It is well known that episodic loss of consciousness and convulsions may have a cardiac rather than a cerebral origin (1). We report a case where these episodes were caused by recurrent ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation secondary to idiopathic long QT syndrome which was effectively treated with amiodarone.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study shows that for boys and girls, there is a progressive increase in the left mid-upper arm circumference from birth to six years of age. However the rate of growth is not even, being most rapid during the first four month of infancy, then rapidly decreases during the middle third of infancy and thereafter it decreases slowly and by the second year of life, there is hardly any increase in the arm circumference. The left triceps skinfold thickness curves for boys and girls rise rapidly after birth to reach a peak at about three to five months before commencing to decline and then flatten off from the second year of life. The study also shows that on the whole, boys have slightly bigger arm circumference than girls during the first two years of life. From two years of age, girls on the average have more fat than boys. However this difference is statistically not significant at the ages tested. This paper also presents the left mid-upper arm circumference and left triceps skinfold percentile charts of Malaysian boys and girls from birth to six years of age.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their physical growth, development, dietary and illness patterns were measured at each visit. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that boys are, on the average, heavier and taller than girls and that Asians are smaller in size with relatively shorter legs compared with children of European ancestry. These racial differences are due to a combination of genetic and environmental differences. Since there are genetic differences in the size and shape of children, standards applicable to the specific population should be used to obtain the best results when assessing the health of an individual child. The growth charts presented in this paper can be used as standards to monitor the growth of Asian infants and pre-school children.
Between 1976 and 1979, hand radiographs of 112 Malay children, 55 males and 57 females aged from 12 to 28 months, from higher socio-economic class families were obtained and studied by two radiologists. These children were part of a longitudinal study on growth and development. A total of 268 hand and wrist radiographs were taken, which the radiologists read independently of each other using the Greulich and Pyle Atlas. The bone age was then compared with the chronological age and the difference, if any, was noted and 'scored'. It was found that 83.4% of cases for males and 94.8% of cases for females matched within the +/- 6 months discrepancy range. For practical purposes therefore, our population may use the Greulich-Pyle Atlas with a good degree of confidence. Typical hand radiographs of male and female Malay children at 12, 18 and 24 months of age are also presented and these may be used as standards for Malaysian children at the respective age groups.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that growth velocity of head circumference is most rapid during the first few months of infancy and then decreases so that by the fifth year of life the increment is minimal. It also confirms the fact that boys have bigger head circumferences than girls. The paper also presents the head circumference distance and velocity percentile charts which can be used to monitor the head circumference of Malaysian children.
The prevalence of nasal septal deformity and its relationship with the different types and difficulty of delivery were studied in a randomised group of newborns at the Maternity Hospital Kuala Lumpur between 1st November 1989 to 31st January 1990. Out of a total of 674 noses examined using the otoscope, 147 (21.8%) were found to have nasal septal deformity. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of nasal septal deformity in the different types of delivery. There was also no significant increase in the prevalence of nasal septal deformity with increasing degree of difficulty of the delivery. Therefore, we cannot then attribute parturition pressures or birth trauma as the etiology of these congenital nasal septal deformity. Nevertheless a policy of routine screening in view of early correction is advocated to decrease the morbidity associated with this deformity in newborns and children.
Over an 18 month period, 34,495 livebirths were delivered in the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. 36 neonates (1.044 per 1000 livebirths) had Down's syndrome. The observed rates of Down's syndrome per 1000 livebirths by single year intervals of maternal age were calculated. By using the discontinuous slope model, our study showed that the incidence of Down's syndrome among the Malaysian liveborns increased markedly when the maternal age exceeded 35 years. This study also suggested that the Malay mothers had increased risk of producing babies with Down's syndrome at a later age than the Chinese and the Indians. However, a larger number of babies in each racial group needs to be studied to confirm this.
A retrospective study on discharges of children from hospital against medical advice or at own risk (AOR) discharges was conducted at our department from March 1981 to February 1990. There were altogether 890 patients giving an average incidence of 2%/year. The racial composition comprised 62.5% Chinese, 28.5% Malay, 7.3% Indian and 1.7% others. The common reasons for AOR discharge includes: (a) Inconvenience of having the child hospitalised (18.4%). (b) Preference of being treated by the general practitioner (15%). (c) Parents think child is well (14%). (d) Preference of being treated by private specialist or other hospital (11.9%) etc. Neonate comprised 16.9%, infants (except neonates) 44%, children > 1-5 yrs 28.6%, > 5-10 yrs 7.7% and > 10 yr 1.9%. The common diagnoses of these children include gastroenteritis (13.9%), febrile fit (13%), upper respiratory tract infection (11.7%), neonatal jaundice (5.7%). In conclusion AOR discharges of children from hospital is not uncommon and more could be done to reduce the incidence.
Dengue fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue shock syndrome within the dengue complex is a sinister disease of great public health importance and continues to ravage children, young adults and the aged in Malaysia. The history of the disease is traced for over the years and the changing pattern of clinical presentation are noted. Various hospital based studies have been compared and the pathognomonic features of the disease in Malaysia are highlighted.
Over the past hundred years in industrialised countries and recently in some developing countries, children have been getting larger and growing to maturity more rapidly. This paper compares the growth of Malaysian children with similar socioeconomic backgrounds but born about twelve years apart. Data were obtained from records of 227 children born between 1968 and 1973 and 238 children born between 1980 and 1985. The children were followed-up regularly at the University Hospital Child Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur for a variable period from birth to five years of age. Measurements for their weight, length and head circumference were taken at each visit. There is a directional indication that boys and girls of the 1980-1985 cohort are taller, heavier and have bigger head circumferences from birth to five years of age and the difference widens as the child grows older. This study clearly shows that a positive secular trend has taken place in the last decade, reflecting an improvement of living conditions with time. The factors involved in the positive secular trend are manifold and the most important is probably nutrition.
126 Malay children from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their developmental performance was compared to that of Denver children. Generally, Malaysian and Denver children appear to be similar in their development during the first six years of life except for some minor differences in the personal-social, language and gross motor sectors. Malaysians appear to be slower in self-care but more advanced in "helping around the house", "playing interactive games" and in "separating from mother". They were slightly slower in gross motor function during the first year of life but more advanced during the second year of life. However, they were slightly more advanced in language development. The differences in development between the two groups of children are discussed and it is concluded that the differences can partly be explained by differences in socio-economic or cultural differences between the two groups of children. However, the influence of genetic factors cannot be dismissed.