Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading nosocomial
pathogen that is also emerging as a zoonotic pathogen. In this review, it was observed that rapid
emergence of new MRSA clones at a higher frequency has ushered in a new knowledge on the clonality
and epidemic potentials of MRSA. Secondly, the success of treatment and management of MRSA
infection is threatened by the diversity in the clonal types. This is because different clones harbours
different antibiotics resistance characteristics and as such respond differently to treatment. Furthermore,
clonal replacement of hospital-acquired MRSA with community -acquired MRSA has also been
observed. Thirdly, the transmission of MRSA even though previously thought to be exclusively within
the hospital setting through hand contact and nasal colonization has now spread to the community and in
addition human to animal and animal to human transmission has also been observed. Similarly, pet
owners, veterinarians and farmers have been described as high-risked group with potentials of becoming
reservoirs of MRSA. Furthermore, the adoption of hand hygiene in healthcare setting have to a great
extent reduced the incidence of MRSA in the hospital. And lastly, the advent of molecular typing such as
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal protein
A typing (Spa typing) and Double Locus Sequence Typing (DLST) have proven to be a useful tool in
providing valuable information on the evolution and clonal diversity of MRSA. These in turn help
researchers to answer some pertinent questions on the epidemiology of MRSA.
The aim of this paper is to review the potentialities and major methodological challenges
of integrating remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) with socioeconomic data
from published articles or book chapters. RS and GIS combined with social science (SS)(termed as
geoinformation technology) serve many applications for sustainable management and monitoring of
the environment. This combined approach gives more accurate results than the single one. It makes
information available about the trend and pattern of land use and land cover change (LUCC) with
socioeconomic variables like population, demographic or income. This combined study which links
RS and GIS with socioeconomic data can also be used successfully for monitoring transmission rate
of disease and mapping or preparing vulnerability index. For impact assessment and modelling, this
combined technology provides better results than the single one. There are some methodological
problems for the researchers to link completely two different disciplines as the object of study and
observational unit is completely different. However, this interdisciplinary study is gaining popularity
day by day to researchers from different disciplines as well as decision makers.
Titania nanotube is gaining tremendous interest for its unique features including high
surface area, ion-exchange ability, photocatalytic potential and prominent electrical properties. Many
attempts were made to manipulate the unique properties of titania nanotubes for supercapacitor
application. In this review a comprehensive list of literatures on fabrication of titania nanotubes via
anodisation method in fluoride-based electrolytes and its application as supercapacitor are discussed.
This review shows that the nanotube morphology can be optimized by varying the anodisation
parameter such as electrolyte concentration, pH, voltage, and bath temperature. The review also
includes studies on the application of titania nanotubes as supercapacitor on improving the specific
capacitance value by doping with metal oxides and conducting polymers.
This paper presents an evaluation of the alternative use of natural cellulose coir fibres for
soil reinforcement. Soil reinforcement is defined as a technique to improve the engineering properties
of soil. Inserting natural fibres into the soil has been proposed as a reinforcement method. Randomly
distributed coir fibre reinforced soils have recently attracted increasing attention in geotechnical
engineering due to their strength. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an innovative and
sustainable pre-treatment method to improve the effectiveness and performance of coir fibre as soil
reinforcement. The primary purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the characteristics, benefits,
applications and weaknesses of coir fibre as soil reinforcement.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also known as the Gumboro disease, has been a great
concern for poultry industry worldwide. The first outbreak of IBD due to very virulent (vv) IBD virus
(IBDV) infection in Malaysia was reported in 1991. The major economic impact of the disease is high
mortality and poor performance. The virus causes immunosuppression where if the infected chicken
recovered from the acute disease, they become more susceptible to infections of other pathogens and
fail to respond to vaccines. Therefore, prevention is important and vaccination has become the
principal control measure of IBDV infection in chickens. The conventional attenuated live and killed
vaccines are the most commonly used vaccines. With the advancement of knowledge and technology,
new generation of genetically-engineered vaccines like viral vector and immune complex vaccines
have been commercialised. Moreover, hatchery vaccination is becoming a common practise, in
addition to farm vaccination. Currently, the disease is considerably under controlled with the
introduction of vaccination. However, occasional field outbreaks are still commonly reported. The
demand for vaccines that could suit the field situation continues to exist. The endemicity of disease,
presence of challenge in the farm and maternally derived antibody in chicks are affecting the choice
vaccine as well as the vaccine development and vaccination strategies. In this review, advances made
in various vaccines that have been commercialised or under development, and challenges that they
face, are outlined. Furthermore, how the emergence of vvIBDV affect the progress of vaccine
development and influence its vaccination strategy are discussed.
Changes in tick-vector densities and a resultant incidence of tick-borne diseases are
caused mainly by human activities affecting the environmental ecosystem, especially in tropical
countries. As one of the most important invertebrate arthropod vectors of disease transmission, ticks
are susceptible to changes in their environment due to their sole dependence of all their life stages on
prevailing environment. Upon completion of their lifecycle, ticks depend on the availability of hosts
and other several factors related to their surroundings to survive. This review discusses the major
factors that influence the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne diseases among domestic animals
in Malaysia. It is highly imperative to understand the factors that lead to increase in tick-vector
populations, infection intensity and hence the spatial distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in
order to prevent their emergence and resurgence as well as to serve as a basis for effectivecontrol.
Burkholderia pseudomallei are Gram negative highly pathogenic bacteria of humans and
animals causing a multisystemic disease called melioidosis. They have recently gained a lot of interest
from the research community and public health organisations because of their great potential to be
used as an agent of bioterrorism. This has made the search for simple, rapid, accurate and the most
definitive means of their detection, identification and discrimination very critical and necessary. This
article aimed to review the molecular techniques used for detection, identification and differentiation
of B. pseudomallei. Although, culture and isolation techniques maintained their usefulness in
confirming cases of melioidosis, their time limitation (can take up to a week for confirming diagnosis)
leads to the search for rapid and simple techniques. Consequently, serology-based tests have been
developed which are both faster and less sophisticated. However, the presence of high background
titre levels and cross-reaction with other organisms make it less reliable. Thus, efforts have been
directed to explore rapid and accurate molecular techniques and resulting in the development and
validation of various PCR-based identification techniques targeting either single or multiple genes.
Although requiring some level of instrumentation and expertise, PCR-based techniques have been
reported to be very useful in diagnosis of melioidosis. We recommend the 16S rRNA PCR (especially
augmented with other molecular methods such as gene sequencing and analysis) and MLST
techniques for timely detection, identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei for routine
diagnosis and epidemiological studies respectively.
Aquaculture, especially shrimp production is the world`s fastest growing food production
industry, due to increased demands for seafood. Conceivably, disease outbreak is the major setback
which brings about high mortality and reduction or loss of production. The conventional use of
antibiotics both prophylactically and therapeutically had recently not only been ineffective but
incriminated, in drug residue which poise danger to consumption by humans. Hence, a better
alternative was importantly required. The use of Immunoprophylaxis has potential of being a safety
measure in the prevention of outbreak of diseases or spread of already established disease in aquatic
invertebrates, where the shrimps and prawns belong. Immunoprophylaxis includes the prevention of
disease by production of passive immunity. The major infectious agents that are responsible for high
morbidity and high mortality in shrimp industry are viruses and bacteria. Others include fungi,
parasites and protozoans but less threatening than the two former. Among the referenced groups of
bacteria in shrimp disease, gram negative bacteria are more virulent. Vibrio, a member of this gram
negative groups has been implicated to be the most causative agent of bacterial infections in shrimps.
This review examined the components of the cell membrane of these bacteria that have been reported
to confer immunity on the host. They include outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide and
peptidoglycan. These components could elicit immune response and confer protection.
Robotic navigation has remained an open issue through the last two decades. Mobile robot
is required to navigate safely to goal location in presence of obstacles. Recently the use of mobile
robot in unknown dynamic environment has significantly increased. The aim of this paper is to offer a
comprehensive review over different approaches to mobile robots in dynamic environments,
particularly on how they solve many issues that face the researchers recently. This paper also explains
the advantages and drawbacks of each reviewed paper. The authors decide to categorize these articles
based on the entire content of each paper into ten common challenges which have been discussed in
this paper, including: traveling distance, traveling time, safety, motion control, smooth path, future
prediction, stabilization, competence, precision, and low computation cost. Finally, some open areas
and challenging topics are offered according to the articles mentioned.
– Feedback is one of the most influential tools in the learning of writing. However, there are
divided views on its impact on ESL writing. This article reviews past studies to explore the various
types of written feedback and its effectiveness. Firstly, it discusses the feedback role in ESL students’
writing, followed by the types of feedback. Furthermore, it highlights the type of feedback which is
useful and effective in the writing process. Next, it presents the different views on the effectiveness of
feedback in ESL writing due to the type of feedback and the way it is given. Lastly, it concludes that
feedback acts as a scaffold by providing a meaningful and impactful learning to students.
The contamination of water bodies from heavy metals, either from natural sources or
anthropogenic sources, has become a major concern to the public. Industrial activities with improper
water treatment, and then leach into the water body, have become contaminated and harmful to
consume. Passive remediation is one of the treatments introduced to counter this problem as it is a low
cost but effective technique. After being widely acknowledged and through research conducted, the
most suitable remediation technique found is the permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRB is defined
as an in situ permeable treatment zone filled with reactive materials, designed to intercept and
remediate a contaminant plume under natural hydraulic gradients. There have been many findings
made from PRB which can be used to remove contaminants such as heavy metal, chlorinated solvents,
carbonates and aromatic hydrocarbons. The most crucial criteria in making a successful PRB is the
reactive media used to remove contaminants. The current paper presents an overview of the PRB
selective medias that have been used and also the unresolved issue on the long term performance of
PRB. The overall methodology for the application of PRB at a given site is also discussed in this
paper. This inexpensive but effective technique is crucial as a sustainable technology in order to treat
the drainage before it enters water tables to prevent water pollution and can be used as an alternative
raw water source.
Branching channel flow refers to any side water withdrawals from rivers or main channels.
Branching channels have wide application in many practical projects, such as irrigation and drainage
network systems, water and waste water treatment plants, and many water resources projects. In the
last decades, extensive theoretical and experimental investigations of the branching open channels
have been carried out to understand the characteristics of this branching flow, varying from case
studies to theoretical and experimental investigations. The objectives of this paper are to review and
summarise the relevant literatures regarding branching channel flow. These literatures were reviewed
based on flow characteristics, physical characteristics, and modeling of the branching flow.
Investigations of the flow into branching channel show that the branching discharge depends on many
interlinked parameters. It increases with the decreasing of the main channel flow velocity and Froude
number at the upstream of the branch channel junction. Also it increases with the increasing of the
branch channel bed slope. In subcritical flow, water depth in the branch channel is always lower than
the main channel water depth. The flow diversion to the branch channel leads to an increase of water
depth at the downstream of the main channel. From the review, it is important to highlight that most
of the study concentrated on flow characteristics in a right angle branch channel with a rigid boundary.
Investigations on different branching angles with movable bed have still to be explored.
Agriculture is one of the latest industries that uses robotic technologies. Cultivation of crops
with high yield and quality can be enhanced when technological sustenance is involved. Pests are
nuisance and cannot be completely eliminated, but with effective control and management. damages
caused by pests could be minimized below economic threshold. Automation in agriculture is stable and
accurate and is mainly incorporated in mechanized farming system. However its numerous application in
different agricultural practices is not well noticed. Hence this paper attempts to provide profound
awareness on robotic technology in agriculture. Robots could have a specific or multiple functions and,
most commonly, they are made up of five basic components; sensors, effectors, actuators, controller and
arms. Use of automation in weeding, weed mapping, micro spraying, seeding, irrigation and harvesting
are progressions which promote sustainable agriculture and food security. In future, solar robots with
battery inverter may be invented.
Canarium odontophyllum Miq. fruit, popularly recognized as dabai fruit in Sarawak, is a
seasonal fruit found in the tropical rainforest of East Malaysia. A dabai fruit can be divided into
several anatomical parts, and different parts of the fruit have different valuable phytochemicals. Due
to the lack of promotion, dabai fruit is viewed as nutritionally inferior fruit by the public. On the
contrary, the fruit is rich in nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrates, sodium, calcium and iron.
Many phytochemicals have been detected from different parts of dabai fruit, and these molecules have
been linked to beneficial properties such as hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-cholinesterase,
antimicrobial and potentially anti-diabetic. The aim of this article is to review research studies on this
fruit in order to provide adequate baseline information for commercial exploitation as well as for
Quantum dots-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is one of the third generation solar cell that is
the most promising low cost, easy to manufacture and highly efficient solar cell. Compared to Dyesensitized
solar cell (DSSC), quantum dots (QDs) of QDSSC has a narrow bandgap and possess
excellent properties such as tunable band gaps, strong light absorption and high multiple electron
generation. Titanium dioxide or titania (TiO2) is an oxides semiconductor material that is frequently
used as a photoanode in this photovoltaic system due to high stability under visible light illumination.
TiO2 is also known as a good photocatalyst and an excellent choice in environmental purification. The
efficiencies of electron injection and light harvesting in QDSSC are affected by the nature, size
morphology, and quantity of this nanomaterial. In this review, the concept and principles of the
QDSSCs are reviewed. The preparation and fabrication method ofTiO2 electrode in QDSSC are also
discussed. It is worthwhile to know the architecture of TiO2 in order to enhance the efficiency of
A resistant variety with high yielding potential is key for increasing crop production to
fulfill the food requirement of the ever increasing world populations. Consequently, the aim of plant
breeders is to develop high yielding varieties or cultivars that are resistant or tolerant to specific
diseases or insects. For developing a resistant variety, it is enormously indispensable to incorporate or
introgress the specific resistant genes of that particular disease into the recipient. Suppression
subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a powerful technique for the identification of disease specific
differentially expressed genes that are expressed in a resistant or susceptible variety. This paper
presents a brief review on the SSH technique with examples focusing on the identification of the
wheat disease specific differentially expressed genes and their defense mechanisms against fungal
pathogens in global wheat cultivars. This review is helpful for wheat researchers for the updated
information on the SSH technique for the identification of differentially expressed genes in the global
wheat cultivars and varieties. Eventually, the identified genes could be used to develop the disease
resistance variety through marker-assisted backcrossing programme or conventional breeding.
Essential oil production in plants is known to play crucial roles in attractive and defensive
mechanism responses to environmental conditions. Various factors are known to determine the
chemical variability and yields for specific essential oil bearing plants including genetic, physiology
and environment. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent publications on the variation of
essential oil and its composition with regards to physiological aspects of the plants.
are small insectivorous birds which breed throughout Southeast Asia and
the South Pacific.
Among many swiftle
t species, only a few are notable to produce edible bird’s
(EBN) from the secreted saliva during breeding seasons.
The taxonomy of swiftlet
remains one of the most controversial in the avian species due to the high similarity in
teristics among the species. Over the last few decades, researchers have
studied the taxonomy of swiftlet
based on the morphological
, behavior, and genetic
However, despite all the efforts,
swiftlet taxonomy remains unsolved.
EBN is one of
most expensive animal products
and frequently being referred
as the “
Caviar of the East
EBN market value varies from
$10,000.00 per kilogram depend
its grade, shape, type and origin.
Hence, bird’s nest harve
sting is considered a lucrative industry
in many countries in Southeast Asia.
industry faced several challenges over the
decades such as the authenticity of the EBN, the quality assurance and the depletion of swiftlet
there is limited scientific evidence regarding EBN’s medical benefits
claimed by manufacturers. This paper reviews the taxonomy of swiftlet
, its morphological
characteristics, the challenges currently encountered by the industry, and finally the
ition and medical benefits of EBN.
The aim of this paper is to review the principles of ground-borne vibration induced by road
traffic. Several researchers have studied the impact of ground-borne vibration on people, structure, and
equipment, and developed guidelines or standards in order to indicate the threshold limit of damage and
annoyance. Measurement of ground-borne vibration is a crucial aspect in ground-borne vibration
studies that needs to be understood well. The reliability of the measurement is dependent on the
accuracy of the data collected. Thus, discussion in this review paper proceeds on the types of groundborne vibration modelling that can predict and explain the phenomenon.
The utilization of bamboo as a manufacturing material is becoming globally attractive in
the wood and wood product industries today. This is due to the numerous industrial applications and
uses of the bamboo plant from its fast growth, availability, unique appearance and strength. Bamboo
has been popularly known for its traditional uses such as poultry cages, vegetable baskets, incense
sticks, skewers and chopsticks, woven blinds and handicrafts. Very little has been done on the
industrial processing of bamboo into boards. Several authors have studied and reported on the
utilization, processing and the properties of this emerging material as an alternative to the increasing
decline of wood in the forest. This review aims to compare and contrast some of the works done on
the advancement in producing laminated bamboo timber. The properties of bamboo and its laminated
products attest to its potency in substituting wood. Bamboo utilisation has increased significantly in
the wood and wood product industries, with adequate retooling in most processing firms in the sector.
In line with the development and use of bamboo-laminated timber for the purpose of wood in
furniture production, the creation of bamboo plantations on degraded lands will meaningfully support
production and mitigate the degradation of forest.