Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 86 in total

  1. Noor Shaila Sarmin, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail
    The aim of this paper is to review the potentialities and major methodological challenges
    of integrating remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) with socioeconomic data
    from published articles or book chapters. RS and GIS combined with social science (SS)(termed as
    geoinformation technology) serve many applications for sustainable management and monitoring of
    the environment. This combined approach gives more accurate results than the single one. It makes
    information available about the trend and pattern of land use and land cover change (LUCC) with
    socioeconomic variables like population, demographic or income. This combined study which links
    RS and GIS with socioeconomic data can also be used successfully for monitoring transmission rate
    of disease and mapping or preparing vulnerability index. For impact assessment and modelling, this
    combined technology provides better results than the single one. There are some methodological
    problems for the researchers to link completely two different disciplines as the object of study and
    observational unit is completely different. However, this interdisciplinary study is gaining popularity
    day by day to researchers from different disciplines as well as decision makers.
  2. Pvivi Anggraini
    This paper presents an evaluation of the alternative use of natural cellulose coir fibres for
    soil reinforcement. Soil reinforcement is defined as a technique to improve the engineering properties
    of soil. Inserting natural fibres into the soil has been proposed as a reinforcement method. Randomly
    distributed coir fibre reinforced soils have recently attracted increasing attention in geotechnical
    engineering due to their strength. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an innovative and
    sustainable pre-treatment method to improve the effectiveness and performance of coir fibre as soil
    reinforcement. The primary purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the characteristics, benefits,
    applications and weaknesses of coir fibre as soil reinforcement.
  3. Nurul Asma Samsudin, Zulkarnain Zainal, Lim, Hong-Ngee, Yusran Sulaiman, Chang, Sook-Keng
    Titania nanotube is gaining tremendous interest for its unique features including high
    surface area, ion-exchange ability, photocatalytic potential and prominent electrical properties. Many
    attempts were made to manipulate the unique properties of titania nanotubes for supercapacitor
    application. In this review a comprehensive list of literatures on fabrication of titania nanotubes via
    anodisation method in fluoride-based electrolytes and its application as supercapacitor are discussed.
    This review shows that the nanotube morphology can be optimized by varying the anodisation
    parameter such as electrolyte concentration, pH, voltage, and bath temperature. The review also
    includes studies on the application of titania nanotubes as supercapacitor on improving the specific
    capacitance value by doping with metal oxides and conducting polymers.
  4. Liew, Pit Sze, Nurulfiza Mat Isa, Omar Abdul Rahman, Aini Ideris, Mohd HAIRBEJO
    Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also known as the Gumboro disease, has been a great
    concern for poultry industry worldwide. The first outbreak of IBD due to very virulent (vv) IBD virus
    (IBDV) infection in Malaysia was reported in 1991. The major economic impact of the disease is high
    mortality and poor performance. The virus causes immunosuppression where if the infected chicken
    recovered from the acute disease, they become more susceptible to infections of other pathogens and
    fail to respond to vaccines. Therefore, prevention is important and vaccination has become the
    principal control measure of IBDV infection in chickens. The conventional attenuated live and killed
    vaccines are the most commonly used vaccines. With the advancement of knowledge and technology,
    new generation of genetically-engineered vaccines like viral vector and immune complex vaccines
    have been commercialised. Moreover, hatchery vaccination is becoming a common practise, in
    addition to farm vaccination. Currently, the disease is considerably under controlled with the
    introduction of vaccination. However, occasional field outbreaks are still commonly reported. The
    demand for vaccines that could suit the field situation continues to exist. The endemicity of disease,
    presence of challenge in the farm and maternally derived antibody in chicks are affecting the choice
    vaccine as well as the vaccine development and vaccination strategies. In this review, advances made
    in various vaccines that have been commercialised or under development, and challenges that they
    face, are outlined. Furthermore, how the emergence of vvIBDV affect the progress of vaccine
    development and influence its vaccination strategy are discussed.
  5. Rabiu Muhammad, Aliyu, Mohamed Mustapha, Noordin, Zunita Zakaria, Siti Khairani-bejo
    Burkholderia pseudomallei are Gram negative highly pathogenic bacteria of humans and
    animals causing a multisystemic disease called melioidosis. They have recently gained a lot of interest
    from the research community and public health organisations because of their great potential to be
    used as an agent of bioterrorism. This has made the search for simple, rapid, accurate and the most
    definitive means of their detection, identification and discrimination very critical and necessary. This
    article aimed to review the molecular techniques used for detection, identification and differentiation
    of B. pseudomallei. Although, culture and isolation techniques maintained their usefulness in
    confirming cases of melioidosis, their time limitation (can take up to a week for confirming diagnosis)
    leads to the search for rapid and simple techniques. Consequently, serology-based tests have been
    developed which are both faster and less sophisticated. However, the presence of high background
    titre levels and cross-reaction with other organisms make it less reliable. Thus, efforts have been
    directed to explore rapid and accurate molecular techniques and resulting in the development and
    validation of various PCR-based identification techniques targeting either single or multiple genes.
    Although requiring some level of instrumentation and expertise, PCR-based techniques have been
    reported to be very useful in diagnosis of melioidosis. We recommend the 16S rRNA PCR (especially
    augmented with other molecular methods such as gene sequencing and analysis) and MLST
    techniques for timely detection, identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei for routine
    diagnosis and epidemiological studies respectively.
  6. Ajadi, Abdullateef, Sabri, M.Y., Dauda, Akeem Babatunde, Ina-Salwany M.Y., Hasliza, A.H.
    Aquaculture, especially shrimp production is the world`s fastest growing food production
    industry, due to increased demands for seafood. Conceivably, disease outbreak is the major setback
    which brings about high mortality and reduction or loss of production. The conventional use of
    antibiotics both prophylactically and therapeutically had recently not only been ineffective but
    incriminated, in drug residue which poise danger to consumption by humans. Hence, a better
    alternative was importantly required. The use of Immunoprophylaxis has potential of being a safety
    measure in the prevention of outbreak of diseases or spread of already established disease in aquatic
    invertebrates, where the shrimps and prawns belong. Immunoprophylaxis includes the prevention of
    disease by production of passive immunity. The major infectious agents that are responsible for high
    morbidity and high mortality in shrimp industry are viruses and bacteria. Others include fungi,
    parasites and protozoans but less threatening than the two former. Among the referenced groups of
    bacteria in shrimp disease, gram negative bacteria are more virulent. Vibrio, a member of this gram
    negative groups has been implicated to be the most causative agent of bacterial infections in shrimps.
    This review examined the components of the cell membrane of these bacteria that have been reported
    to confer immunity on the host. They include outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide and
    peptidoglycan. These components could elicit immune response and confer protection.
  7. Mohammed, Konto, Tukur, Salamatu M., Watanabe, Mahira, Abd-rani, Puteri A.m., Lau, Seng F., Shettima, Yasheruram M., et al.
    Changes in tick-vector densities and a resultant incidence of tick-borne diseases are
    caused mainly by human activities affecting the environmental ecosystem, especially in tropical
    countries. As one of the most important invertebrate arthropod vectors of disease transmission, ticks
    are susceptible to changes in their environment due to their sole dependence of all their life stages on
    prevailing environment. Upon completion of their lifecycle, ticks depend on the availability of hosts
    and other several factors related to their surroundings to survive. This review discusses the major
    factors that influence the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne diseases among domestic animals
    in Malaysia. It is highly imperative to understand the factors that lead to increase in tick-vector
    populations, infection intensity and hence the spatial distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in
    order to prevent their emergence and resurgence as well as to serve as a basis for effectivecontrol.
  8. Zafira Madzin, Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Mohd Shakirin Md Zahar, Siti Nurjaliah Muhammad
    The contamination of water bodies from heavy metals, either from natural sources or
    anthropogenic sources, has become a major concern to the public. Industrial activities with improper
    water treatment, and then leach into the water body, have become contaminated and harmful to
    consume. Passive remediation is one of the treatments introduced to counter this problem as it is a low
    cost but effective technique. After being widely acknowledged and through research conducted, the
    most suitable remediation technique found is the permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRB is defined
    as an in situ permeable treatment zone filled with reactive materials, designed to intercept and
    remediate a contaminant plume under natural hydraulic gradients. There have been many findings
    made from PRB which can be used to remove contaminants such as heavy metal, chlorinated solvents,
    carbonates and aromatic hydrocarbons. The most crucial criteria in making a successful PRB is the
    reactive media used to remove contaminants. The current paper presents an overview of the PRB
    selective medias that have been used and also the unresolved issue on the long term performance of
    PRB. The overall methodology for the application of PRB at a given site is also discussed in this
    paper. This inexpensive but effective technique is crucial as a sustainable technology in order to treat
    the drainage before it enters water tables to prevent water pollution and can be used as an alternative
    raw water source.
  9. Alomari. Nashwan K., Badronnisa Yusuf, Thamer Ahmed Mohammed Ali, Abdul Halim Ghazali
    Branching channel flow refers to any side water withdrawals from rivers or main channels.
    Branching channels have wide application in many practical projects, such as irrigation and drainage
    network systems, water and waste water treatment plants, and many water resources projects. In the
    last decades, extensive theoretical and experimental investigations of the branching open channels
    have been carried out to understand the characteristics of this branching flow, varying from case
    studies to theoretical and experimental investigations. The objectives of this paper are to review and
    summarise the relevant literatures regarding branching channel flow. These literatures were reviewed
    based on flow characteristics, physical characteristics, and modeling of the branching flow.
    Investigations of the flow into branching channel show that the branching discharge depends on many
    interlinked parameters. It increases with the decreasing of the main channel flow velocity and Froude
    number at the upstream of the branch channel junction. Also it increases with the increasing of the
    branch channel bed slope. In subcritical flow, water depth in the branch channel is always lower than
    the main channel water depth. The flow diversion to the branch channel leads to an increase of water
    depth at the downstream of the main channel. From the review, it is important to highlight that most
    of the study concentrated on flow characteristics in a right angle branch channel with a rigid boundary.
    Investigations on different branching angles with movable bed have still to be explored.
  10. Tan, Chin Xuan, Azrina Azlan
    Canarium odontophyllum Miq. fruit, popularly recognized as dabai fruit in Sarawak, is a
    seasonal fruit found in the tropical rainforest of East Malaysia. A dabai fruit can be divided into
    several anatomical parts, and different parts of the fruit have different valuable phytochemicals. Due
    to the lack of promotion, dabai fruit is viewed as nutritionally inferior fruit by the public. On the
    contrary, the fruit is rich in nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrates, sodium, calcium and iron.
    Many phytochemicals have been detected from different parts of dabai fruit, and these molecules have
    been linked to beneficial properties such as hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-cholinesterase,
    antimicrobial and potentially anti-diabetic. The aim of this article is to review research studies on this
    fruit in order to provide adequate baseline information for commercial exploitation as well as for
    future studies.
  11. Anokye, Rogerson, Edi Suhaimi Bakar, Ratnansingam, Jegatheswaran, Khairul Awang
    The utilization of bamboo as a manufacturing material is becoming globally attractive in
    the wood and wood product industries today. This is due to the numerous industrial applications and
    uses of the bamboo plant from its fast growth, availability, unique appearance and strength. Bamboo
    has been popularly known for its traditional uses such as poultry cages, vegetable baskets, incense
    sticks, skewers and chopsticks, woven blinds and handicrafts. Very little has been done on the
    industrial processing of bamboo into boards. Several authors have studied and reported on the
    utilization, processing and the properties of this emerging material as an alternative to the increasing
    decline of wood in the forest. This review aims to compare and contrast some of the works done on
    the advancement in producing laminated bamboo timber. The properties of bamboo and its laminated
    products attest to its potency in substituting wood. Bamboo utilisation has increased significantly in
    the wood and wood product industries, with adequate retooling in most processing firms in the sector.
    In line with the development and use of bamboo-laminated timber for the purpose of wood in
    furniture production, the creation of bamboo plantations on degraded lands will meaningfully support
    production and mitigate the degradation of forest.
  12. Wardatun Nadrah Mohd Amin, Zainal Abidin Talib, Zulkarnain Zainal, Hong Ngee, Lim, Sook Keng, Chang
    Quantum dots-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is one of the third generation solar cell that is
    the most promising low cost, easy to manufacture and highly efficient solar cell. Compared to Dyesensitized
    solar cell (DSSC), quantum dots (QDs) of QDSSC has a narrow bandgap and possess
    excellent properties such as tunable band gaps, strong light absorption and high multiple electron
    generation. Titanium dioxide or titania (TiO2) is an oxides semiconductor material that is frequently
    used as a photoanode in this photovoltaic system due to high stability under visible light illumination.
    TiO2 is also known as a good photocatalyst and an excellent choice in environmental purification. The
    efficiencies of electron injection and light harvesting in QDSSC are affected by the nature, size
    morphology, and quantity of this nanomaterial. In this review, the concept and principles of the
    QDSSCs are reviewed. The preparation and fabrication method ofTiO2 electrode in QDSSC are also
    discussed. It is worthwhile to know the architecture of TiO2 in order to enhance the efficiency of
  13. Nurul Najihah Mohd Nasir, Noor Baity Saidi
    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in numerous physiological processes in
    both animals and plants. The bioactivity of NO is mainly transduced via post-translational modification
    of cysteine residues of proteins termed S-nitrosylation. Interestingly, a number of key regulatory
    components in plant defense responses have been found to be regulated by S-nitrosylation making this
    type of protein modification an important modulator of plant immunity. As a signaling molecule, NO
    intimately interact with other important molecules such as reactive oxygen species. Since the
    identification of NO in plants, increasing number of papers isbeing published in the area of NO biology
    each year. Here, a collection of papers describing the role of NO in plant immunity has been brought
    together to provide a bird's-eye view on the focus area.
  14. Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai, Zunita Zakaria, Siti Khairani-bejo, Abdul-nasir Tijjan, Sarah Othman
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading nosocomial
    pathogen that is also emerging as a zoonotic pathogen. In this review, it was observed that rapid
    emergence of new MRSA clones at a higher frequency has ushered in a new knowledge on the clonality
    and epidemic potentials of MRSA. Secondly, the success of treatment and management of MRSA
    infection is threatened by the diversity in the clonal types. This is because different clones harbours
    different antibiotics resistance characteristics and as such respond differently to treatment. Furthermore,
    clonal replacement of hospital-acquired MRSA with community -acquired MRSA has also been
    observed. Thirdly, the transmission of MRSA even though previously thought to be exclusively within
    the hospital setting through hand contact and nasal colonization has now spread to the community and in
    addition human to animal and animal to human transmission has also been observed. Similarly, pet
    owners, veterinarians and farmers have been described as high-risked group with potentials of becoming
    reservoirs of MRSA. Furthermore, the adoption of hand hygiene in healthcare setting have to a great
    extent reduced the incidence of MRSA in the hospital. And lastly, the advent of molecular typing such as
    Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal protein
    A typing (Spa typing) and Double Locus Sequence Typing (DLST) have proven to be a useful tool in
    providing valuable information on the evolution and clonal diversity of MRSA. These in turn help
    researchers to answer some pertinent questions on the epidemiology of MRSA.
  15. Farah Kamil, Tang, S.H., Zulkifli, N., Ahmad, S.A., Khaksar, W.
    Robotic navigation has remained an open issue through the last two decades. Mobile robot
    is required to navigate safely to goal location in presence of obstacles. Recently the use of mobile
    robot in unknown dynamic environment has significantly increased. The aim of this paper is to offer a
    comprehensive review over different approaches to mobile robots in dynamic environments,
    particularly on how they solve many issues that face the researchers recently. This paper also explains
    the advantages and drawbacks of each reviewed paper. The authors decide to categorize these articles
    based on the entire content of each paper into ten common challenges which have been discussed in
    this paper, including: traveling distance, traveling time, safety, motion control, smooth path, future
    prediction, stabilization, competence, precision, and low computation cost. Finally, some open areas
    and challenging topics are offered according to the articles mentioned.
  16. Hassan, Ahmed, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Muhammad Saiful Ahmad Hamdani
    Agriculture is one of the latest industries that uses robotic technologies. Cultivation of crops
    with high yield and quality can be enhanced when technological sustenance is involved. Pests are
    nuisance and cannot be completely eliminated, but with effective control and management. damages
    caused by pests could be minimized below economic threshold. Automation in agriculture is stable and
    accurate and is mainly incorporated in mechanized farming system. However its numerous application in
    different agricultural practices is not well noticed. Hence this paper attempts to provide profound
    awareness on robotic technology in agriculture. Robots could have a specific or multiple functions and,
    most commonly, they are made up of five basic components; sensors, effectors, actuators, controller and
    arms. Use of automation in weeding, weed mapping, micro spraying, seeding, irrigation and harvesting
    are progressions which promote sustainable agriculture and food security. In future, solar robots with
    battery inverter may be invented.
  17. Tee, Kelly Pei Leng, Cheah, Joyce Kim Sim
    – Feedback is one of the most influential tools in the learning of writing. However, there are
    divided views on its impact on ESL writing. This article reviews past studies to explore the various
    types of written feedback and its effectiveness. Firstly, it discusses the feedback role in ESL students’
    writing, followed by the types of feedback. Furthermore, it highlights the type of feedback which is
    useful and effective in the writing process. Next, it presents the different views on the effectiveness of
    feedback in ESL writing due to the type of feedback and the way it is given. Lastly, it concludes that
    feedback acts as a scaffold by providing a meaningful and impactful learning to students.
  18. Lee, Yee Ling, Phebe Ding
    Essential oil production in plants is known to play crucial roles in attractive and defensive
    mechanism responses to environmental conditions. Various factors are known to determine the
    chemical variability and yields for specific essential oil bearing plants including genetic, physiology
    and environment. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent publications on the variation of
    essential oil and its composition with regards to physiological aspects of the plants.
  19. Aktar-Uz-Zamana, Md., Tuhina-Khatun, Mst., Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Sahebi, Mahbod
    A resistant variety with high yielding potential is key for increasing crop production to
    fulfill the food requirement of the ever increasing world populations. Consequently, the aim of plant
    breeders is to develop high yielding varieties or cultivars that are resistant or tolerant to specific
    diseases or insects. For developing a resistant variety, it is enormously indispensable to incorporate or
    introgress the specific resistant genes of that particular disease into the recipient. Suppression
    subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a powerful technique for the identification of disease specific
    differentially expressed genes that are expressed in a resistant or susceptible variety. This paper
    presents a brief review on the SSH technique with examples focusing on the identification of the
    wheat disease specific differentially expressed genes and their defense mechanisms against fungal
    pathogens in global wheat cultivars. This review is helpful for wheat researchers for the updated
    information on the SSH technique for the identification of differentially expressed genes in the global
    wheat cultivars and varieties. Eventually, the identified genes could be used to develop the disease
    resistance variety through marker-assisted backcrossing programme or conventional breeding.
  20. Looi, Qi Hao, Abdul Rahman Omar
    are small insectivorous birds which breed throughout Southeast Asia and
    the South Pacific.
    Among many swiftle
    t species, only a few are notable to produce edible bird’s
    (EBN) from the secreted saliva during breeding seasons.
    The taxonomy of swiftlet
    remains one of the most controversial in the avian species due to the high similarity in
    morphological charac
    teristics among the species. Over the last few decades, researchers have
    studied the taxonomy of swiftlet
    based on the morphological
    , behavior, and genetic
    However, despite all the efforts,
    swiftlet taxonomy remains unsolved.
    EBN is one of
    most expensive animal products
    and frequently being referred
    as the “
    Caviar of the East
    EBN market value varies from
    $1000.00 to
    $10,000.00 per kilogram depend
    its grade, shape, type and origin.
    Hence, bird’s nest harve
    sting is considered a lucrative industry
    in many countries in Southeast Asia.
    industry faced several challenges over the
    decades such as the authenticity of the EBN, the quality assurance and the depletion of swiftlet
    population. Furthermore,
    there is limited scientific evidence regarding EBN’s medical benefits
    claimed by manufacturers. This paper reviews the taxonomy of swiftlet
    , its morphological
    characteristics, the challenges currently encountered by the industry, and finally the
    ition and medical benefits of EBN.
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