was not significantly related to the treatment outcome.
METHOD: This was a retrospective study in which high-resolution computed tomography images of paediatric patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss were reviewed. A cochlear nerve canal diameter of 1.5 mm or less in the axial plane was classified as stenotic. Semicircular canals and other bony labyrinth morphology and abnormality were evaluated.
RESULTS: Cochlear nerve canal stenosis was detected in 65 out of 265 ears (24 per cent). Of the 65 ears, 17 ears had abnormal semicircular canals (26 per cent). Significant correlation was demonstrated between cochlear nerve canal stenosis and semicircular canal abnormalities (p < 0.01). Incomplete partition type II was the most common accompanying abnormality of cochlear nerve canal stenosis (15 out of 65, 23 per cent).
CONCLUSION: Cochlear nerve canal stenosis is statistically associated with semicircular canal abnormalities. Whenever a cochlear nerve canal stenosis is present in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss, the semicircular canal should be scrutinised for presence of abnormalities.
METHODS: Six children were recruited and underwent Bonebridge transcutaneous bone conduction implant surgery. The patients' audiometric thresholds for air conduction, bone conduction and sound-field tests were assessed pre-operatively and at six months post-operatively. Patients' satisfaction was assessed at six months post-operatively with the Hearing Device Satisfaction Scale.
RESULTS: No major complications were reported. Mean aided sound-field thresholds improved post-operatively by more than 30 dB for 0.5-4 kHz (p 0.05). All patients were satisfied (scores were over 90 per cent) with the implant in terms of functional outcome and cosmetic appearance.
CONCLUSION: Bonebridge transcutaneous bone conduction implant surgery is safe and effective among children with congenital aural atresia with conductive hearing loss.
METHODS: Records of patients treated from 2009 to 2016 were analysed retrospectively. Data from the records were indexed based on age, gender, clinical presentations, symptom duration, clinical signs and mycological growth.
RESULTS: Of 80 samples, 27 (33.75 per cent) had fungal growth. Sixteen patients were classified as having non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and 11 as having invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The commonest clinical presentation was nasal polyposis in non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis patients (p < 0.05) and ocular symptoms in invasive fungal rhinosinusitis patients (p < 0.05). The commonest organism was aspergillus sp. (p < 0.05) in non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and mucorales in invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.
CONCLUSION: There is an almost equal distribution of both invasive and non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, as seen in some Asian countries. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, while slightly uncommon when compared to non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, is potentially life threatening, and may require early and extensive surgical debridement. The clinical presentation of nasal polyposis was often associated with non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, whereas ocular symptoms were more likely to be associated with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.
METHODS: Two middle-aged women with vagal paraganglioma undergoing an excision operation underwent immediate selective laryngeal reinnervation using the phrenic nerve and ansa cervicalis as the donor nerve. Multidimensional outcome measures were employed pre-operatively, and at 1, 6 and 12 months post-operatively.
RESULTS: The voice handicap index-10 score improved from 23 (patient 1) and 18 (patient 2) at 1 month post-operation, to 5 (patient 1) and 1 (patient 2) at 12 months. The Eating Assessment Tool 10 score improved from 20 (patient 1) and 24 (patient 2) at 1 month post-operation, to 3 (patient 1) and 1 (patient 2) at 12 months. There was slight vocal fold abduction observed in patient one and no obvious abduction in patient two.
CONCLUSION: Selective reinnervation is safe to perform following vagal paraganglioma excision conducted on the same side. Voice and swallowing improvements were demonstrated, but no significant vocal fold abduction was achieved.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clinically assess the status of the neo-tympanic membrane and the exteriorised attic following canal wall down mastoidectomy.
METHODS: All post canal wall down mastoidectomy patients were recruited and otoendoscopy was performed to assess the neo-tympanic membrane. A clinical classification of the overall status of middle-ear aeration following canal wall down mastoidectomy was formulated.
RESULTS: Twenty-five ears were included in the study. Ninety-two per cent of cases showed some degree of neo-tympanic membrane retraction, ranging from mild to very severe.
CONCLUSION: After more than six months following canal wall down mastoidectomy, the degree of retracted neo-tympanic membranes and exteriorised attics was significant. Eustachian tube dysfunction leading to negative middle-ear aeration was present even after the canal wall down procedure. However, there was no development of cholesteatoma, despite persistent retraction.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of nasal lavage with and without mupirocin after endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery.
METHODS: A pilot randomised, controlled trial was conducted on 20 adult patients who had undergone endoscopic endonasal approaches for skull base lesions. These patients were randomly assigned to cohorts using nasal lavages with mupirocin or without mupirocin. Patients were assessed in the out-patient clinic, one week and one month after surgery, using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire and nasal endoscopy.
RESULTS: Patients in the mupirocin nasal lavage group had lower nasal endoscopy scores post-operatively, and a statistically significant larger difference in nasal endoscopy scores at one month compared to one week. The mupirocin nasal lavage group also showed better Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores at one month compared to the group without mupirocin.
CONCLUSION: Nasal lavage with mupirocin seems to yield better outcomes regarding patients' symptoms and endoscopic findings.