In the recent decades, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in aquatic organism have been one of the major interesting research subjects due to their various existence strains in fish microbiota. Moreover, LABs are sometimes abundant in the intestine of several fish species. Many recent papers indicated that several LAB strains are harmless and have been reported for beneficial effects on fish health. There was also converging evidence that led us for more research and findings regarding LAB as a promising probiotics in aquaculture. This article provides an overview of the variability of LAB in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of fish and the development of this species as probiotics. LAB was known able to colonise the gut, and has antagonistic activity against some fish pathogens. This harmless bactreriocin-producing strain may confer benefits in increasing disease resistance, improving nutrient digestibility and growth of the host animals. In addition, these strains may reduce the need of antibiotics usage in future aquaculture industry.
Naturally, plant habitats are exposed to several potential effects of biotic and different abiotic environmental challenges. Several types of micro-organisms namely; bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, mites, insects, mammals and other herbivorous animals are found in large amounts in all ecosystems, which lead to considerable reduction in crop productivity. These organisms are agents carrying different diseases that can damage the plants through the secretion of toxic-microbial poisons that can penetrate in the plant tissues. Toxins are injurious substances that act on plant protoplast to influence disease development. In response to the stress effect, plants defend themselves by bearing some substances such as phytoalexins. Production of phytoalexins is one of the complex mechanisms through which plants exhibit disease resistance. Several findings specifically on phytoalexins have widen the understanding in the fields of plant biochemistry and molecular biology. However, this review reports the interaction of toxins and phytoalexins in plant-pathogen cycle, research progress on the association of phytoalexins with plant disease resistance as well as the role of the phytoalexins in plant disease control.
Waterbirds serve as an important bio-indicator of ecosystem changes and have been used widely throughout the world. This is because they exhibit conspicuous and meaningful responses to the changes of the environment around them. Other qualities that make them a good bio-indicator are also highlighted. Thus, important information on their biology and ecology are essential to make informed decisions. This is crucial in order to better conserve them and their habitats. Currently they are facing new challenges that arise from continuous development throughout the world. In addition, many endangered species continue to declines and could be extinct if they are not protected and conserved. The development of artificial habitat such as wetlands to compensate natural habitat loss could be an alternative. However, detailed information on the waterbirds and their interactions with the new environment are needed in order to do so. It is further highlighted that few researches have been conducted and focused on the waterbirds particularly in Malaysia. Thus, we encourage more local young scientists to take up this challenge and equip themselves with the right knowledge and necessary skills as well as to remain relevant with the international research standards. Proper planning, funding and focus should also be considered by the government and local authorities to maximize the impact of the country’s conservation effort.
Psychological health as one of the most crucial indicators of successful adolescents has received considerable attention in the literature. High prevalence rates of various psychological problems amongst adolescents emphasize the significance of identifying paternal parenting behaviour that may reduce the risk of these problems. However, little attention has been given to how fathers influence their adolescents’ psychological health, especially in an Asian context. To address this issue, this paper presents a thorough discussion of past literature related to paternal parenting behaviour and psychological health of adolescents. The discussion begins with a review related to psychological health, paternal parenting behaviour, and followed by the relationships between paternal parenting behaviour and psychological health. Based on the review of the literature, several research gaps will be addressed at the end of this paper.
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the links between the three factors of parental attachment (i.e., communication, trust, and alienation) and cyberbullying experiences among school- going children. A total of 375 students aged 9 to 16 years old were selected using stratified sampling method from 8 schools in Selangor. The authors adapted a 10-item instrument from the previous studies of Youth Internet Safety Survey (YISS) and EUkidsonline scales to assess the cyberbullying prevalence based on two sub-dimensions (online harassment and sex-based bullying). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to analyse the construct validity of the scales. Structural equation modelling (SEM) then was used to test the study hypotheses. The final model has an estimated that 10% (R2=.95) of the variance in cyberbullying is explained by parental attachment, indicating only the alienation factor predicted the children’s cyberbullying experiences. The findings, however, supported a differentiated approach to positive parenting.
Commercialisation of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] in the early 1970s has left a big leap in the agriculture sector. This is due to its effectiveness in controlling a wide range of weeds. Glyphosate translocates well in plants. In addition, with added surfactant in its formulae, it can also be used in wet conditions. Its ability to kill weeds by targeting the 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) makes no competing herbicide analogs in its class. Considering its cost effectiveness, only small amount is needed to cover a large sector in agricultural land. The most important aspect in the success of glyphosate is the introduction of transgenic, glyphosate-resistant crops in 1996. However, glyphosate is not an environmental friendly herbicide. This systematic herbicide has raised environmental concern due to its excessive use in agriculture. Studies have shown traces of glyphosate found in drinking water. Meanwhile, it's rapid binding on soil particles possesses adverse effect to soil organisms. Glyphosate degradation in soil usually carried out by microbial activity. Microbes’ capable utilising glyphosate mainly as phosphate source. However, the activity of C-P lyase in breaking down glyphosate have not clearly understood. This review presents a collective summary on the understanding on how glyphosate works and its environmental fate.
Hevea brasiliensis is one of the popular industrial crops in Malaysia better known as rubber tree belongs to the family Euphorbiaceace. From more than 12 species of Hevea, only Hevea brasiliensis is economically exploited because the milky latex extracted from the tree is the primary source of natural rubber. As in other crops, various plant physiological conditions and pathogenic diseases influence rubber production. Brown bast is one of the most serious threats to natural rubber production. In general, high-yielding clones of rubber tree are often considered to be more susceptible to this physiological disorder also commonly termed Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD). It is estimated that brown bast leads to approximately 15-20% decrease in yield. There is no known cure for brown bast yet. However, many plantation practices manage brown bast in rubber by giving tapping rest and changing tapping panel. Hence, this review condenses the causal of brown bast, symptoms of diseases and also control of brown bast affected Hevea tree.
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most planted trees in Malaysia for the palm oil production. Thus, solid biomass had been generated from this industry such as empty fruit bunch, shell, mesocarp fibre, frond and trunk produced that causes problematic to the nation and expected to escalate up to 85-110 million tonnes by 2020. Besides that, palm oil mill effluent and excessive steam also generated from the production of palm oil. In situ hydrothermal pretreatment means the utilisation of excessive steam produced by the oil palm mill and at the same time, generating value added product as well as reducing the biomass. Oil palm biomass is rich in lignocellulosic materials which comprised of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Refinement of lignocellulosic from oil palm biomass can be utilised to form fermentable sugar, bioethanol and other potential chemicals. Recalcitrant property of lignocellulosic reduces the ability of enzymes to penetrate, thus pretreatment is required prior to hydrolysis process. Pretreatment can be either physical, chemical, biological or combined. In this review paper, three types of hydrothermal pretreatment were discussed as suitable in situ pretreatment process for oil palm biomass; in palm oil mill. The suitability was measured based on the availability of excess steam and energy in the mill. Furthermore, physicochemical pretreatment also facilitate the saccharification process, whereby it loosened the lignocellulose structure and increase the surface area. The effects and factors in choosing right pretreatment are highlighted in this paper.
Semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) as a sensing layer for gas detection has been widely used. Many researches have been performed to enhance the sensing performance including its sensitivity, reliability and selectivity. Electrical sensors that use resistivity as an indicator of its sensing are popular and well established. However, the optical based sensor is still much to explore in detecting gas. By integrating it with SMO, the sensor offers good alternative to overcome some drawbacks from electrical sensors.
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) originates from South East Asia and has become the most popular food delicacy among Chinese people. The price for raw and clean EBN are around RM 4,000 and RM 8,000 per kg, respectively. Due to the high market value of EBN and low maintenance cost, people ventures and invest in bird’s nest industry. The nesting house resembles the cave is built to attract swiftlets to roost and nest in it in order to meet the world’s growing demand. Out of the blue, in 2011, the EBN’s price falls half from its original price from RM 4,000 to RM 2,000. Nitrate found in raw or unclean EBN is one of the reason price plunges and the public also worried about counterfeit EBN that made from unclear substances. Thus, this review paper aims to highlight the nutritional properties in EBN that give medicinal benefits to consumers and the adulterant in EBN to increase the property contents with the dangerous mechanism by some irresponsible producers to obtain better profit which can threatening public’s health. In relation, these matters may influence consumer’s perception on EBN contents that could harm this industry. For that reason, scientific studies determined ways of handling EBN from scratch and distinguished the adulterant in EBN to reduce consumer anxiety was also discussed. Strict standard operation procedure enforces by the Malaysian Ministry of Health to farmers and producers are required, so that Malaysia EBN would appeal to the China market. Latter it can yield a good result and the price of EBN will slowly increase.
Torque Teno Virus (TTV) is a human-infected virus that is present ubiquitously in nature. Globally, it infects up to 95% of the healthy individuals without any clinical manifestations. The widely used laboratory diagnosis of TTV infection is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nevertheless, several other methods have been developed. The rapid growth of TTV variants over time has posed a challenge in estimating the global TTV infection as none of the PCR protocol has the ability to detect the entire spectrum of TTV variants. Multiple TTV epidemiological studies have been conducted among Asian population, whereas other continents showed a limited number of studies. The horizontal and vertical transmission of TTV among humans population, as well as interspecies transmission are potentially related to the global widespread of TTV infection.
Hospitals have a complex environment setting which may cause confusion amongst visitors and the tendency of them getting lost is possibly high. This article aims to highlight the wayfinding aids used by visitors in hospitals. However, there are barriers and challenges that may affect the success of wayfinding experience amongst hospital visitors. Three targeted factors, namely poor and unfriendly signage; inconsistent utilisation of the numbering system; and difficulty in navigating the hospital premise have been identified to be improved. Therefore, by incorporating these factors with a constant stimuli method with fixed images in an indoor public hospital environment, this may improve visitors’ experiences when navigating in a hospital.
It is hard to identify the local Malay identity in a design context compared to other cultural oriented design in several countries. This paper tries to uncover how designers interpret local identity embodied agent based on local items influences and understood and the influence of incremental, radical design that changes respective to preceding designs. A descriptive study through the literature reviews focusses on a type of artefact initiated through cultural-oriented design. Based on the preliminary study, a sampling taken from the Chinese, Indian, Japanese or European consistently apply the same fundamental understanding in regards to the culture-oriented design. From the same point of view, teapot seems to be used as one of the dominant artefact indicating the design preferences. This research will benefit both the academia and the industry and identify significant identity based on the local context and become an embodied agent to give impact in establishing the state-of-the-art of brand, the identity of local design, establish new trademark towards generating domestic, international economy and promote the nation worldwide throughout design platform.
Ki-67 expression is strongly correlated with tumour cell proliferation and growth. It is widely used as a proliferation marker in the routine pathological investigation. The nuclear protein Ki- 67 (pKi67) is recognised prognostic and predictive indicator for the biopsies assessment for cancer patients. Clinically, pKi67 has been revealed to associate with metastasis and the clinical stage of tumours. Furthermore, it has been presented that the expression of Ki-67 is significantly higher in malignant tissues with poorly differentiated tumour cells, as compared with normal tissue. The Ki-67 labelling index plays a vital role as an independent prognostic factor for survival rate, which includes all stages and grade categories. There is an association between the ratios of Ki-67 positive malignant cells and patient survival. This review provides an overview of recent advances in detecting Ki-67 in ovarian carcinoma.
Zakah is an Islamic financial instrument anchored within the Islamic economic system. Its establishment is to reduce inequalities within the Muslim community so that fair and social justice would be attained. In Malaysia, the administration of all religious matters including zakah is under the auspice of State Islamic Religious Council (SIRC). There are 14 states in Malaysia, and every state has its SIRC. As a religious and zakah agent, the institution is entrusted to govern zakah funds so that the beneficiary’s living standard could be transformed to a higher level. This paper conceptually reviews the role of zakah institution in governing and transforming the beneficiary’s living standard from daruriyyat (dire necessities) to higher level that is hajiyyat (comfort living) in relation to Maqasid al Syariah. As to ensure the success of the transformation, zakah institution should play proactive roles and be optimistic in formulating and initiating potential programmes that would generate income and make the beneficiary wealthy. Hence, the objective of Maqasid al Syariah under zakah jurisprudence will be achieved, if zakah funds are channelled to productive programs that would transform the beneficiary’s living standard and eventually free him/her from the shackles of poverty.
This paper discusses the three most prevalent elements of Islamic art that a r e embedded in modern furniture. This study is isolated from three design thinking approaches. A comparative study has been executed between three most apparent elements of Islamic art, which are arabesque, geometric and calligraphy. Those three types of design are applicable and relevant to modern furniture design nowadays. Therefore, the Islamic model was the paradigm in defining the furniture design character. The unstructured parameter within the appropriate method is a significant way of collecting the findings and usually used in the area of furniture design. The main results of this study are on how Islamic pattern is linked with the artistic design elements. The outcome of this investigation also contributes to a significant tendency in contemporary furniture design thinking solutions. Finally, this paper ends with discussions from three types of design thinking, which is the normative, reflective and hermeneutic design that collaborates with the current modern furniture design.
Ergogenic aids usage by athletes is a common scenario that can be seen in any level of athletes and any types of sports nowadays. Ergogenic aids can range from drugs, food, hormone, mechanical aid and herbs. Traditionally, ergogenic aids can be classified into categories namely: physiological, psychological, mechanical, pharmacological and nutrition. Despite all these classification, all ergogenic aids had one common purpose, which is to improve physical performance. Herbs consumption as ergogenic aids had been practiced since years ago by athletes as either nutritional or pharmacological aids. Using herbs as physical performance booster has gained popularity since it was claimed safer and natural. One of local herb that gets attention as energy booster is Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek). Ficus deltoidea had been used traditionally to restore energy. Few studies had reveal that Ficus deltoidea had medicinal properties such anti-nociceptive, antioxidant, wound healing enhancer and blood glucose regulation properties. There is no direct study on Ficus deltoidea as energy booster or ergogenic aids, but this medicinal value might be beneficial to increase athlete’s physical performance. Ergogenic aids, especially those that been produce using herbs, rarely have scientific evidence to determine its effectiveness, safety, dosage and mechanism of action. Ergogenic aids were normally marketed with claims and report as their reference, not scientific evidence. The most frequent claim used by traders is that ergogenic aids can increase and sustain body’s energy. This review will discuss on how ergogenic aids might help athletes to increase their physical performance and possibility of using Ficus deltoidea as ergogenic aids based on its medicinal properties.
The demand of fruits and vegetables across the world had increased throughout the years which urge the need to have better and proper way to increase produce safety, quality and postharvest life. Traditionally pesticides or other chemicals had been used to encounter microbes related to postharvest diseases. Over time, consumers are concern towards health effect of consuming those produce treated with chemicals. Ozone is one of the approach that provide both of the needs to deal with pathogenic microbes and also give no harmful residue throughout the process. Several reports had proven that ozone can almost kill or inhibit all pathogenic microbes on treated commodity which promote higher quality and postharvest life during storage. This review focus and summarise the use of ozone in the form of aqueous and gaseous towards fresh produces, its benefits and also the precaution during ozone application.
Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) produce a variety of sulfated galactans in their cell wall matrix and intercellular space, contributing up to 50-60 % of their total dry weight. These sulfated polysaccharides are made up of galactose disaccharides substituted with sulfate, methoxyl, pyruvic acid, or non-galactose monosaccharides (e.g. xylose, glucose and mannose). They are required by the Rhodophytes for protection against pathogen, desiccation, tidal waves and extreme changes in pH, temperature and salinity. Since ancient times, sulfated galactans from red seaweeds, such as agar and carrageenan, have been consumed as human foods and later being used in traditional medicine. Nowadays, some red seaweeds are cultivated and exploited for commercial uses in various fields. In this review, different types of sulfated galactans found in red seaweeds and their current and potential uses in food, biotechnology, medical and pharmaceutical industries are discussed.
Substance abuse is an epidemic that spreads among adults, adolescents and even children in Malaysia. Substance abuse is categorized as a mental disorder, whereby, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is an approach that provides face to face physiological therapy for patients could resolve this issue. Computerized Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CCBT) is a progression of information technology that is provided for patients encounter substance abuse. CCBT is a computerized therapy conducted at patient’s own pace. Ensuring patient’s continuous engagement towards CCBT becomes an issue. Patients that experience early gains, loss of interest and improvement symptom would sign up for alternative services that eventually causes disengagement and dropout from CCBT program. Interface design for CCBT is known as one of the important elements that effects patient’s engagement along CCBT program. Therefore, in this study, influential factors regarding CCBT’s interface design was investigated, whereby, five prominent models was reviewed. Content analysis methodology was employed to discover influential factors regarding CCBT’s interface design. Four influential factors was discovered namely engagement, dropout, culture and interface. These factors are known to ensure patient’s continuous engagement towards CCBT program. CCBT’s interface design plays a vital role in delivering the therapy program. Indirectly, CCBT’s interface design plays an important role to ensure patient’s continuous engagement till the completion of CCBT program. Therefore, these factors would guide researcher, service provider, developers and clinicians in designing engaging interface for CCBT.